Manual Bismarck und der Kulturkampf: Die Intention der Maigesetze (German Edition)

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Furthermore, Virchow founded the medical fields of cellular pathology and comparative pathology comparison of diseases common to humans and animals. One of Virchow's major contributions to German medical education was to encourage the use of microscopes by medical students, and he was known for constantly urging his students to "think microscopically". He was the first to establish a link between infectious diseases between humans and animals, for which he coined the term " zoonoses ".

Rudolf Virchow — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

Virchow worked out the life cycle of a roundworm Trichinella spiralis. Virchow noticed a mass of circular white flecks in the muscle of dog and human cadavers, similar to those described by Richard Owen in He confirmed through microscopic observation that the white particles were indeed the larvae of roundworms, curled up in the muscle tissue. Rudolph Leukart found that these tiny worms could develop into adult roundworms in the intestine of a dog. He correctly asserted that these worms could also cause human helminthiasis.

This directly led to the establishment of meat inspection, which was first adopted in Berlin. Virchow was the first to develop a systematic method of autopsy, based on his knowledge of cellular pathology. The modern autopsy still constitutes his techniques. Laurence a century later , a rare and fatal disease of the lung. Unlike any other earlier practitioner, he practiced complete surgery of all body parts with body organs dissected one by one.

This has become the standard method. Virchow discovered the clinical syndrome which he called ochronosis , a metabolic disorder in which a patient accumulates homogentisic acid in connective tissues and which can be identified by discolouration seen under the microscope. He found the unusual symptom from an autopsy of the corpse of a year-old man on 8 May This was the first time this abnormal disease affecting cartilage and connective tissue was observed and analysed.

Rudolf Virchow

His description and coining of the name appeared in the October issue of Vichows Archiv. Virchow was the first to analyse hair in criminal investigation, and made the first forensic report on it in He became the first to recognise the limitation of hair as evidence. He found that hairs can be different in an individual, that individual hair has characteristic features, and that hairs from different individuals can be strikingly similar.

He concluded that evidence based on hair analysis is inconclusive. Virchow developed an interest in anthropology in , when he discovered pile dwellings in northern Germany. In , he co-founded the German Anthropological Association. Virchow was an opponent of Darwin's theory of evolution , [80] [81] and particularly skeptical of the emergent thesis of human evolution. There he spoke against the teaching of the theory of evolution in schools, arguing that it was as yet an unproven hypothesis that lacked empirical foundations and that, therefore, its teaching would negatively affect scientific studies.

Virchow became one of the leading opponents on the debate over the authenticity of Neanderthal , discovered in , as distinct species and ancestral to modern humans. With this reasoning, Virchow "judged Darwin an ignoramus and Haeckel a fool and was loud and frequent in the publication of these judgments. On 22 September , at the Fiftieth Conference of the German Association of Naturalists and Physician held in Munich, Haeckel pleaded for introducing evolution in the public school curricula, and tried to dissociate Darwinism from social Darwinism.

This resulted in prolonged public debate with Virchow. A few days later Virchow responded that Darwinism was only a hypothesis, and morally dangerous to students. This severe criticism of Darwinism was immediately taken up by the London Times , from which further debates erupted among English scholars. That year the issue was discussed in the Prussian House of Representatives and the verdict was in favour of Virchow. In the Prussian education policy officially excluded natural history in schools. Years later, the noted German physician Carl Ludwig Schleich , would recall a conversation he held with Virchow, who was a close friend of his: " On to the subject of Darwinism.

But they don't stand the test of knowledge. Haeckel is a fool. That will be apparent one day. As far as that goes, if anything like transmutation did occur it could only happen in the course of pathological degeneration! The intermediate form is unimaginable save in a dream We cannot teach or consent that it is an achievement that man descended from the ape or other animal. Virchow believed that Haeckel's monist propagation of social Darwinism was in its nature politically dangerous and anti-democratic, and he also criticized it because he saw it as related to the emergent socialist movement in Germany, ideas about cultural superiority, [97] [98] [99] and militarism.

Josef Kollmann, a collaborator of Virchow, stated at the same congress that the people of Europe, be they German, Italian, English or French, belonged to a "mixture of various races", further declaring that the "results of craniology" led to a "struggle against any theory concerning the superiority of this or that European race" over others.

His findings, published in and concluding that there could be neither a Jewish nor a German race, were regarded as a blow to anti-Semitism and the existence of an "Aryan race". Virchow did not believe in the germ theory of diseases , as advocated by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.

