By the time of the Risorgimento there was a clearly felt drive towards the east. Half a century later, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini sought to realise this militarily as from the first year of his reign. For several weeks in August-September , Italian fascist troops occupied the island. On the first day of the occupation they ordered foreigners, among them more than 2, predominantly Maltese-British citizens, to present themselves in their consulates immediately. Since this incident, especially because Archbishop of Corfu Leonardo Brindisi had then welcomed the Italian military forces, the Catholics were generally considered as agents of Italy.
Not all Catholics were Italians though. In October , Italy tried to invade Greece from recently annexed Albania, and at the end of , the Italians started to bomb Corfu again. In April , they finally occupied the island. After the ceasefire between Italy and the Western allies in September , the Germans occupied Corfu after heavy bombardments.
In Greece, there was a variety of linguistic, ethnic and religious communities of which the Germans hardly had any knowledge. This is partly due to the fact that modern Greece — since its foundation and well into the 21st century — was conceived as a mono-ethnical state: Following the extended population exchange of the Greek-Orthodox and the Muslim people between Greece and Turkey in the s, it was undesirable to even mention the suspiciously viewed Slavic, Albanian and other minorities. Thus, it is not surprising that, at first, the German military administration was not aware of the linguistically integrated Maltese in Corfu.
If the Maltese had been the only Catholics on the island, the Germans might have spotted their distinctive surnames somewhat earlier. But only few months later, beside the Jews, the Maltese, too, attracted the attention of the German occupiers, who, after heavy bombardments by the Western allies, felt irritated by the presence of British citizens in Corfu. All English citizens need to be seized. The Germans were suspicious about the fact that the Maltese had inherited the British citizenship from their ancestors — something that had been normally an advantage rather than a disadvantage for them.
Only a minor part is in command of the English language. This part of the population is found everywhere on the island. All its members live on farming. An additional list of names included only a few British citizens who did not have any connections with Malta. But they refused to return home to the Soviets.
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Stalin threw masses into prisons. Nevertheless, many had been forced back 2?. Like in 8, also in about 2, Muslims remai- ned. Al-Husaini was popular. They rebuilt circles and the German Muslim League of Hamburg in Also they wanted a mosque in Munich One Muslim, Herbert Hobohm, illuminated his way. That year Hitler started the world war.
Muhammad Aman Hobohm served on a destroyer at sea. After imprisonment, he studied Islam in London. As he returned to Berlin in , his old mosque was hit too. At the end of , he wrote, he served as a member of a small Tariqa Brotherhood. He wanted this community to work and fight for Islam in Germany and the Middle East.
So they swore to live and die for this religion keeping together in their Tariqa Muhammadiyya. As it turned out after the war, of eight men only he, Muhammad Aman, survived. He recalled that the Allied forces also captured and imprisoned Mus- lims after So she no longer had anything to do with the Red Empire. But ail efforts to free her remained futile, even those directed to Marshall Georgi Shukov.
Muhammad Aman served as imam of the mosque in Wilmersdorf until They started activities again, including editing the "Muslim Revue. This enabled them to pursue the dawa mission. Soon they had more than members. They published in three languages the "Orient- Post" or Barid ash-Sharq. Berlin's public, recollected Herbert Hobohm, was open minded for Islam. An interest was huge and honest. Unknown was a hostility against foreigners or hatred of Turks. Since he headed the King Fahd Academy in Bonn Third sides contacted Muslims in the Republic of Bonn.
Secret services wanted their expertise and Knowledge turning them against the Soviets. This happened not only in the American Radio Liberty but also in Mecca. The ex-Nazis were not only interested in Muslims as former comrades-in-arm but potential providers of Middle Eastern asylums. Both were ex-SS officers. If we manage, noted Wolfrum, now to straiten out affairs with the Muslims and to set up a true religious. He suggested that the Bavarian state pay a cultural room and study for the head of this Muslim community Nur ad-Din Namanjani Such were the beginnings after the war.
This was most similar to the time after the First World War. Africa and Asian fighters helped each other. Many steps were quite normal. Until Franz von Papen's and al-Husaini's circles took over remaining Muslims after and Al-Husaini maganed Mideastern fund raising for German mosques. First in Hamburg, then in Munich and Aachen. His networks included six groups in the Americas, the Middle East and Europe:.
