We thus see that the relatively long description paraphrasing the activities of modern marketing was replaced and is now fully captured by marketing. Teresi 5 A look at the corpus proves that commercialisation did not replace marketing either. The following quotations confirm that commercialisation only represents the last part of the whole process usually meant by marketing. It is used to designate the process of introducing a new product into the market. Nevertheless, mercatique was very rarely used afterwards.
Yet again, obviously unimpressed by this measure, authors in the RFM continued using marketing, so that we can only find very few instances of mercatique in the marketing journal. We thus can conclude that, despite the official efforts, the neologism mercatique has only partly been accepted by French marketers. Figure 4: Use of communication A possible explanation of this considerable change is that the general concept of communication was adopted and transformed into a very crucial concept of the discipline.
In order to verify this hypothesis we have to analyze the semantic and conceptual development of the term. In the s communication theory was brought into the marketing discipline. From this moment on they regarded selling mainly as a problem of communication see 6.
Fournis 11 Later on in the s the communication concept already referred to a whole set of measures, that is, not only advertising but also sales promotion, personal sales or public relations. Hence, the term communication became a universal key term of modern marketing. This marketing-specific meaning of communication is underlined by the immediate context. In the following sentences it collocates, for example, with possessive pronouns and with verbs that imply directed actions axer sa communication or positionner sa communication. We now come to the last research question to be treated in this article: what are the most important tendencies of term formation?
In order to answer this question we will analyze new basic terms in the different sub-corpora from a morphological and semantic perspective. Additionally, we will investigate the impact of French terminological politics that has always tried to eliminate anglicisms. A high percentage of basic terms6 in the sub-corpora of the s are one-word terms that are also part of everyday language and denote very basic concepts of marketing e. Other terms of the s are special language terms that have been adopted from related disciplines, such as for example general business sciences, psychology or statistics e.
Within the two- and three-word terms we find more specific noun compounds with the preposition de inserted before the modifier e. Other noun compounds consist of a noun and an adjective e. In general, most of these early compounds or word combinations are loan translations from English.
In and , the first proposals of the official terminology committees were made. For example, in order to eliminate ing-forms, a committee suggested saying franchisage for franchising or publipostage for mailing. Analyzing the corpus, we see that there are only two occurrences of franchisage. But instead of franchisage the English term franchise recurs regularly in the corpora from the s on.
One can only speculate about the reasons for the greater acceptance of franchise. Perhaps French marketers preferred it to franchisage because of its shortness or the correspondence to the English term franchise, which also exists. Looking for the term publipostage we encounter relatively few instances of it in the period between and The anglicism mailing is used much more frequently. However, even though the use of mailing is still more frequent, publipostage occurs quite regularly in the latest corpora from until now.
In the end, the word publipostage seems to find its way into the French marketing language. From the late s until today we notice a very strong tendency to form noun-noun compounds. The semantic relations between the nouns tend to be much more complex than they used to be before.
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First of all, there are appositional noun-noun compounds in which the two nouns correspond to each other and refer to the same referent e. The semantic relations within these compounds cannot be explained by a simple is-a-equation. For example, in capital marque and marque sponsor the relations are specifications that could also be expressed by the insertion of the preposition de.
Their semantic structure corresponds to the above-mentioned examples in which the modifier seems to have adjectival character e. In marchand internet and marketing internet the semantic relation can be regarded as local and could be paraphrased by marchand sur internet or marketing sur internet. In marque ombrelle there is a metaphorical relation between the two elements la marque est comme une ombrelle. We should wait and see whether this marks a new trend of marketing term formation in French or not.
The following table summarizes the described tendencies of term formation in the French marketing language described above see Table 1. How many and which types of anglicisms are really used in written marketing language? This seems to be a rather high percentage. Hence, we can say that there are not as many direct loans in written French marketing language as might have been expected.
Figure 5: Types of anglicisms within the basic marketing terminology 6 Final remarks To conclude, we want to add some brief comments. First of all, the presented study enriches LSP research by a new perspective. It combines, one could say, synchrony and diachrony by following the development of a terminology in order to give an overview of its current state.
It was instructive to see how a terminology of a relatively young discipline like marketing grows and how the emergence of terms coincides with the development of the field. It would be interesting to see whether the described process also applies to other disciplines. Second, we think that the quantitative approach in combination with a qualitative analysis of the usage of certain terms has been successful and led to some remarkable results concerning the formation and lexicalization of terms in a special language.
For example, we were able to follow the processes of establishment of the key-terms marketing and communication and to detect the main tendencies of term formation in different periods. Because of the corpus-based approach, users of the glossary can be sure that it quite representatively reflects the state of the art of current French marketing language. Association Nationale du Marketing. For example, they may be responsible for the slightly unproportional increase in basic terms between the sub-corpora and see Figure 1.
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The prefixation with e- is considered as improper JO Paris: Dalloz. Calver, Giles : What is packaging design? Mies Switzerland : RotoVision. Paris: Economica.
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Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Lingua specialis II. University of Vaasa. JO Journal Officiel du 30 janvier Accessed on 2nd September New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Subsequent editions , , , , , , , , , , , Kevin Lane Keller joined as co-author in New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
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