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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Jana Dixon. Cosmic rays are highly energetic particles that come from outside our Solar System especially from supernova remnants. Cosmic rays also come from our sun, especially through the open solar field lines of coronal holes. Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons the antiparticle of the electron particles are produced when a cosmic ray interacts with the interstellar medium.

During solar quiet not only are more galactic cosmic rays reaching the earth, but due to the coronal holes more cosmic rays are coming from our sun. These extremely rapid moving cosmic ray electrons and positrons undergo convection and deceleration as they move through the heliosphere, an area where the solar wind and magnetic field meet. The transformers blow due to the sky phenomena which lasts around 15 minutes. I noticed the radically twisted magnetotail in the SWMF-RCM occurred at the same time as influx of coronal hole wind when massive space explosions happened on the dark side of the planet which caused grid outages.

If so, we can then predict when transformer-blowing space explosions will occur by following the changes in the solar wind stream from coronal holes and the pattern of the magnetosphere tail on the Space Weather Modeling Framework SWMF - Rice Convection Model RCM before and during one of these explosive power-outage events. Now, with cosmic rays at an all time high, scientists know the Sun is about to enter a prolonged cooling period.

The Crossville, Tennessee space fireworks and power outage happened on Sunday 20th just after 3 AM then we have confirmation of an EMP in space on the dark side of the planet related to a plasma explosion in the magfield lines. What this means is that a Carrington Event from coronal hole wind is likely to occur on the night time side of the planet, rather than the day side, as there is an explosive release of pressure into the heliosphere tail. The coronal holes releasing extremely fast particles which then travel along the magnetic field likes of the heliosphere.

These powerful plasma filled magnetic field lines then break and get twisted into compressed knot causing a massive explosion in the helio-tail, larger than the entire nuclear arsenal on earth? By comparison a sunspot could release solar flares which are million times more powerful than atomic bombs. B: Shows open field lines on the sun at a coronal The building of back-pressure on the plasma torus hole which allow high speed solar wind released. When the plasma goes into the red on the night side, then pressure may build until the twist, snap, BANG occurs…as a light show and possible power outages on earth.

On the sun the escaping solar wind is known to travel along open magnetic field lines that pass through the coronal hole area. During solar minima coronal holes are the primary source of space weather disturbances. Typically, geomagnetic and proton storms originating from coronal holes have a gradual commencement over hours and are not as severe as storms caused by coronal mass ejections CMEs , which usually have a sudden violent onset.

Due to the fact coronal holes can last for several months, it is often possible to predict the recurrence of this type of disturbance significantly farther in advance than for CME related disturbances. Notice the present pole to pole coronal hole is the same one that was earth facing on Dec 15 , and Dec 27 we have the blue electrical show, with complete blue auroral lighting up of the night sky with associated power outage in New York. However it is this coronal hole which already gave us the Tennessee explosion-outage, probably because they are not metering the superfast particles from the coronal hole that arrive prior to the arrival of the solar wind.

Each supermassive coronal hole could produce a magneto-tail explosion every 27 days as the sun rotates the coronal hole into earth facing position. When we take into account the speed of the arrival of the cosmic ray storm we can predict when a magneto-tail explosion is likely to occur. I intuit the cosmic rays that create these events stream out prior to the arrival of the solar wind that is being read by the sensors.

We see here the rapid changing and twisting of the plasma sheet on the same night as the Crossville, Tennessee space fireworks and power outage. These are occurring the same evening, but not the same time stamp.

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The twisting of the magfield lines away from the magnetic alignment of the earth, may cause the whiplashing that compresses opposite charged regions of the plasma together causing enormous electrical sparks explosions in space that last for 15 minutes or more. The magnetotail will look something like this when it blows. Note the oval saucer shape to the sky explosions is a direct footprint of the shape of the plasmacoil in the middle of the heliosheet when it blows, see the first two photos in this paper.

Note there is enough energy in these space explosions to power civilization for centuries. If the earth had a tether back out into the ground zero area of the magnetotail the planet would be blown to smitherines! Also metalicizing the atmosphere with nanometals as in Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering via chemtrails is a surefire way to transfer more of this energy back down to earth to blow the electrical grid. Geoengineering is bad for the planet in so many ways The thousands of 5G satellites that comprise the Total Surveillance Control Grid require a metallicized, ionized atmosphere in order to work effectively.

Homo destructus: Spiritual IQ is reliant on Moral IQ, and without that civilization is a sand castle awaiting an incoming super tide. Then we can watch on SWMF-RCM to see if the magfield lines charge and then twist, and explode producing a power outage on the dark side of the planet. Notice we already have massive backpressure building on the dark side even before This is a pole to pole coronal hole, so it should give great experimental results. What this means is that a Carrington Event can occur not just with a solar flare, but it can also occur through a particularly intense Coronal hole that may be associated with the sun powering DOWN before Grand Solar Minimum.