Heim in Cairo. Until he led the litigation to regain al-Husaini's investments of in Berlin and secured finances at trials in favor of terrorists. The Middle Eastern group of ex-Nazis expanded in Muslim military, security, prison and propaganda administrations. Israel's neighbors wanted them for their policy of revolts against the British and French. After the Arab defeat in they were hired to spread Jew-hatred.
Kaiser Wilhelm II. Hitler and al-Husaini spoiled it by a death culture of Islamism and "victimhood of Jews. Muruwwa, the founder of "Al- Hayyat" newspaper, wrote that "half a million Jews enslaved 80 million Germans. They converted to Islam, took new names and continued spreading a mix of Nazism and Islamism. In Bonn al-Husaini tried to regain his money of , about one million Pound Sterling. The value plus interests had risen to about million Mark.
Many old comrades helped him in Bonn. Nearly he succeeded. Until the final sentence rejected his claim in But a rumor held that chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger was sympathe- tic to him. Surely, they knew each other from anti-Jewish propaganda in Joachim von Ribbentrop's office. Kiesinger did not directly answer al-Husaini's letter. So the head of the chancellory should reply. GehlhofF added biographical notes about al-Husaini. He drew a brown-green circle and pointed at al-Husaini's four years of exile in Berlin.
There, so Gehlhoff, he behaved utmost close the Nazi leadership: but al-Husaini was caught in the anti-Jewish propaganda 4I. Gehlhoff did not realize that his chancellor Kiesinger acted as vice head of the broadcast department in von Ribbentrop's office driving ail the Nazi propaganda ahead by which al-Husaini "was caught. The pro-Islamic fraction wanted "restitution. However, Linsser said, Bonn should not let him down, "always the best friend of Germany. This can turn out very favorably as a kind of compensation for the rejection of his restitution He served as an envoy in the s.
Al-Husaini's men had asked him for help. They knew each other from France where the Islamist traveled a lot and Sonnenhol served as plenipotentiary of the Foreign Office with the military commander. This S S officer worked then until mid in Casablanca and Tanger, two of al-Husaini's intelligence spots, later in Berlin and Geneva as security service liaison for emigrants, sabotage and assassination.
It is a long sheet of old comrades who worked in the Cold War again with Islamists. Al-Husaini unfolded brown-green networks. For Max von Oppenheim's circles aimed since to set up posts in democracies, those Islamists flourished in Europe and America in the shadow of the Cold War. Then, an U.
Mosques of Hamburg and Munich were hot spots of al-Qaida That Bonn hired Muslims as guest workers came not by chance 40 years before. They liked their former comrades-in- arms and Islamism as long as they globally turned against the Soviets. They made a half of higher service officers Both advanced in key posts, in the personell department. In Dittmann knew about mass murder of Jews.
The "Committee 47" of the parlia- ment advised Adenauer not to hire him. But he became consul in Honkong and ambassador in Rio de Janeiro.
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Men before and after worked with al-Husaini again. Werner Otto von Hentig was advisor to king Saud, al-Husaini's friend. So he traveled to the Middle. But East Berlin did it already. The Kremlin incited a green-red jihadization of Islam since East Berlin pursued its stealthy Islam policy. After the German unification, Islamists used the global migration: plus sharia equals Islamism. For Islamists use Islamic green, right conservative black, Nazi brown and left Communist red strains, they ofFer a full spectrum.
Some claim there is neither Islam nor Islamism, just Islam, to dominate ail. Those who mean Islam and Islamism are two sides of one coin 5I, are wrong. The Kaiser worked both in his Islam policy of Then Islamists, al-Islamiyun, were seen with multiple strains and layers. East Berlin pursued a double game. A professor of the Humbold University wrote the laudatio for the Shah's "doctor honoris causa. The town of. Dresden was to cancel a beloved soccer game 52 so that the Shah may undisturbed visit the Zwinger place.
They grew so powerful that the Shah had to cancel his planned trip. Ayatullah al-Khumaini's revolt threw him fast out of Iran. The Kremlin watched it and discovered the anti-imperial might of Islamism against America and other democra- cies. I turn to trends and examples. The divided Germans embodied a basic conflict: to solve the national question in democracy without risking an all-out war which would draw in the nuclear powers and their military pacts. For this was the Middle East with Israelis and Palestinians only a zone on the sidelines.
