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His assessments, however, offer an ideal starting point to examine his views on Spanish America's subalterns. He made no mention of the debates on slavery taking place then, or of the laws of gradual manumission adopted by most states in the U. In , when he installed the Second Republic in Caracas, one of his main concerns was to return the fugitive slaves enrolled in the royalist armies to their patriot masters.

In June , he warned the British authorities of a possible "contamination of all English colonies" by the race war engineered in Venezuela by a Spanish army that freed slaves and encouraged people of color to hate whites. In doing so, he did not offer a new way out of bondage to male slaves but replicated a practice already used by various armies always short of able men in the French Caribbean, the British West Indies and Spanish America: the promise of manumission for these slaves and their families if they survived several years of faithful military service.

He specified that freedom was a natural right stipulated by justice, politics, and "la patria. Therefore, only slave men between 14 and 60 years old who enrolled in the patriot army would gain their freedom and that of their families. Those able men who refused military service exposed themselves as well as their wife, children, and parents to continuing bondage idem , p. Remarkably, in all his decrees on the topic until , he never mentioned the rights of slaveowners over their human property or a possible compensation to them for the loss of their slaves - despite the fact that he belonged to the slaveowning aristocracy of Caracas, known as the mantuanos 3.

In , with Spain losing ground in Venezuela, creole slaveholders regained strength and representation at the Congress of Angostura, which was elected to debate the creation of a joint Venezuelan and New Granadan "Republic of Colombia" referred to here as Gran Colombia. Although most of his long speech to the congress aimed at convincing the delegates of the necessity of a British-inspired parliamentary system with a hereditary Senate see below , it was also a desperate appeal in favor of the confirmation of his decrees emancipating the slaves, which, he claimed, had transformed them into enthusiastic supporters of the new republic.

Brandishing the scarecrow of the Helotes, Spartacus, and Haiti, he stated: "[ In other words, the survivors of those 3 slaves would indeed become freedmen after the end of the war. There were military reasons to order the recruitment of slaves: these were strong men used to hard work and ready to die for the cause of freedom. There were crude demographic reasons as well: should only free men fight and die for the freedom of the fatherland, he asked? And once a revolution advocated freedom, nothing could stop its movement, the best one could do was to channel it in the right direction.

Cauca's slaveowners should understand this political rule rather than blindly follow their short-term economic interests, he explained idem , p. Not surprisingly, slavery was not contemplated by the constitution but by the Law of Manumission of 21 July , which only foresaw abolition in the long term while attempting to reconcile the contradictory constitutional rights to freedom and property.

This law declared that from now on all children born to slave mothers would be free but would have to work for their mother's masters without pay until they reached the age of eighteen, theoretically in compensation for their upbringing. Freedom at the age of eighteen was conditional to the masters issuing a certificate of good conduct. Slaves denied such certificates would be destined by the government to useful work, thus becoming a kind of public slaves.

The law also ordered the formation of manumission juntas that would buy the freedom of the most "honest and industrious" adult slaves from their owners, through funds financed by a portion of the value of bequests. Moreover, after , slaves lost the option of joining the army as a means of getting out of bondage.

No promise of freedom was attached to enlistment. No post-independence legislation aimed at easing the condition of the existing slave population. Moreover, as slaves continued to run away to gain freedom, new departmental ordinances focused on the repression of flight and assistance to fugitive slaves. In addition, as he said, he opposed slavery as fundamentally incompatible with a republic based on the freedom and equality of its citizens. Yet, his conviction emanated largely from the fear that if slaves were not freed, the Haitian Revolution and its extermination of whites could repeat themselves in Venezuela and New Granada.

Haiti was for him the symbol of what Venezuela could have become, had the brutal Spanish reconquest launched in not turned its population of African descent against Ferdinand VII. In reality, although his two letters from Jamaica did not mention the free Afro-descended majority in Venezuela in order to secure British support to independence, he never stopped worrying about Venezuela's demography and the racial dimension of the civil war that had devastated the country until Spanish reconquest.

Led by the creole aristocracy of Caracas, it adopted a constitution that declared the equality of the free regardless of race, but barred most nonwhite citizens from suffrage through property and other requirements. Moreover, the creole patriots adopted laws that promoted the expansion of private ownership in the vast cattle ranching plains of the Orinoco Basin at the expenses of the free llaneros mostly pardo and mestizo cowboys.

Thus the royalists, helped by the arrival of Spanish reinforcements from Puerto Rico, were able to capitalize on the socioracial resentment of pardos and llaneros to enlist some of them in their armies; they also forced or encouraged slaves belonging to patriot landowners to join royalist ranks LYNCH, , p. The Second Republic of Venezuela did not rally the support of the pardo majority either. Nor did he seek to understand the motivations of those who followed the Spaniards. Instead, he offered them an ultimatum, also letting his troops sack and commit massacres in the countryside and the towns they occupied.