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  4. But more likely it will be a massive coronal hole stream, associated with the sun powering UP after Grand Solar Minimum has passed as the sun wakes up again. I noticed that the Tennessee auroral lighting event occurred the same evening as the massive twisting of the magnetosphere tail.

    Solar fires – DC arc faults

    We can track ALL such events in future, and anticipate potential power outages on the night side of the planet during these magnetosphere twist explosive blow-back events! Indeed, sometimes large lumps of charcoal can be found within a compact black coal layer, what it needs air! But the coalification should take place under absence of air Fig.

    Also, the theory of coalification cannot explain that coal seams had built softly submarine grounds so that animals could walk over? But, because an assumed developing coalification process needs absence of air, it remains unclear why at the same time such a layer could built a submarine ground, on which animals were running around? But also, there could force no great pressure which is supposedly required for a coalification process. The pressure was almost ridiculously low, because if dinosaurs and birds could left footprints in the submarine ground, this body of water was not very deep, and the sedimentary layers overlying the coal layer were still not existent at this time or very thin!

    Continuous Creation from Electric Plasma versus Big Bang Universe

    Similarly, the required heat could hardly had evolved, because otherwise palm leaves and other plant parts would hardly have remain preserved: The only possibility is, this coal seams must have developed as low temperatures prevailed. Conclusion: As evidenced in case of footprints of dinosaurs and birds, there was no thick sedimentary layer above the coal seam at this time.

    Accordingly the required pressure and temperature conditions and the required airtightness to start a process of coalification did not exist, because hard coal could not develop in the way as conventional thought, this Cretaceous coal could not originate from organic material. Coalification did not take place! A new theory is absolutely necessary. Even as seen from a biogeographically viewpoint, the plant material to build coal deposits cannot originate from tropical forests.

    Hoch much land area this trees should had covered in order to build the basis for the formation of all known coal seams? If we assume that a hectare land area was able to produce solid cubic meters of wood. In such a wood mass, a certain amount of energy is included.

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    Therefore we can figure out which area the forests would have had to overstretch that the resulting wood mass is matching the energy contained in all known coal deposits. As expected, the result is a huge area, twice as large as the current total land area. In this calculation we have assumed that all land areas were covered with forests, and that the wood deposits in their entirety would be buried airtight and that was ruling enough pressure and sufficient heat during the coalification process. Should all these "ideal" conditions not be present, the required land area accordingly increases.

    But there will be still other controversial issues, because coal contains substances whose presence cannot be explained from a biological origin orientated perception. The fact that all coal and petroleum products contain radioactive uranium and up to four percent sulfur is not discussed. How these can occur worldwide in significant quantities in coal seams? Also why such deposits often contain a lot of methane, which would have to be degassed over the millions of years?

    Several mysterious plane crashes have occurred off the U. Only twelve minutes later the plane exploded, broke in half and crashed into the Sea, south of Long Island. All passengers and crew members died. On 2nd September , the Swissair Flight was flying from the same airport heading northbound. All passengers and 14 crew members were killed in the aircraft's collision with water. Over international waters, about kilometers south of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, the Boeing ER aircraft autopilot disconnected. The cockpit voice recorder recorded the First Officer saying "I rely on God.

    Three seconds later, the throttles for both engines were reduced to idle, and both elevators were moved three degrees nose down. The First Officer repeated "I rely on God" seven more times before the Captain is suddenly heard to ask repeatedly, "What's happening, what's happening?

    At this point, both engines were shut down by moving the start levers from run to cutoff. The Captain asked, "What is this? What is this? Notable heating is observed as the ions flow out into the exhaust from the X-region, as demonstrated in Fig. The cause of this anomalously rapid slowdown of ions, together with ion heating, is considered to be the remagnetization of the exiting ions. As the R component of reconnected magnetic field becomes stronger in the downstream region, the ion trajectories black thick line in Fig.

    A 2D fully kinetic simulation has been carried out to verify these remagnetization mechanisms and understand how ions are heated downstream Fig. VPIC is a first-principle, fully kinetic, electromagnetic PIC code that is optimized for large-scale simulations 27 , Key physical parameters for the ions such as the ion skin depth and the mean free path are matched to experimentally measured parameters.

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    In the simulations, Coulomb collisions 28 are included to study effects of collisions on the ion dynamics. We obtain good agreement between the observed ion temperature profile and numerical simulation results only with realistic collision frequencies. This shows that ions are almost fully thermalized in the exhaust with a higher temperature than the upstream value. As illustrated with the dashed line in Fig. In the completely collisionless simulation, on the other hand, the ion distribution is different from Maxwellian. Ion velocity profiles at three different locations—upstream, at the separatrix and downstream—from our PIC simulations with collisions Fig.

    When a reconnection electric field is uniformly applied over a wide region in which opposite magnetic field lines meet, such as shown in Fig. This reconnection process partitions inflowing field lines from the reconnected ones by separatrices, across which a notable potential drop strong electric field occurs, accumulating large free energy. While electrons are heated at the centre of the reconnection layer, ions are accelerated across the separatrices by the strong electric field and heated through remagnetization by the magnetic field.