But in the Suez war of it became clear that it could ignite a nuclear inferno too. In , in which two German states emerged, there was no mandated Palestine left. The U. So in Bonn and East Berlin the Palestinians became no subject of policy. Since only Jordan allowed the Arab Palestinians to become citizens. Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and other Arab lands kept the refugee status alive.
The Germans wanted to rebuild their relations to the Middle East. Arabs decided it by recognizing Bonn as the sole side since But as we will see, they changed their mind. In this ideological fight the East-West conflict turned into Cold War. They became junior partners of the military pact leaders America and Soviet Union.
The Germans debated their national question, two Germanies or unification? They knew about similar situations of Arabs, Palestinians, Jews and Israelis: ail had their refugees and displaced persons against which many neighbors acted unjustly. Germans lost sovereignty and big areas. However, they integrated twelve millions of those refugees and displaced persons. Except for Jordan, Arabs acted to the contrary. They kept disintegration up on the backs of. The Germans accepted in a long process of direct negotiations in the Two Plus Four Agreement until peaceful but often unjust solutions.
They had lost two wars. It is not in history's DNA that losers dictate the outcome. Hitler and al-Husaini had nazified the Jewish- Arab conflict. Since al-Husaini went on with it and there was rarely critical work or discourse on the Arab sides, Hitler's and al-Husaini's ideolo- gems flourished for at least half a century.
Plus, ex-Nazis injected it again within Israel's neighbors. After they left at the turn to the s, Islamists and East Europeans kept it up until the ColdWar's end. On the those lines, the Jews, left, and democrats were seen as enemies. Islamic nationalists and Islamists, embodied in al-Husaini, were treated as the "natural allies. The Germans were critical to European empires and friendly to the Muslim nationalists and Islamists. In two world wars Germans and Muslims were comrades-in-arms as sealed in the German-Ottoman pact and in the Nazi-Islamist pact. They lost. Chancellor Adenauer fulfilled the responsibility which resulted from the crimes committed by Germans against the Jews.
East Berlin, on the other hand, refuted this. They regarded themselves as Nazi victims who had nothing to give to other Nazi victims. The Nazis won as laughing third party. There was a great ammount of Jewish property left in East Germany. So one third of the Jewish claim was justified.
Also, the Palestinians looked for help. The Israelis showed them how to win over Great Powers. But London and Paris were not in high demand. Wrongly, Arabs accused the British for breaking promises and giving Palestine to Jews. Paris, on the other hand, got involved in the Algerian war. Three world camps made a solution for the Palestinian-Israel dispute hard. The Germans fought in the Middle East their national question and wanted others to take sides. The same did al-Husaini. He set up a base camp to train terrorists in the Hijaz This was in the starting year of The NATO was set up.
The war in the divided Korea offered lessons for Germans even though the status of war was over with Germany. Al-Husaini did everything to bring it down. He asked the Arab League which in turn threatened Bonn by sanctions. In the month before the signing of the restitution agreement the West German commercial advisdor Joachim G. Hertslet turned on Bonn Their governement acts in Cairo for Palestine is divided into a Jordanian and Israeli zone. What are the formulas to accredit him?
Ail this led to nothing for Bonn disregarded Hertslet. State secretary Walter Hallstein asked the cabinett not to cooperate with him and hinted even, he might be a man of the East bloc. In Adenauer's eyes the Arabs of Palestine were refugees. London split it into an Arab state, Transjordan, and the Western part of the Jordan river. For Adenauer there was no mandate for Arab Palestinians.
To him, they ail belonged to Jordan. This indicated the story of Herts- let. Al-Husaini engaged him by the Higher Arab Committee that he lead since It indicated pro-Syrian, pro-Egyptian and pro-Saudi parts of Palestinians against pro-Jordanian parts, including his rival an-Nashashibi clan. Cairo and Amman went on opposite lines for Palestine: a state or annexation.
Conflicts between nationalists and Islamists, moderate Egyptians and conservative Saudis, made it the more complex. Cairo voted against the U. Unofficially, Amman advocated a partition to annex the West Bank to its kingdom. Still the other Palestinians proclaimed Abdullah I. Thus, Palestinians lost not only against Israelis but also Arabs.