By , violence and atrocities were at their peak, with both sides loosing literally thousands of men, but the royalist troops controlled most of Venezuela and submitted its population to repeated abuse. Although he avoided any direct mention of "los colores," he blamed all the current calamities and horrors not on the Spaniards, but on "vuestros hermanos [ He and his army fought for the freedom of America, but they confronted popular masses degraded by the yoke of servitude, turned into idiots by religious fanaticism, and seduced by the prospect of voracious anarchy and undeserved honor and fortune.

Yet, as he pursued the struggle against Spain in New Granada and later went into exile in the Caribbean, events in Venezuela turned in his favor. Pablo Morillo and a 10 men army to reconquer Venezuela and the Caribbean coast of New Granada in Morillo reorganized the llanero royalist units under his command, restoring racial discriminations and reducing slaves to non-combatant tasks. At the same time he brutally repressed alleged or convicted "traitors," confiscated most creole haciendas, and submitted the population, already hurt by four years of war and a deadly earthquake in , to high contributions and forced labor or enlistment.

By late , his 1 patriot troops were the best trained and organized of all. At that time, increasing numbers of llaneros also began to switch sides. Piar was sentenced to death for allegedly planning a conspiracy against the principles of equality, liberty and independence at the basis of the patriot movement DUCOUDRAY, , p. Moreover, Piar owed his republican equality to the white, wealthy and noble creoles who initiated the Venezuelan revolution and voluntarily gave up all their privileges to promote "los sagrados derechos del hombre" and the freedom of their own enslaved property.

Although the scale of the land's value ranged from 25 pesos for a general in chief to 6 pesos for a captain and only pesos for a soldier, the decree showed his concern for the economic future of the mostly nonwhite rank and file 5. More profoundly, he continued to believe that pardo men identified more with their race than their fatherland. This confronted him with a dilemma: his beliefs in the necessity of legal equality to consolidate the republic led him to promote a few men of color, such as Padilla, to higher military positions, yet as soon as these men acquired power and popularity, he suspected them of racial conspiracy.

He lamented that the Spanish yoke had not prepared the "pueblo americano" for self-government. Nacidos todos del seno de una misma Madre, nuestros Padres diferentes en origen y en sangre, son extranjeros, y todos difieren visiblemente en la epidermis; esta desemejanza trae un reato de la mayor trascendencia" ibidem.

This obligation of atonement for the sinful origin of Spanish America "reato" required a system of government that would prevent the rapid dislocation of this "heterogeneous society. Therefore he corrected the British-inspired form of government presented in his letters from Jamaica: now the bicameral legislative power would comprise a House of Representatives elected by enfranchised adult men, and the hereditary Senate would be a sort of House of Lords, not made up of nobles but, for the first generation, of the most talented and virtuous patriots elected by the Representatives, and later on by their descendents who would be trained in a special college.

They would act as arbitrators between the easily influenced popular masses and the Executive Power; they would be the warrants of the perpetuity of the republic. As for the Executive, it should rest entirely on a president elected by the active citizens of the Congress - not for life, as he had envisioned in - and on his ministers with broad centralized powers in order to maintain social order and to forge a united nation. This seemed to him all the more vital now that, with victory in sight, the number and percentage of whites would shrink after the departure of peninsulares and creole royalists.

An indication of his preference for whites in political positions was his disparaging remark about Bernardo Rivadavia, the only patriot leader from Buenos Aires with some African ancestry: "La nota de Rivadavia [ I didn't like the plot of the movie. They armed the people. The machine has to be assembled. They made a big racket last night. The mules balked halfway there. He armed himself with a pistol. He built up a good business in a short time.

He's always making a mess of things. He's always broke at the end of the month. Three pages have been torn out. We saw the car start. On a sudden impulse I returned to my home town. This car has a self-starter. What a heel! He gets everything because he's a bootlicker. He was dragged along by the current. Be careful, your coat's dragging. They crawled out of the cave. Is everything arranged for the trip? I think they'll fix the radio this afternoon. Tidy up a bit and we'll go to the movies.

How can I manage to finish on time? We did it according to your instructions. Do you want to rent your house? I want to rent a room. You'll be sorry for this. They live two flights up. The bedrooms are upstairs. It's past the square. He looked him up and down. From above one could see the river. The car was going up.

Let's go up. The hat was dirty around the top. He doesn't mind risking his life. If we don't take risks we'll never get anything done. Don't put the table so close to the wall. Give me a hand! Don't throw things out the window. That rope has to be coiled. They were trampled by the crowd. That man ruined them completely. He was ruined by that business. Are you interested in art? Fine arts. He presents his arguments with great skill. Read the article on page two. They sell sporting goods. Let's roast the chestnuts. It's roasting in this room. The balloon went up slowly.

He was promoted three times in one year. The bill amounted to pesos. He refused the food with disgust. Those things disgust me. Don't come near me; you're filthy. He turns up his nose at everything. He fastened the horse's pack with a rope. I assure you everything will be ready on time.