He proposed that diseases came from abnormal activities inside the cells, not from outside pathogens. He regarded germ theory as a hindrance to prevention and cure. He considered social factors such as poverty major causes of disease. More than a laboratory physician, Virchow was an impassioned advocate for social and political reform. His ideology involved social inequality as the cause of diseases that requires political actions, [] stating:.

Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale. Medicine, as a social science, as the science of human beings, has the obligation to point out problems and to attempt their theoretical solution: the politician, the practical anthropologist, must find the means for their actual solution Science for its own sake usually means nothing more than science for the sake of the people who happen to be pursuing it.

Knowledge which is unable to support action is not genuine — and how unsure is activity without understanding If medicine is to fulfill her great task, then she must enter the political and social life The physicians are the natural attorneys of the poor, and the social problems should largely be solved by them. Virchow actively worked for social change to fight poverty and diseases. His methods involved pathological observations and statistical analyses.


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He called this new field of social medicine a " social science ". His most important influences could be noted in Latin America, where his disciples introduced his social medicine. Virchow made himself known as a pronounced democrat in the year of revolutions in Germany His political views are evident in his Report on the Typhus Outbreak of Upper Silesia , where he states that the outbreak could not be solved by treating individual patients with drugs or with minor changes in food, housing, or clothing laws, but only through radical action to promote the advancement of an entire population, which could only be achieved by "full and unlimited democracy" and "education, freedom and prosperity".

These radical statements and his minor part in the revolution caused the government to remove him from his position in , although within a year he was reinstated as prosector 'on probation'. Prosector was a secondary position in the hospital. In , he became a member of the Municipal Council of Berlin and began his career as a civic reformer. Elected to the Prussian Diet in , he became leader of the Radical or Progressive party; and from to , he was a member of the Reichstag.

Virchow is credited as a founder of anthropology [] and of social medicine, frequently focusing on the fact that disease is never purely biological, but often socially derived or spread. As a cofounder and member of the liberal party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei he was a leading political antagonist of Bismarck. A second version has passed into legend, but was well documented in the contemporary scientific literature.

It has Virchow, having been the one challenged and therefore entitled to choose the weapons, selecting two pork sausages, a normal sausage and another one, loaded with Trichinella larvae. His challenger declined the proposition as risky. Virchow supported Bismarck in an attempt to reduce the political and social influence of the Catholic Church, between and They had three sons and three daughters: [].

Virchow was an agnostic Protestant. Virchow broke his thigh bone on 4 January , jumping off a running streetcar while exiting the electric tramway. Although he anticipated full recovery, the fractured femur never healed, and restricted his physical activity. His health gradually deteriorated and he died of heart failure after eight months, on 5 September , in Berlin. He was buried in the Alter St. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Rudolf Virchow Wikipedia open wikipedia design.

Rudolf Virchow. Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia , German Empire. Virchow's angle , the angle between the nasobasilar line and the nasosubnasal line Virchow's cell , a macrophage in Hansen's disease Virchow's cell theory , omnis cellula e cellula — every living cell comes from another living cell Virchow's concept of pathology , comparison of diseases common to humans and animals Virchow's disease , leontiasis ossea , now recognized as a symptom rather than a disease Virchow's gland , Virchow's node Virchow's Law , during craniosynostosis , skull growth is restricted to a plane perpendicular to the affected, prematurely fused suture and is enhanced in a plane parallel to it.

Virchow's line , a line from the root of the nose to the lambda Virchow's metamorphosis , lipomatosis in the heart and salivary glands Virchow's method of autopsy , a method of autopsy where each organ is taken out one by one Virchow's node , the presence of metastatic cancer in a lymph node in the supraclavicular fossa root of the neck left of the midline , also known as Troisier's sign Virchow's psammoma , psammoma bodies in meningiomas Virchow—Robin spaces , enlarged perivascular spaces EPVS often only potential that surround blood vessels for a short distance as they enter the brain Virchow—Seckel syndrome , a very rare disease also known as "bird-headed dwarfism" Virchow skull breaker , a chisel -like device used to separate the calvaria from the rest of the skull to expose the brain in autopsies Virchow's triad , the classic factors which precipitate venous thrombus formation: endothelial dysfunction or injury, hemodynamic changes, and hypercoagulability.

American Journal of Public Health. The Hunt for the Parathyroids.

Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Kulturkampf

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Hektoen International Journal. Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 27 November Oxford: Oxford University Press. Problems of Applied Sciences. Retrieved 29 November Forensic Science Communications. The Comparative reception of Darwinism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Appletons' Cyclopaedia for NY: D. Encyclopedia of World Biography. The Scientific Monthly. Bibcode : SciMo.. British Journal of Haematology. Encyclopedia Americana. International Journal of Health Services. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. J Med. Biologie Aujourd'hui in French. Singapore Med J.