Since then "twofold" Germans acted there, of Bonn and consuls of East Berlin. Arabs realized that East Berlin became the best stick to beat Bonn. Bonn wanted to limit the Moscovite situation where since mid two German ambassadors acted. The Hallstein doctrine said who would recognize East Berlin commits an unfriendly act punishable by sanctions. In turn, East Berlin meant also to represent ail Germans. East Berlin adhered to the Kremlin in the Warsaw Treaty. Meanwhile, the Islamists spewed hatred with the ex-Nazis in green-brown webs against the Jews, Israelis and democrats not only in the Middle East.
Shortly before this war Abd an-Nasir offered him the power of his organization of Free Officers around Muhammad Najib to fight against the Jews Many of them were members of the Muslim Brotherhood. Their battle cry became: "Drive the Jews into the Sea. Berlin had pursued for half a century a policy in which either Muslim nationalists or Islamists should corne to power and throw the British, French, and Russians out. Ayatullah al-Khumaini elevated it to a matter of state policy exporting Islamist revolts 6o.
Cairo's Muslim nationalists or Tehran's pan-Islamists, both globalized crude hatred against Jews, Israelis and democrats. This excited younger Palestinians.
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Islamists added to this: "Neither East norWest, Islam is the solution. Help they seeked soon from "East versus West. In a window of opportunity was opened. Nothing came out of six similar initiatives on ail sides. One point came up: peace needs to include the return or compensation for the refu- gees and displaced persons, for the Arabs and Jews. Specifically it mentioned Palestinian refu- gees.
Should they want to return and live and peace with their neigh- bors, so the authorities ought to make it possible. Since ever, there is a double question of refugees and displaced persons to be solved by ail sides. Although Arabs like Abbas use U. In modem terms his three key ideas were: fight also foes behind the enemy; land for peace; and death to every separate peace maker. But this did not reduce the Islamist's Jew-hatred. But they can draw Arabs "prematurely" into war with the Jewish state. Abd an-Nasir bought weapons from the Soviets.
East Berlin helped in the deal. Therefore, some Palestinians spread their units and training camps for Fida'iyun 65 to terrorize Jews and Israelis. They embodied two parts of his Muslim identity. In this time Bejing's influence grew. They propagated red Moscovite lines: "anti-colonial struggle, anti-Imperialism and Socia- lism. Unimagina- ble was the poverty of , refugees. Nobody offered them jobs. Every new Arab leader set up "his" organization to "liberate Palestine.
But he did not follow Cairo which blamed Iraqi Communists for new rifts. However, the leader of al-Azhar Mahmud Shaltut called for jihad against the "atheistic Communism" which advanced with the Soviets Called "Arab Hitler," he was convinced that " Zionists rule Europe. Younger Palestinians, however, looked for jobs in the area.
Yasir Arafat established his existence in Kuwait. Al-Husaini helped him. Both took the war in Algeria as example for their armed struggle. But Kuwait was not Israel's neighbor. Meanwhile, the Saudi envoy talked to Adenauer in a typical manner. Rightly the. Germans need to pay for they killed about six million Jews. And Palestinian refugees live a poor life in camps along the borders. Therefore the Germans are responsible for them. But Adenauer rejected this stretch? In reality, Arab neighbors did not care enough to integrate their compatriots.
And Palestinian leaders as al-Husaini went along. They regarded Jews as arch enemies, never as fellow humans. A blunder. Abd an-Nasir put boycott of oil deliveries to the West and German- Arab relations on the table. This was East Berlin's hour. This was wrong though.
They laid the base of return since Talat Pasha made the "Ottoman Balfour on August 12, 8, embracing a Jewish national home there It was unknown with only a slight impact. The empires and rulers went down. It was a matter of World War One, not of Hitler. But Arafat picked it up: Palestinians are the last Nazi victims. He knew how close al-Husaini was to Hitler in Berlin. Nevertheless, he called himself "al-Husaini's man" and him "our hero. Confidentially though, the East secret service started the postal campaign "J" [Jew] to warn of the spread of Jew-hatred in the Republic of Bonn and quoted those letters by worried citizens in its own newspapers.
Middle Eastern terrorists. But Abd an-Nasir replied that he wants not to be seen as "Moscow's agent.
This is what Arafat continued and what the Islamists picked up after him like the Hamas government of Ghaza. The Middle East went along. Since Cario realized Arab Socialism. But Egypt failed in a state union with Syria even though it pushed for jailing of the left and Muslim Brothers. Red and green groups sat in the neighboring cells They traded tactics how to mobilize masses or mobs.