He maintains it's true. The baggage is insured. First make sure the information's correct. He took out accident insurance. That's the way it is. You must do it this way. And so they decided to act immediately. I don't say it without reason. I'll let you know as soon as I get there. Your attendance isn't necessary. I took care of him during his illness. Were you present at the meeting? The wash'll have to be put in the sun to dry. They were taking a sun bath on the beach.

He put his head out of the window. It's forbidden to lean out of windows. He amazes everybody by his cleverness. I'm amazed that you say that. He assumed full responsibility. What's the subject of that play? Don't meddle in my affairs. Your screams frightened me. She's frightened by loud noises. If we go this way we'll catch up with 'em. He cut him short by saying no. Lace your shoes up tight. When I heard that I put two and two together. I've danced so much that I'm dizzy. The announcer called for attention. I'll never forget your kindness. She likes to attract attention.

Ochoa, Jesús

I reprimanded him for his insolence. The clerk waited on them immediately. Please pay attention to what I'm saying. He takes very good care of his guests. I don't know what to depend on. There was an attempt on the life of the president. Su atento seguro servidor. Very truly yours. He guessed the amount of money I had in my pocket. He didn't succeed in explaining what he wanted. I can't find the keyhole. I've never seen such a scatterbrain. What an attractive woman!

She's very pretty but she has no appeal. She's back there with some friends. Don't back up; there's a tree behind you. He looked back. She stayed behind with some friends. This'll delay my trip a long time. I have to set my watch back; it's very fast. My watch loses ten minutes a day. I think we're getting behind in this work. The backwardness of that country's well known. The bullet pierced his arm. I've crossed the Atlantic several times. A truck stopped crosswise in the middle of the road. He doesn't dare to tell me. What a horrible thing! An automobile ran over him.

If you want to do a good job, don't rush through it. We can't tolerate such an outrage. Three pedestrians were victims of an accident. So much noise rattles me. He was stunned and didn't know what to answer. We can still get there on time. Even now it wouldn't be possible.

He hasn't come yet. Even if he doesn't come we'll have to begin. Though I wasn't born in the country, I know it very well. He left the class because he was feeling sick. Is there enough room in the car for everybody? Which is cheaper, the bus or the street car? He couldn't maintain his authority. They reported it to the authorities. The car moved very slowly. We're not making any progress in our work. The floods ruined the crops. He agreed to what they said. He's a very promising young man. He gets ahead of everybody in his work. He shamed his whole family by his conduct. After he said it, he was ashamed.

The mechanic repaired the damage without delay. The shipment was damaged by the rain. We have to notify the police. I'm warning you for the last time. They revived the fire by putting on more wood. Why don't you keep your eyes open? Step lively; it's very late. Wake up; you're half asleep.

I want to help him carry the packages. Don't smoke on an empty stomach. Let's take that chance. He likes games of chance. He chose them at random. This would embarrass anyone. When I told him that he was very much embarrassed. The sugar industry. The enemy suffered many casualties. There was a general fall in prices. He dropped out of the club. For lack of payment they dropped him from the subscription list. Let's go down the stairs slowly. The temperature fell. Bring the suitcase down from my room.

Will you help me take the suitcases down from the rack? They saw us as they were getting off the train. He bent over to tie his shoe. I want a low table. He's shorter than his brother. They were speaking in a low voice. Let's put the basses on the left. The temperature's fallen below zero. The superintendent lives on the ground floor. What's my bank balance this month? Don't rock in the chair; it's going to break. Three shots were heard. He had three bullet wounds in his chest. This bucket leaks.

They're giving tickets free.

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He tried to get her on the phone without success. Can I cash my check in this bank? All the benches are taken. The skirt had three red bands. He wore a red sash across his chest. That band gives me a headache. A gang of thieves works these parts. Please bathe the children. I'm going to take a bath. It's very pretty and besides it's cheap. They sell things very cheap in this store.

There's a sale today in that department store. He eats too much. Don't talk nonsense.

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What he did was an outrage. I like her an awful lot. How many times have you made the trip by boat? We need an iron bar. The spectators cheered the players on. See bastar enough! He dicho que te calles. That's enough! I told you to shut up! Do you have enough money? She's a rather pretty woman. There wasn't enough food for all.

The suit's made of very rough material. Please beat the eggs. He defeated his enemy. They haven't unpacked their trunks yet. He doesn't appreciate favors. The profits were very high. He doesn't know the difference between good and evil. He spoke very well. The beer's very cold. He has a great deal of property. He's rich rather than poor. All right or Correct. Pay close attention to what I tell you.

Have you bought the tickets? Give me the money in fives and tens. You have to put a screen in front of the door. I wish I'd bought a white dress! There are white people, Indians, and Negroes in this city. They hit the target. Leave this sheet blank. They hit the mark three times. The soldiers had target practice in the morning. He didn't open his mouth all afternoon.