    This electric field structure extends to a very broad region, much wider than the ion skin depth. Now, two important questions are raised: 1 How much energy is transported to particles; and 2 How is that energy partitioned?

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    Using an energy transport equation analogous to that adopted by Birn and Hesse 29 , we evaluate how much of the magnetic energy is converted to the kinetic energy of electrons and ions by assessing the energy inventory of the reconnection layer. The energy inventory is calculated by monitoring the flow of magnetic energy, plasma enthalpy and bulk flow energy simultaneously, while measuring the incoming and outgoing electromagnetic Poynting flux S , enthalpy flux and bulk flow flux kinetic energy flux at a fixed boundary. Figure 4 presents a measured energy inventory, which flows from the magnetic field to plasma particles.

    The outgoing Poynting flux is sizable in MRX, where two-fluid reconnection occurs because of outgoing energy associated with the Hall-field components. This difference would become significantly larger for space astrophysical plasmas with much larger S. It is important to include the components of the Hall magnetic fields in both the incoming and exhaust regions to accurately track the Poynting fluxes. As was done in the study by Birn and Hesse 29 , isotropic pressure is assumed in this calculation, which is justified in our plasma where anisotropy was only observed in a small region near the X-point.

    The magnetic energy outflow rate is divided into two components, the conventional MHD part and the Hall-field part associated with the out-of-plane magnetic field and the electrostatic in-plane field. Since the vacuum component of the magnetic field is slowly decreasing during the quasi-steady reconnection period, the first term of the LHS of equation 2 is not negligible.

    As seen in the Fig.

    In our 2. The energy deposited on the electrons becomes thermal energy and is transferred to the exhaust by heat conduction, the energy deposited on the ions is converted to thermal and flow energy with substantial conduction and convection losses. The conversion of magnetic energy in the experiment occurs across a broad region, much larger than considered before. This speed is significantly larger than the value calculated by MHD, 0.

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    This difference would become notably larger for space astrophysical plasmas with much larger S. A question arises as to whether the present results should be applied to magnetic reconnection phenomena in space, astrophysical, or fusion plasmas. Reconnection in the magnetotail is driven by external force, that is, the solar wind, and the boundary conditions are very similar to the MRX setup. Also this comparison has implications for its scaling with Lundquist number. This is consistent with the characteristics of the two-fluid plasma physics, where the classical resistivity based on electron—ion collisions does not play a major role.

    Is there a fundamental physics principle to explain these observations from driven reconnection layers despite some differences in the boundary conditions? We believe the present results represent a key step towards resolving one of the most important problems of plasma physics, how magnetic energy is transferred to plasma particles in the reconnection layer.

    Triple Langmuir probes 11 are used to measure the electron temperature and density. The density measurements are calibrated by data from a CO 2 interferometer. Local ion temperature is measured by IDSPs ref. The time and spatial resolution of the IDSPs are 5. Mach probes are used to measure the ion flow velocity due to its better spatial and temporal resolutions. To select the final data set, more than 4, discharges were scrutinized based on the reproducibility of the data from the 2D magnetic probe array and a reference Langmuir probe.

    The main criteria are the location of the X-point, the total plasma current and the density and temperature measured by a reference Langmuir probe. The data values at each measurement point are determined by averaging over 7—15 discharges. The error bars for each measurement are chosen between the standard deviation of each data set and the uncertainty in measurements, whichever is larger. The magnetic energy inflow rate is estimated by. Here e R is the unit vector along the R direction.

    The outgoing magnetic energy is obtained by integrating the divergence of the outgoing Poynting flux. The integration of the first term of the right-hand side of equation 2 indicates the decrease of the magnetic energy per unit time inside v B. Total energy converted to each species per unit time is separately computed by. To obtain change in a specific form of energy, we grouped associated terms in equation 2. The flow energy change of species is given by. We note that quantities in the inflow region are taken into account. We estimate the energy loss rate of each species by considering the electron and ion heat flux, electron energy loss by impurity radiation and ion energy loss to neutrals by charge-exchange collisions.

    How to cite this article: Yamada, M. Conversion of magnetic energy in the magnetic reconnection layer of a laboratory plasma. Parker, E. Sweet's mechanism for merging magnetic fields in conducting fluids. Priest, E. Yamada, M. Magnetic reconnection. Zweibel, E. Magnetic reconnection in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Krucker, S. Measurements of the coronal acceleration region of a solar flare. Birn, J. Geospace environmental modeling GEM magnetic reconnection challenge.

    Sonnerup, B. Magnetic Field Reconnection eds Lanzerotti L. Wygant, J. Cluster observations of an intense normal component of the electric field at a thin reconnecting current sheet in the tail and its role in the shock-like acceleration of the ion fluid into the separatrix region. Drake, J. Ion heating resulting from pickup in magnetic reconnection exhausts. Fiksel, G. Mass-dependent ion heating during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma. Yoo, J. Observation of ion acceleration and heating during collisionless reconnection in a laboratory plasma.