Cellular pathology: As based upon physiological and pathological histology, 20 lectures delivered in the Pathological Institute of Berlin, during Feb. New York: De Witt. The Hematology Journal. Leukemia Research. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 6 September Sao Paulo Medical Journal. Rudolph Virchow and the genetic basis of somatic ecology". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 22 December American Cancer Society, Inc. The Lancet. Bibcode : Natur. The Journal of Immunology. Annual Review of Medicine.


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  6. The Innominate Society of Louisville. Virchows Archiv. Pathology Annual. The History of Oncology. Houten: Springer. Revista Clinica Espanola in Spanish. Oral Oncology Extra. New England Journal of Medicine. K; Walia, M Case Reports. Huth, T. Jock Venous Thromboembolism. New York: Marcel Decker, Inc. During his six-year period there, he concentrated on his scientific work, including detailed studies on venous thrombosis and cellular theory.

    His first major work there was a six-volume Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie Handbook on Special Pathology and Therapeutics published in He held the latter post for the next 20 years. Virchow is credited with several very important discoveries. His most widely known scientific contribution is his cell theory , which built on the work of Theodor Schwann.

    "Der Lotse geht von Bord " (Karikatur) - Rücktritt Bismarck (1890)

    He was one of the first to accept the work of Robert Remak , who showed the origins of cells was the division of pre-existing cells. When it dawned on him that Remak might be right, in , he published Remak's work as his own, causing a falling-out between the two. For example, maggots were believed to appear spontaneously in decaying meat; Francesco Redi carried out experiments which disproved this notion and coined the maxim Omne vivum ex ovo "Every living thing comes from a living thing" — literally "from an egg" ; Virchow and his predecessors extended this to state that the only source for a living cell was another living cell.

    In , Virchow and John Hughes Bennett independently observed abnormal increases in white blood cells in some patients. Virchow was the first to correctly link the origin of cancers from otherwise normal cells. In , he suggested that cancers arise from the activation of dormant cells perhaps similar to cells now known as stem cells present in mature tissue.

    He thought, rather wrongly, that the irritation spread in the form of liquid so that cancer rapidly increases. First described by Karl Thiersch in the s. It was only towards the end of the 20th century that Virchow's theory was taken seriously. Virchow was one of the leading physicians to Kaiser Frederick III , who suffered from cancer of the larynx. While other physicians such as Ernst von Bergmann suggested surgical removal of the entire larynx, Virchow was opposed to it because no successful operation of such kind had ever been done.

    The British surgeon, Morell Mackenzie , performed a biopsy in and sent it to Virchow, who identified them as "pachydermia verrucosa laryngis". Virchow affirmed that the tissues were not cancerous, even after several biopsy tests. The Kaiser died on 15 June The next day a post-mortem examination was performed by Virchow and his assistant.

    They found that the larynx was extensively damaged due to ulcer, and microscopic examination confirmed epidermal carcinoma. But Virchow and Mackenzie were omitted, and they were particularly criticised for all their works. But reassessment of the diagnostic history revealed that Virchow was right in his findings and decisions. It is now believed that the Kaiser had hybrid verrucous carcinoma, a very rare form of verrucous carcinoma , and that Virchow had no way of correctly identifying it.

    Another significant credit relates to the discovery, made approximately simultaneously by Virchow and Charles Emile Troisier , that an enlarged left supraclavicular node is one of the earliest signs of gastrointestinal malignancy, commonly of the stomach, or less commonly, lung cancer. This has become known as Virchow's node and simultaneously Troisier's sign. Virchow is also known for elucidating the mechanism of pulmonary thromboembolism a condition of blood clotting in the blood vessels , coining the terms embolism and thrombosis.

    This gives rise to the very frequent process on which I have bestowed the name of Embolia. He then proceeded to prove this hypothesis through well-designed experiments, repeated numerous times to consolidate evidence, and with meticulously detailed methodology. This work rebutted a claim made by the eminent French pathologist Jean Cruveilhier that phlebitis led to clot development and therefore coagulation was the main consequence of venous inflammation.

    This was a view held by many before Virchow's work. Related to this research, Virchow described the factors contributing to venous thrombosis, Virchow's triad. Furthermore, Virchow founded the medical fields of cellular pathology and comparative pathology comparison of diseases common to humans and animals. One of Virchow's major contributions to German medical education was to encourage the use of microscopes by medical students, and he was known for constantly urging his students to "think microscopically". He was the first to establish a link between infectious diseases between humans and animals, for which he coined the term " zoonoses ".