The subway entrance is on the corner. The child's sleeping on his stomach. He was lying on his back on the beach. What an embarrassing situation that was! What sultry weather we're having! What a shameful action! Blow the horn so that car'll let us pass. I'm out of breath. Give me that iron ball. We bought some tennis balls. There was a crowd of people at the entrance of the theater. She carried a silk purse. I need a paper bag to put it in. I don't know what the quotations are on the exchange today. They used a pump to take out the water.

The bomb destroyed three houses. It struck like a bombshell! Where is there a filling station? Se puso una bomba. He got drunk [ Am ]. Three bulbs have burned out. Thank you for your kindness. Please wait a moment. It's dirt-cheap. He was lying on the bed. Be careful, don't throw away those papers. They've fired him. Look how that ball bounces. I want a can of tomatoes. When he heard it he jumped. The theater was jammed. Be careful, it's a fierce bull. He got very mad. I don't like this paper; it's too shiny.

A History of Spain

He gave her a diamond bracelet. Let's drink to your health! He's always joking. I said it as a joke. He takes everything lightly. He's abrupt in his way of speaking. That's a very good car. It was a good opportunity. I'm not feeling very well. Bueno, nos veremos a las cinco. All right, we'll meet at five. He gave it to me willingly. Good morning. They made a terrible racket.

He went out with a bundle of clothes in his hand. He has a swelling on his head. As soon as he saw what he had to do, he ducked out. They were making fun of him. Put these letters in the mail box. He's a perfect gentleman. Here's your bill, sir. She wears her hair loose.

Nothing else will fit in the trunk. The piano won't go through that door. There's no doubt that he's English. That child has a very large head. He was the leader of the movement. You have to use your brains in this work. He plunged into the water head first. Business is in a mess.

He never loses his head. Ese proyecto no tiene pies ni cabeza. There's no rhyme or reason to that plan. From end to end. We can't leave any loose ends. They passed the Cape of Good Hope. He has corporal's stripes. They put an end to the conversation. I know the story from beginning to end.

They carried out the plan right away. Take this junk out of here. Every day he says something different. Every one paid for his own meal. He asks me for it every time he sees me. A heavy rain fell. He dropped to his knees. The suit's becoming to him. His birthday falls on Sunday. He was taken sick a few days ago. I didn't realize it until much later. She fell down the stairs. Be careful, don't drop the tray. He was lame after the fall. The opposition of the House caused the fall of the government.

He gave her a box. He put a lot of money in the savings bank. They keep their jewelry in the safe. Look and see how much the cash register rings up. We have to see how much cash we have on hand. I'm going to buy a pack of cigarettes. They've lost the key to the drawer. They received a box of books. She turned him down. They flunked him in geometry. He got a cramp while he was swimming. The dagger penetrated to his heart.

I got home drenched. He pulled his hat down to his eyes. Let's figure out the cost of the trip. Please heat the water. Indeed, as Issorel points out in his substantial and informative critical introduction, the sheer stature and strength of the bulls he raises become a problem when bullfighting evolves toward styles of more pronounced elegance and grace, and he dies bankrupt. La Toriada is a miniature epic in which a lovingly evoked setting of paradisiac marismas , described with decidedly Gongorine echoes, is violated by human agents who ensnare a few bulls from the wild herds and lead them off ignominiously to captivity and the ring.

His is not a city-nurtured perspective on the land. Alan S. Trueblood Brown University. This is a rather novel book though not quite original by the author's own admission which explores the old age writings of the above-mentioned poets. Thus the works of the precursors might have appeared while the authors were only in their sixties, whereas the compositions of the ones featured in this book were produced while their authors were in their seventies or even in their eighties in some cases.

Still, the mode of expression, naturally, remains unique in each case. All in all, the reader has received a convincing perception of the unity of themes which exists among all the poets considered in this study. Perhaps more significantly, the author has established that old poets do not merely fade away before they die. The suggested admonition on the part of the author focuses on the unnecessary haste to write off a poet's contribution after a certain age.

Each creative period in an accomplished poet's life has much to offer, he tells us. Yet, the immanent value of this book rests on a profound knowledge of the poets included. The book is serious, and often detailed in its expatiations on fragmentary selections.

It would be well to have at hand the works examined. There is one caveat, however: the frame of reference for scholarly studies cited, as well as the bibliography, is founded virtually entirely on books published in Spanish, and by and large books published in Spain. There are very few exceptions, unfortunately. Certainly, the reviewer learned a great deal from this book. Robert Kirsner University of Miami. Much of his fiction likewise centers on the personal anguish of marginality, particularly the Jewish or heretic consciousness, and his stories are peopled with intellectual and religious rebels both historic Spinoza, Savanarola, Olavide and imaginary, as well as ordinary outcasts, the poor, the mad, and the defeated.

The narrative technique is historical, dramatic and lyrical. The author's linguistic and rhetorical register ranges from the highly impersonal document, undermined by the implied author's corrosive irony, to the most humble and colloquial expressions of Castilian peasants. In between these extremes are the passions, religious crises, brutality and haunting memories of clergy Protestant and Catholic , students, prostitutes and lonely spinsters, among others, spanning the past five hundred years of European history. The author is at his best at reworking Biblical legends and characters by mixing the existential, the highly idiosyncratic, the shocking and the grotesque.