This was to be seen in Hamas, Hizballah and the U. With the exception of Jordan, Arabs did not do enough for Palesti- nians. Arafat, first a more secular Muslim nationalist, then an Islamist as well, invented the course of opportunity between East and the West. Mostly he lived in Kuwait. Now Abd an-Nasir wanted to get a Palestinian roof organiza- tion for all.
This way he could direct them better and reduce the danger to be dragged too early into war. The P. But she was not not to reign the West Bank nor Ghaza. Arabs wanted to block this and the of the Jewish state as well. East Berlin wanted to be recognized by a group of Arab states making any West German sanction unlikely. But he deepened the crisis between Bonn and Arabs. Ten Arab lands eut their ties to Bonn. But this vacuum remained for seven years.
East Berlin marched into ail fields, including military or security Ulbricht also invited P. Washing- ton's envoy Lucius C. Battle of Cairo reported on Ulbricht's trip. He pointed at ash-Shuqairi who mobilized the Arab League against Bonn. Syrians had approached East Berlin. This would be the key for ail the East German wishes. Bonn did not learn about this deal. It had no relations to most Arab states. But they debated not to leave Palestinians to East Berlin. Bonn had no ties to ten Arab states. It was easy to be blackmailed in the German question.
East Berlin argued that Arabs may not reestablish ties to Bonn without having the full ties to East Berlin. After it took much effort to repair ties regaining a balanced inter-German rivalry in the Middle East. Arafat's Fatah made news on January 7, So in Washington under secretary Phillips Talbot asked Israel's envoy. Avraham Harman said Fatah is opposed to P. But recently they act jointly. Algeria and Syria support Fatah. Their commandos consist of two to six men. For instance they raided farms.
Not ail belonged to the P. But the pre-war situation evolved, then the war on June 5, The Kremlin confused Arabs by reports about an eminent Israeli attack on allied Syria Washington and Moscow exchanged some notes. On both sides of Germany military units took on heightened alarm mode. In the war, Abd an-Nasir liked to join the Warsaw pact. Gone was his neutrality concept. He said to East Berlin's envoy, in reality he is a Communist Umar at-Tilimsani's Islamists, the third guide of the Muslims Brothers, had portrayed him as such 8s. Do not go down the path of dictatorship and bloodshed.
Progress is only possible by values of freedom, justice, free. Orient yourself toward the Western civiliza- tion. Keep a critical view on reality Mahfuz was only able to publish his novell after Abd an-Nasir's death in Radicals did not listen to him. Luckily, the Islamists failed to kill this senior writer by stabbing. But they indicated that they took the wrong lessons of previous defeats in and On the contrary, backed by the growing Soviet influence, the whole Middle East turned more to extremism.
Since Ulbricht had no he had also nothing to loose. Nearly a million Palestinian refugees came up. Cairo debated how to turn them into troops for the cause.
S orne suggested to change refugee camps into military units like some Israeli kibbutzim. The lawyer Yahya Hammuda lead the P. Its National Charter meant that ail U. Armed struggle, in ail of its kinds, also against civilians, be the only way. Arafat used his kinship to al-Husaini. According to his in-law Muhi ad-Din, al-Husaini paid ail the years for Fatah.
Occasionally he met Arafat also in Amman. But the main source for Arafat became the Saudi sponsors after al-Husaini introduced him into their families. Palestinians of Kuwait paid even a surcharge for Arafat's Fatah. There evolved much arbitrariness in his financial dealings ail the.
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The Islamist al-Husaini worked in the background. He was infuria- ted by two hits: Abdullah I. But he spelled his death sentence by al-Husaini who had a history of swift liquidation. Then, Abd an-Nasir put ash-Shuqairi at the P. He was much hated by al-Husaini's Islamists who found his refuge since in the Saudi areas.
So many of his relatives lived there that Americans found it hard to catch up with the members of his huge family. Since al-Husaini was still in the focus of their attention, we learn how he handed his business over to Arafat. The Islamist was over 70 years old. He promoted in Arafat his nationalistic successor who stressed this part of his identity to get his own state. But this was to be changed in favor of Islamism in case there were problems with the historical identity, or a pre-state was near. Both happened. At the turn to the s his rivais favored Islamism.