    Virchow worked out the life cycle of a roundworm Trichinella spiralis. Virchow noticed a mass of circular white flecks in the muscle of dog and human cadavers, similar to those described by Richard Owen in He confirmed through microscopic observation that the white particles were indeed the larvae of roundworms, curled up in the muscle tissue.

    Rudolph Leukart found that these tiny worms could develop into adult roundworms in the intestine of a dog. He correctly asserted that these worms could also cause human helminthiasis. This directly led to the establishment of meat inspection, which was first adopted in Berlin. Virchow was the first to develop a systematic method of autopsy, based on his knowledge of cellular pathology. The modern autopsy still constitutes his techniques.

    Laurence a century later , a rare and fatal disease of the lung. Unlike any other earlier practitioner, he practiced complete surgery of all body parts with body organs dissected one by one. This has become the standard method. Virchow discovered the clinical syndrome which he called ochronosis , a metabolic disorder in which a patient accumulates homogentisic acid in connective tissues and which can be identified by discolouration seen under the microscope.

    He found the unusual symptom from an autopsy of the corpse of a year-old man on 8 May This was the first time this abnormal disease affecting cartilage and connective tissue was observed and analysed. His description and coining of the name appeared in the October issue of Vichows Archiv. Virchow was the first to analyse hair in criminal investigation, and made the first forensic report on it in He became the first to recognise the limitation of hair as evidence. He found that hairs can be different in an individual, that individual hair has characteristic features, and that hairs from different individuals can be strikingly similar.

    He concluded that evidence based on hair analysis is inconclusive. Virchow developed an interest in anthropology in , when he discovered pile dwellings in northern Germany. In , he co-founded the German Anthropological Association. Virchow was an opponent of Darwin's theory of evolution , [80] [81] and particularly skeptical of the emergent thesis of human evolution. There he spoke against the teaching of the theory of evolution in schools, arguing that it was as yet an unproven hypothesis that lacked empirical foundations and that, therefore, its teaching would negatively affect scientific studies.

    Virchow became one of the leading opponents on the debate over the authenticity of Neanderthal , discovered in , as distinct species and ancestral to modern humans. With this reasoning, Virchow "judged Darwin an ignoramus and Haeckel a fool and was loud and frequent in the publication of these judgments. On 22 September , at the Fiftieth Conference of the German Association of Naturalists and Physician held in Munich, Haeckel pleaded for introducing evolution in the public school curricula, and tried to dissociate Darwinism from social Darwinism.

    This resulted in prolonged public debate with Virchow. A few days later Virchow responded that Darwinism was only a hypothesis, and morally dangerous to students. This severe criticism of Darwinism was immediately taken up by the London Times , from which further debates erupted among English scholars. That year the issue was discussed in the Prussian House of Representatives and the verdict was in favour of Virchow. In the Prussian education policy officially excluded natural history in schools.

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    Years later, the noted German physician Carl Ludwig Schleich , would recall a conversation he held with Virchow, who was a close friend of his: " On to the subject of Darwinism. But they don't stand the test of knowledge. Haeckel is a fool. That will be apparent one day. As far as that goes, if anything like transmutation did occur it could only happen in the course of pathological degeneration! Virchow's ultimate opinion about evolution was reported a year before he died; in his own words:. The intermediate form is unimaginable save in a dream We cannot teach or consent that it is an achievement that man descended from the ape or other animal.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Virchow believed that Haeckel's monist propagation of social Darwinism was in its nature politically dangerous and anti-democratic, and he also criticized it because he saw it as related to the emergent socialist movement in Germany, ideas about cultural superiority, [97] [98] [99] and militarism.

    Josef Kollmann, a collaborator of Virchow, stated at the same congress that the people of Europe, be they German, Italian, English or French, belonged to a "mixture of various races", further declaring that the "results of craniology" led to a "struggle against any theory concerning the superiority of this or that European race" over others.

    His findings, published in and concluding that there could be neither a Jewish nor a German race, were regarded as a blow to anti-Semitism and the existence of an "Aryan race". Virchow did not believe in the germ theory of diseases , as advocated by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. He proposed that diseases came from abnormal activities inside the cells, not from outside pathogens.

    He regarded germ theory as a hindrance to prevention and cure. He considered social factors such as poverty major causes of disease. More than a laboratory physician, Virchow was an impassioned advocate for social and political reform. His ideology involved social inequality as the cause of diseases that requires political actions, [] stating:. Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale.