Not all the stories have an identifiable historical setting or religious context. He is equally adept at evoking the most pathetic and delicate strains of his characters' inner worlds of personal anguish, illusion, and spiritual desolation. Identifica los modos predominantes observados en cada texto y la variedad de perspectivas representadas por los personajes en cada novela.

Harley D. Oberhelman Texas Tech University. These two books function as part of this dual activity. The stated and implicit objectives of these studies, as well as their scope, are quite different. Nevertheless, a reading of the two together reveals certain points in common. At the end of the volume is a poem by Fernando Charry Lara and a selected bibliography of work on Rivera, including items published and not published in this volume. Eyzaguirre, Malva E. Filer, Randolph D. Walker's introductory and pedagogical book is far less ambitious.

Walker's critical apparatus is based fundamentally on the traditional assumptions of New Criticism. His discussion is frequently weighed down with excessive reliance upon other critics. Both volumes represent an intense dialogue with the Rivera criticism of the past half century, a dialogue perhaps now more interesting than the novel that is its subject.

Unless they are specialists on Colombia, most students of Spanish American literature, myself included, have a limited knowledge of Colombian literature. Both, however, railed against the veneration of Spain so prevalent among many Colombian men of letters. An early predecessor of the feminist movement, Soledad Acosta de Samper wrote novels, short stories, and essays, in addition to numerous newspaper articles.

Still, the implication conveyed is that women are often stronger and more stable than the men occupying prominent positions in society. In Aptitud de la mujer para ejercer todas las profesiones. Acosta investigates the ability of women to enter the male-dominated professions and concludes that through education they would be fully capable of contributing to a changing and expanding capitalistic society. In this story Soto not only satirizes human frailties, but also alludes ironically to the relations between man and God, Basilio's climb representing man's absurd emulation of the divinity.

George R. McMurray Colorado State University. Ambas tendencias estaban presentes en su primer poemario. En Poemas para un pueblo , modelado en el Canto general de Neruda, y el vallejiano Quiero escribir , culmina su fervor revolucionario y se agota esta modalidad. Pero ahora, su lengua, en vez del fervor revolucionario, traiciona la nostalgia desgarrada del exiliado. Through a comprehensive analysis of the philosophies, themes and authors that inform the prose of Jorge Luis Borges, Ion T.

Agheana attempts to define the meaning of experience in terms of individuality, literature and chromatic perception. His study demonstrates a breadth of knowledge that ranges from Aristotle to Nietzsche, from Shakespeare to Shaw. Unfortunately, this broad range causes the focus of the book to be somewhat ambiguous. The work would be greatly strengthened by the addition of an introduction, outlining his purpose and defining his approach, and a conclusion, summarizing the main points of his study. The book is divided into three major sections.

While many critics have asserted that Borges negates the reality of human experience, Agheana demonstrates the opposite to be true. Borgesian protagonists are not defined in terms of society, but rather by the totality of their lived experiences. This single meaningful experience generally represents the culmination of the story as, for example, when Emma Zunz avenges her father's death.

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Agheana's critical knowledge of these six authors is interwoven with Borges's references to them providing an in-depth analysis of the way in which they inform Borges's writing. The themes of individuality and meaningful experience, introduced in Part I, are shown to be an outgrowth of Borges's aesthetic relationship with these writers. The author explores the symbolism of black and white in several stories, noting that the significance of these chromatic oppositions is dependent on context.

Yellow is the most frequently mentioned color in Borges, symbolizing hope and the continuity of human experience. This book encompasses an extensive knowledge both of Borges and of the philosophies and authors that inform his prose. Despite the need for a stronger focus, Agheana's study provides a unique and insightful critical approach.

The definition of individuality through an existential act and the allusion to color through imagery based on the reader's experience are aspects of Borges's prose which merit attention. With these insights, Agheana has made a valuable contribution to the field of Borgesian studies. Jaime Alazraki, the author of several outstanding works on Borges, centers this collection of essays on the Kabbalistic traits in Borges's narratives, and expertly deals with fundamental elements of his fiction, poetry and essays. We appreciate the inclusion in one volume of subjects which heretofore have been neglected, and welcome the contribution to significant areas of research which this book -organized in four parts and with an epilogue- represents.

In the Introduction to the first part, Alazraki demonstrates his own interest in the Kabbalah by referring to the course on Jewish mysticism and the Zohar which he had taken at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. One of his teachers, Gershom Scholem, was the author of books on the subject that Borges recommended consistently. In two meticulously written essays, Alazraki shows how the outlook and methods of the Kabbalah influence Borges and constitute a strong generating force in his narratives.

The first part ends with an Appendix which is the transcription and translation into English of a lecture given by Borges on the Kabbalah. Part II presents Borges's fiction, the mechanics of his style and the structuring principle of his short stories. In the third part, we see the development of Borges as a poet who explored the expressive possibilities of poetry. The function and meaning of several images, particularly the mirror image, are followed in representative collections. In two of the three essays, Alazraki focuses on the later poetry, attempting to determine the implications of a rhetorical device imposed by Whitman, enumerations, and trying to establish the changing voice in the last ten years.

