Manual A Call from Egypt:A Jewish Womans Search for Her Muslim Family

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Background to Revolution

At a celebration after Isaac was weaned, Sarah found the teenage Ishmael mocking her son. She was so upset by it that she demanded that Abraham send Hagar and her son away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham was greatly distressed but God told Abraham to do as his wife commanded because God's promise would be carried out through both Isaac and Ishmael.

Early the next morning, Abraham brought Hagar and Ishmael out together. Abraham gave Hagar bread and water then sent them into the wilderness of Beersheba. She and her son wandered aimlessly until their water was completely consumed. In a moment of despair, she burst into tears. God heard her and her son crying and came to rescue them.

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The angel opened Hagar's eyes and she saw a well of water. He also told Hagar that God would "make a great nation" of Ishmael. Hagar found her son a wife from Egypt and they settled in the Desert of Paran. The Baha'i Publishing House released a text on the wives and concubines of Abraham and traces their lineage to five different religions. In the New Testament , Paul the Apostle made Hagar's experience an allegory of the difference between law and grace in his Epistle to the Galatians chapter 4 Galatians — Augustine of Hippo referred to Hagar as symbolizing an "earthly city", or sinful condition of humanity: "In the earthly city symbolised by Hagar New citizens are begotten to the earthly city by nature vitiated by sin but to the heavenly city by grace freeing nature from sin.

The latter compared the children of Sarah to the redeemed, and those of Hagar to the unredeemed, who are "carnal by nature and mere exiles". The story of Hagar demonstrates that survival is possible even under harshest conditions. Although not mentioned by name in the Qur'an , she is referenced and alluded to via the story of her husband.

Survival and Oblivion: Egyptian Jews after the Second Exodus | History Today

She is a revered woman in the Islamic faith. Her father was killed by Pharaoh Dhu l-'arsh and she was captured and taken as a slave. Later, because of her royal blood, she was made mistress of the female slaves and given access to all of Pharaoh's wealth.


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After her seventh run, an angel appeared over the location of the Zamzam and then hit the ground with his heel or his wing and caused a miraculous well to spring out of the ground. This is called the Zamzam Well and is located a few metres from the Kaaba in Mecca. The incident [25] of her running between the Al-Safa and Al-Marwah hills is remembered by Muslims when they perform their pilgrimage Hajj at Mecca.

Rabbinical commentators asserted that Hagar was Pharaoh 's daughter. The midrash Genesis Rabbah states it was when Sarah was in Pharaoh's harem that he gave her his daughter Hagar as slave, saying: "It is better that my daughter should be a slave in the house of such a woman than mistress in another house".

Sarah treated Hagar well, and induced women who came to visit her to visit Hagar also. However Hagar, when pregnant by Abraham, began to act superciliously toward Sarah, provoking the latter to treat her harshly, to impose heavy work upon her, and even to strike her ib. It is suggested that Keturah was Hagar's personal name, and that "Hagar" was a descriptive label meaning "stranger". They were listed as two different people in the genealogies in 1 Chronicles — It also reverses the conventional Christian interpretation by portraying the Christian character as the outcast.

Hagar's destitution and desperation are used as an excuse for criminality by characters in the work of Daniel Defoe , such as Moll Flanders , and the conventional view of Hagar as the mother of outcasts is repeated in Samuel Taylor Coleridge 's play Zapolya , whose heroine is assured that she is "no Hagar's offspring; thou art the rightful heir to an appointed king.

In the nineteenth century a more sympathetic portrayal became prominent, especially in America. Edmonia Lewis , the early African-American and Native American sculptor, made Hagar the subject of one of her most well-known works. She said it was inspired by "strong sympathy for all women who have struggled and suffered". A similarly sympathetic view prevails in more recent literature.

Their rivals in the Muslim Brotherhood — as surprised as anyone by the upstart Salafis — say the sheiks benefited from a paradoxical edge in grass-roots organizing. And until the uprising against Mr. So the Mubarak government allowed them broad latitude to operate out of mosques as an alternative to the more political Brotherhood, which it banned.

Many Salafis were considered to be aligned with the Mubarak government and urged their followers not to join the protests that ended it.


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Dominated by middle-class professionals like Mr. But they seldom speak as part of those communities and can sound condescending. At the rally here in rural Shabramant, only men sat before the speakers. In deference to the prohibitions of some Salafis on the mixing of the sexes, the women who attended listened through the windows of an adjacent building.

Some speakers talked of banning women from wearing shorts as a goal to achieve within a few years. Do any of you accept this insult? And they will seek to once again clone a new regime with new figures other than Hosni and his men but with the same philosophy, the same democracy with its errors, the same capitalism with its errors, the same liberalism with its errors.

And after the revolution, we accept nothing but real change. According to a study conducted by the United Nations, 99 percent of Egyptian women have experienced sexual harassment. Interview with Nawal El Saadawi: "They don't want any really courageous people! Gender , Muslim women , Women in the Islamic world. The Egyptian filmmaker Atteyat al-Abnoudy gave a voice to those people the state had forgotten — and preserved their pride and integrity. Her work provides a picture of social Previously unpublished work Naguib Mahfouz' "The Quarter" For people in the Arab world to be able to throw off the yoke of military rule, a new balance must be struck between political and social forces and the military.

In Egypt, a Conservative Appeal Transcends Religion

Though it is now Yet the West's Social utopia on the Nile? According to the Egyptian government, Egypt is once again experiencing a great civilizational awakening. A campaign aimed at producing a new multicultural identity has been In her book Susannah Heschel investigates the role of Islam in the emergence of a Jewish identity and seeks to pay tribute to the academic legacy of Jewish-German scholars of In submitting this comment, the reader accepts the following terms and conditions: Qantara.

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