    Medicine, as a social science, as the science of human beings, has the obligation to point out problems and to attempt their theoretical solution: the politician, the practical anthropologist, must find the means for their actual solution Science for its own sake usually means nothing more than science for the sake of the people who happen to be pursuing it. Knowledge which is unable to support action is not genuine — and how unsure is activity without understanding If medicine is to fulfill her great task, then she must enter the political and social life The physicians are the natural attorneys of the poor, and the social problems should largely be solved by them.

    Virchow actively worked for social change to fight poverty and diseases. His methods involved pathological observations and statistical analyses. He called this new field of social medicine a " social science ". His most important influences could be noted in Latin America, where his disciples introduced his social medicine. Virchow made himself known as a pronounced democrat in the year of revolutions in Germany His political views are evident in his Report on the Typhus Outbreak of Upper Silesia , where he states that the outbreak could not be solved by treating individual patients with drugs or with minor changes in food, housing, or clothing laws, but only through radical action to promote the advancement of an entire population, which could only be achieved by "full and unlimited democracy" and "education, freedom and prosperity".

    These radical statements and his minor part in the revolution caused the government to remove him from his position in , although within a year he was reinstated as prosector 'on probation'. Prosector was a secondary position in the hospital. In , he became a member of the Municipal Council of Berlin and began his career as a civic reformer.

    Elected to the Prussian Diet in , he became leader of the Radical or Progressive party; and from to , he was a member of the Reichstag. Virchow is credited as a founder of anthropology [] and of social medicine, frequently focusing on the fact that disease is never purely biological, but often socially derived or spread.

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    As a cofounder and member of the liberal party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei he was a leading political antagonist of Bismarck. A second version has passed into legend, but was well documented in the contemporary scientific literature. It has Virchow, having been the one challenged and therefore entitled to choose the weapons, selecting two pork sausages, a normal sausage and another one, loaded with Trichinella larvae.

    His challenger declined the proposition as risky. Virchow supported Bismarck in an attempt to reduce the political and social influence of the Catholic Church, between and They had three sons and three daughters: []. Virchow was an agnostic Protestant. Virchow broke his thigh bone on 4 January , jumping off a running streetcar while exiting the electric tramway. Although he anticipated full recovery, the fractured femur never healed, and restricted his physical activity. His health gradually deteriorated and he died of heart failure after eight months, on 5 September , in Berlin.

    He was buried in the Alter St. Virchow was a prolific writer. Some of his works are:. Copyright The image is from Wikipedia Commons. Wikipedia Page. Rudolf Virchow. Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia , German Empire. Virchow's angle , the angle between the nasobasilar line and the nasosubnasal line Virchow's cell , a macrophage in Hansen's disease Virchow's cell theory , omnis cellula e cellula — every living cell comes from another living cell Virchow's concept of pathology , comparison of diseases common to humans and animals Virchow's disease , leontiasis ossea , now recognized as a symptom rather than a disease Virchow's gland , Virchow's node Virchow's Law , during craniosynostosis , skull growth is restricted to a plane perpendicular to the affected, prematurely fused suture and is enhanced in a plane parallel to it.

    Virchow's line , a line from the root of the nose to the lambda Virchow's metamorphosis , lipomatosis in the heart and salivary glands Virchow's method of autopsy , a method of autopsy where each organ is taken out one by one Virchow's node , the presence of metastatic cancer in a lymph node in the supraclavicular fossa root of the neck left of the midline , also known as Troisier's sign Virchow's psammoma , psammoma bodies in meningiomas Virchow—Robin spaces , enlarged perivascular spaces EPVS often only potential that surround blood vessels for a short distance as they enter the brain Virchow—Seckel syndrome , a very rare disease also known as "bird-headed dwarfism" Virchow skull breaker , a chisel -like device used to separate the calvaria from the rest of the skull to expose the brain in autopsies Virchow's triad , the classic factors which precipitate venous thrombus formation: endothelial dysfunction or injury, hemodynamic changes, and hypercoagulability.

    American Journal of Public Health. The Hunt for the Parathyroids. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Hektoen International Journal. Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 27 November Oxford: Oxford University Press. Problems of Applied Sciences. Retrieved 29 November Forensic Science Communications. The Comparative reception of Darwinism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Appletons' Cyclopaedia for NY: D. Encyclopedia of World Biography. The Scientific Monthly.

    Bibcode : SciMo.. British Journal of Haematology.