The Epilogue, inspired by personal reflections on Borges's death, embodies a moving homage to the man and artist. Alazraki shares with us his last visit to Borges, three weeks before his death, and his attendance at the funeral. Alazraki's book is essential for our understanding of Borges.

Notes, references and bibliographies at the end of each essay support and amplify the author's precise studies making them a most valuable resource for students and scholars as well as inspiring points of departure for new interpretations. Ludmila Kapschutschenko-Schmitt Rider College. This varied collection of essays on the double responsibility of Latin American writers to their art and to their societies will be of much interest and use to students and teachers of literature.

The thirty personal testimonies, some translated into English for the first time, represent twentieth-century writers from twelve countries, highlighting Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba and Mexico. The opening chapter provides an overview of Latin American literary history that contrasts the colonial past with the desire for cultural autonomy that began to develop in the nineteenth century.

Under Construction

This introduction, while offering a clear and valid interpretation of the writer as architect of national identity, does not fully prepare the reader for the major strength of the book -the range, complexity and suggestive power of the contributors' views on art and society. Of course not all essays are equally effective; curiously, some of those written expressly for this volume seem narrow, perhaps because their authors had a particular audience in mind.

This, however, is a small point; the editor is to be commended for an inclusive approach that welcomes Brazilian women and younger writers into the fold. Taken together, these varied essays suggest the versatility and uniqueness of the individual genius, as well as the authors' pleasure in using language to sculpt the products of their imagination. The essays also testify to the act of writing as a highly personal endeavor. Clarice Lispector, for example, emphasizes the role of introspection in re-creating the private, subjective sphere of individual lives.

The main theme -the relationship between writers and their societies- emerges in four ways: as a social constant; an urgent political reality; a part of the complex phenomenon of exile; and as a generalized questioning of modernity. Though some, such as Cardenal and Cuadra, express diametrically opposed ideologies, they all illustrate the inescapable and complicated relationship between politics and art in Latin America. The corollary theme of exile is very strong. To Roa Bastos, exile is only the final stage in a multilayered and historic process of alienation in bilingual Paraguay, where social fragmentation has widened the distance between native oral and Spanish print culture.

The dual role of the United States as both imperial monster and model of progress has contributed greatly to this growing uneasiness, as has the arms race among super powers. Lives on the Line will provide an interesting complement to literature classes for its collection under one cover of diverse views on art and society by some of the best-known writers from Latin America. More generally, this work makes a significant contribution to the understanding and appreciation of contemporary Latin American literature and culture. Nonetheless, this claim turns out to be a dubious one, since the volume mainly proposes a reading of literary texts as elaborations of authorial biography, personal experience, and artistic intention.

Given the book's brevity and generally descriptive nature, Pop Culture into Art may not be all that useful even for undergraduates beginning literary studies or readers interested in modern fiction. In the end, this book may raise questions not so much about how Puig's writing ought or ought not to be read as about the legitimate distinctions between studies that aim to serve one or another type of reading community. Lavers's discussion of Puig's writing follows the chronology of his novels' publication. Lavers generally follows this theme in the comments on the individual novels, interweaving supposed evidence from Puig's life and personal statements with descriptions of the novel's stories and characters.

Comments on Puig's first seven novels are divided among the three chapters that follow. Throughout the book, Lavers emphasizes biographical information and authorial explanation of thematic interests and narrative techniques. He paraphrases and describes story lines and fictional characters, and projects into his discussion readers' presumed personal reactions to and interpretive conclusions about Puig's novels. The author has made an attempt to incorporate references to some articles on Puig and quotations from a few of his many published interviews.

However, the support from critical sources is too meager and the interview quotations too numerous for a study aimed at telling us something new about Puig. Unfortunately, where the book attempts to advance a critical discussion, it generally repeats what critics have already said about Puig's writing, without always acknowledging that others have said it. And where it advances interpretation of texts or characters under the guise of description characters are all too often referred to as if they were real persons to whom motives and feelings not presented in the text could nonetheless be attributed; e.

Such are some of the shortcomings that underlie this reviewer's own reservations about recommending the study either for undergraduates or for general readers. Would that such enthusiasm for Puig could have occasioned a critical contribution more fitting for one of Latin America's most adventurous and accomplished writers.

Lucille Kerr University of Southern California. Luchting believes that Ribeyro should have been invited to the festival of the Latin American boom but was unduly obscured by the fame of Mario Vargas Llosa and that Ribeyro himself offered little resistance to this omission. In proving his case, Luchting's literary analyses range over Ribeyro's entire work, including his three novels, numerous collections of short stories, and his theater. The critic finds a consistency in the basic personality traits of the principal characters who all exhibit the same passivity.

