Gabriel Stecher por sus valiosos comentarios.
Números em texto integral
Su nombre significa Rebelde Amanecer en su idioma. Es una especie de Rebelde Amanecer. De hecho, como resultado de este conflicto, se recuperaron Valverde, Las primeras, esgrimidas por parte de los sectores conservadores y las segundas, fundamentalmente por parte de referentes progresistas y organizaciones sociales, junto con los pueblos originarios. In: Hoetmer, Raphael coord. Cultura, Estado y movimientos sociales. Vargas; V.
Vich; C. Mato y C. Walsh Eds. Historia de la Patagonia. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. Alteridades, Perfiles Latinoamericanos , Nacionalidade e Etnicidade em Fronteiras. In: La tierra que nos quitaron. Buenos Aires: Prometeo. In: Norma Giarracca comp. In some states where the CNTE had accumulated a considerable institutional presence, the reversal went further. In Oaxaca, hundreds of staff appointed with the influence of the CNTE were purged from the central office of the state secretary of education La Botz, The first round of exams for applicants to teaching positions began in , facing protests and blockades led by the CNTE in a handful of states, but proceeding without disruption in the vast majority of sites.
Implementation of the exam for existing teachers in met far more resistance, both organized and spontaneous. With the threat of firing for not participating, the vast majority of the selected teachers attended the evaluation centeres, but protests, technical glitches, logistical problems, and alleged sabotage occurred at such a rate as to disrupt the INEE's timetable for evaluating nearly 1. Tens of thousands of education employees had also experienced months long delays in the payment of their salaries since the SEP's payroll was uploaded to the national level Bocking, b.
It also drew international attention to the movement, particularly from teachers' unions in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Soon afterwards, a large minority of Mexico City's primary teachers, and a smaller group of secondary teachers, began short walkouts, considerably strengthening the movement which had previously lacked active participation in the nation's second largest school system Mexico City Teachers 6 and 7: Interviewed November They received moral and logistical support from the Morena party, which rallied its supporters to join teachers in a hundred thousand strong march in the capital Bocking, The fate of teachers ultimately fired for striking also remained unresolved Poy Solano, a.
The victories of the CNTE in were facilitated by, and helped strengthen the emergence of new pockets of dissident teachers in Guadalajara and in other cities and states where the movement had historically been weak Rivera et al. Due to stronger disciplinary capacities of the local SEP administration and organizational division between primary and secondary teachers among other factors, the CNTE was unable to consolidate its base with secondary teachers in Mexico City, but the movement's leadership of primary teachers in the city is still widely recognized Bocking, Her actual level of support among rank and file teachers was unclear.
Gordillo's attempted alignment was challenged by the concurrent claim of her unequivocal enemies, the leaders and activists of the CNTE, of interest in working with Lopez Obrador's government at the start of his presidency. In practice this meant supporting Morena Abott, Many activists with the CNTE personally supported Lopez Obrador's earlier attempts at the presidency in and However, it is relatively easy for the CNTE to have good relations with Morena at this juncture, as the party's experience in government effectively began in It had not yet had the opportunity to compromise on its principles.
However, immediately after clinching his election night victory, Lopez Obrador met with Mexico's most important corporate interest group, the Business Coordinating Council led by the father of the director of Mexicanos Primero and gave assurances of his interest in protecting and supporting private enterprise La Botz, Many CNTE activists were skeptical of whether Lopez Obrador's government was interested in a real rupture on education policy from his predecessors. However at the start of his presidency, a majority believed it represented an opening for the teachers' movement and their allies to hold his government to its more progressive promises, and that a new space had been created to push forward an alternative vision Escalante, ; Mexico City Teacher 7: Interviewed September ; Mexico City Labour Activist: Interviewed October Might still often makes right, as employers and corrupt unions resort to violence against labor activists, with the complicity or connivance of authorities.
Many of the facilities used by these students lacked basic infrastructure, including water, reliable electricity, and basic classroom materials Poy Solano, b. At the same time, the insecurity caused by the drug cartels escalated, in many cases embedding itself within the state, resulting in the abduction of 43 student—teachers in September from the radical Ayotzinapa Rural Teachers' College in Guerrero. The teachers' movement led by the CNTE exists as nearly the only section of organized labor in Mexico with the capacity to wage large scale, militant struggles.
Perhaps a large part of how the teachers' movement remains by far the most active and militant part of Mexico's labor movement is that in the states where it carries the most influence, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Guerrero, and Michoacan, it is closely and organically connected to these organized struggles Bellinghausen, ; Bocking, From this and its iconic role in modern Mexican history, public education, and its' teachers have great symbolic significance.
While the desire for a better future for their children is universal, and the inadequacies of the existing public education system are painfully evident, there remains a high degree of skepticism within Mexican popular culture when business and state elites citing PISA test scores, claim the best way forward is through privatization and the subordination of teachers.
Teachers in Mexico, as elsewhere, have been strongest in taking on the neoliberalization of education where they can credibly argue that the defense of their professional autonomy, as with the defeat of standardized evaluations that do not meaningfully assess teaching, is in the public interest. To draw the support of Mexico's politically active poor and working class communities, the movement must also include an alternative, humanistic, and democratic vision for the present and future of the nation's students.
P aul B ocking is a sessional lecturer in labour studies at McMaster University and geography at the University of Toronto. He recently completed his PhD in geography at York University, with a dissertation studying the impact of neoliberal education policy on teachers' professional autonomy in Mexico, the United States and Canada. Along with teachers' work, he is interested more broadly in the Mexican labour movement.
Kevin Middlebrook | UCL Institute of the Americas - UCL - London's Global University
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ENDNOTES 1 Teachers in public high schools, serving Grades 10—12, which are alternately run directly by municipal governments, especially in Mexico City, or as preparatory schools for universities, are represented by an array of independent regional unions. The CNTE argued she should also be tried for the alleged murder of union dissidents in the late s.
As one school director stated, for the many students coming from homes with domestic violence, parental separations, or lack of money for breakfast, the teacher also often has to act as a social worker Mexico City Teacher 8: Interviewed May As with other problems diagnosed by the authors, they charge that this is due to a lack of innovation or initiative on the part of teachers. In the secondary schools I visited on my fieldwork, the vast majority of classrooms were equipped simply with whiteboards.
Computers or digital projectors were rarely present. In a small library with books in a school of students , the librarian pointed out the high proportion of computers that had been out of order for a considerable period of time, due to little access to technical support from the SEP. Three teachers and a subdirector recalled earlier programs to outfit their schools with technology under the Fox government a decade earlier: the new computers worked for a time, but the SEP did not provide for their maintenance or renewal.
They were soon obsolete or inoperable Mexico City Teachers 1, 2, 4, and 6: Interviewed February Secondary level classes typically held around 40—45 students in the two Mexico City schools I observed. Virtually all teachers' strikes in Mexico are illegal, as is the case in most sectors. Following declaration of the intention to strike, a tripartite board consisting of government, business, and official i.
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Abott, Jeff How Mexican teachers unions are pushing the presidential frontrunner left. In These Times. May Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Volume 22 , Issue 1 March Pages Figures References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.
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