Outsiders, marginal figures, victims of their incapacity to differentiate between the possible and the impossible, they rarely rebel but instead resign themselves to their defeats. In Luchting's opinion, this passivity is owed in part to the character of the author and in part to the essence of Lima.

Ribeyro's fictitious world is usually that of the declining middle class in Lima, and his protagonists are part of the process of family disintegration, of personal failures, and of the final crumbling of the hierarchic Lima of some thirty years ago. Luchting calls attention to Ribeyro's subtle irony which addresses false, pretentious values and the combination of ineffectiveness and moral decay. The book's unusual format becomes apparent after a number of pages, but a more complete Table of Contents, and well-defined chapter or section headings throughout the text, would have facilitated the reading.

In addition to Luchting's critical studies, there are questions by his students, submitted to and answered by Ribeyro; transcriptions of round table sessions; interviews with Ribeyro; samplings from Ribeyro's opinions; and occasional critical opinions by other Peruvian writers. An interesting stratagem is the inclusion of extracts from Ribeyro's personal letters to Luchting which appear after the essays with his commentaries on Luchting's analyses.

In spite of the obvious depth of their relationship, and the frankness of both, the tension between the role of author and critic is apparent. Even so, Ribeyro's general attitude seems conciliatory and non-aggressive. Luchting's book highlights the Peruvian character of Ribeyro's work. He points out that Ribeyro's pessimism and skepticism coincide with the dominant attitudes of other contemporary Peruvian writers, and by extension, with much of the frustration which lies under the surface of the boom.

Ribeyro is obviously eclipsed by the fame of Vargas Llosa, but Luchting does his best to propel him into the same space, if not the same position, as his countryman. In Luchting's opinion, Ribeyro eschews modern pyrotechnics in favor of speaking clearly, and Luchting concludes that some day Ribeyro will be read more often than Vargas Llosa. This is an invaluable book for the specialist in Peruvian literary works and should serve to stimulate interest in those unfamiliar with this literature.

It is surely the definitive text on Ribeyro. The narration is presented in a series of short sketches or vignettes told from multiple points of view and using many literary resources, including letters, news items from newspapers, radio broadcasts, advertisements, cooking recipes, and even an application form. The main theme is basically the mad life of the Cubans in Miami. The light plot centers on the Rodriguezes, a Cuban family living in the section of Miami known as Little Havana.

Mima, the enterprising mother, leads the family. She is able to turn a small banana chips home operation into a large business. Connie, her daughter, pretends not to be Hispanic as part of her longing to be accepted by her Anglo peers and, like Mima, denies having any blood relationship to Keith. She ends up hanged from a ceiba tree by her love rival. Among them is Mirta, the emotionally disturbed old maid who lives obsessed with imaginary rapes and with the memory of her first romance in Varadero Beach.

In an effort to recreate the state of this most glorious moment in her past, she wallpapered her bathroom with coconut trees and sunrises, dyed bluegreen the water of her bathtub, dropped in it four Alka-Seltzer tablets to create the foam, and ground cat litter to make it look like stand. Then she invited friends to a beach party at her Little Varadero.

There is Manolo, Jacinto's distant cousin, who bombed the Cuban Presidential Palace in Havana from his apartment in Miami loading a kite with four grenades. There is Count Pepe, who won his title of nobility in a raffle, owner of Pepe's Grocery-Bar, an emporium of frijoles , alcohol, sex, dominos, political arguments, meringue, and drugs: a true community center. Evident in the novel is the dual temporal and spatial perspective in which Cuban exiles find themselves. On the one hand, the older generation tries to recapture the fatherland in a world of preterites, remembrances and dreams, a surrealistic ritual which engulfs their daily lives, and at the same time acknowledging that in order to survive in the present there is a need to cubanize the new environment.

He makes the reader realize that perhaps the worlds of Macondo and Little Havana are not that far apart. In , the American Translators Association introduced its new monograph series with Translation Excellence: Assessment, Achievement, and Maintenance. The following year saw the publication of Technology as Translation Strategy. The present volume, like its predecessors, is a useful collection of essays by an international array of well-known specialists.

The focus is a timely one: not only is there an increasing need for translators and interpreters worldwide, but, as David Bowen and Georganne Weller observe in their historical overviews, the role of translation in the teaching of foreign languages is again under reassessment. Wilhelm K. Weber argues that interpretation is a field of communication and should be separate from foreign language departments. Marilyn Gaddis Rose questions whether translator training must be elitist and suggests double majors a language plus an area of specialization and foreign-language immersion as appropriate preliminary training.

Margareta Bowen discusses the language competency required before beginning specialized training. Danica Seleskovitch outlines succinctly the essential components of training in conference interpreting. Gabriela Mahn's discussion of an evaluation system presents clear guidelines for defining performance and assessing professional competency in translation.

The two remaining studies, relating to the teaching of English in Poland and the application of isotopy to translation, are of lesser general interest because of their specialized or technical nature. On balance this is an excellent collection of essays, presenting a wide range of approaches, from historical overviews, to practical guidelines, to theoretical pieces. This dialectal study is part of a series on sociolinguistic topics, topics that reflect the interplay among linguistic, social and cultural factors in human communication. During the late seventies the author completed extensive field research in Ucieda, a bidialectal village in the province of Cantabria in northern Spain.

That research constitutes the basis for this lucid and convincing analysis of linguistic variation and the social factors that influence that variation. Holmquist acknowledges his intellectual debt to sociolinguists such as Labov and anthropologists, including, among others, Fishman and Hymes, and identifies his study as employing sociolinguistic and ethnography of communication approaches to establish the analytic framework of the work.

What results is a significant contribution to the field of Hispanic linguistics. These dialectal differences -whether they be examples of vowel raising, metaphony, employing the suffix -ucu instead of -ito , preferring preterit verb forms in situations where Castilian Spanish requires the present perfect, or whatever- are carefully reviewed. Two full chapters are devoted to the use of u in word-final position. For instance, otro campo becomes otru campu. This feature is widely recognized as the central one of the dialect.

While the description of the dialect's phonological, morphological and syntactic characteristics and the analysis of the extent to which it is still spoken in spite of the greater prestige of Castilian Spanish are of interest in and of themselves, the author moves on to a sophisticated analysis of social, economic and historical factors that affect the durability of the dialect. Dialect switching is a conscious matter among many in Ucieda and the success with which dialects are switched varies.

Also, people do not necessarily speak the same way in church and in school as they do in the fields or in a bar. For some the dialect is an important symbol of community unity and loyalty. At the same time, aspirated s and other non-Castilian linguistic features popular in parts of Spain and Spanish America are perhaps becoming more frequent and may represent a model of speech to which those of Ucieda may turn rather than accept the Castilian dialect.

As Holmquist indicates, this is an area for future research. The study of the impact of national economic and cultural trends on dialects of peninsular Spanish and the willingness of their speakers to retain them or to give them up can be the basis for some fascinating comparative analysis. The work reviewed here is a model of clear methodology, careful use of terminology, and a successful bringing together of anthropological and linguistic perspectives.

The thoughtful review of the role of the participant observer, the thorough process of data collection and evaluation, the effective use of tables, of computer and statistical analysis as well as of speech samples, all contribute to a valuable study. Those trained in Spanish dialectology in the late sixties and early seventies can only be delighted with this study both because of its quality and because of the paucity of such studies for so many years.

Historically, college and university programs in Spanish have focused on literary studies and those with an interest in linguistic analysis have often felt at best unappreciated and at worst unwanted.

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As some of these programs have become broader in conception and more open to linguistic studies, the number of such studies has increased significantly. This particular study is of use to the expert in Spanish dialectology and yet is accessible to the non-expert. In fact, given that the book provides an excellent example of phonological, morphological and syntactic variations in Spanish and the social context in which they exist, it is well-suited for use as a case study in undergraduate and graduate classes in Spanish linguistics.

Este estudio, que llega pues en un momento muy oportuno, enfoca el tema en su justa perspectiva y lo analiza con detenimiento y objetividad. Now that this book is affordable in paperback, it belongs on the shelf of every teacher of Spanish, alongside our copies of M. Ramsey and R. Spaulding's A Textbook of Modern Spanish last revised , the standard with which it must be compared.

Model sentences are taken from posts literary texts including dialog and journalistic language on both sides of the Atlantic. An appendix describes pronunciation. The index lists idiomatic expressions in Spanish and English, as well as grammatical terms. Nominally, very few topics are treated by only one of the two books and not by the other. On some points, Butt and Benjamin have benefited from recent research. Unlike the former, the present book attempts to define a number of registers or degrees of acceptability among educated speakers.

Author Benjamin is a native speaker of European Spanish viii. Perhaps the greatest disappointment in this otherwise excellent book is its occasional air of diffidence and even misanalysis in the face of a grammatical explanation. But two such cases are attributed by Butt and Benjamin instead, respectively, to an allegedly unclear distinction between generic and nongeneric 24 and to the irrelevant?

Elsewhere, in reference to use of the subjunctive, a useful principle stated at first is later ignored, leaving examples to seem more mysterious than they need be. Similar cases of reaction to a fact are explained in ways that suggest, incongruously, that the speaker doubts or questions the fact. This translation of Lope's El anzuelo de Fenisa should firmly establish David Gitlitz's reputation as one of the foremost translators of Golden Age theater in the twentieth century.

The play, adapted from the tenth tale of the eighth day of Boccaccio's Decameron , is one of Lope's most delightful comedies, and, as Gitlitz points out, is far more typical of his work, and of the Golden Age comedia in general, than many better known plays. Gitlitz's erudite introduction carefully explains the yawning abyss that separates the seventeenth-century views of class, gender, and sexual behavior that permeate the play from those of our own day; yet a modern audience really needs no introduction to appreciate Lope's masterful presentation of the intricate strategies his characters employ in the war between the sexes, which continues unabated in our own times.