However, with the Book of Wisdom the Spirit comes close to being something more than a mere metaphor, just as does Wisdom, with which it is at times likened and even identified. No, Wisdom will never make its way into a crafty soul; For Wisdom is Spirit, loving to humanity philanthropon gar pneuma sophia All that is hidden, all that is plain, I have come to know, instructed by Wisdom who designed them all. For in her is Spirit, intelligent, holy unique Estin gar en aute pneuma noeron hagion As for your intention, who could have learnt it, had you not granted Wisdom and sent your Holy Spirit from above?
Even Qumran. At about the same time as the Book of Wisdom, that is, the first century B. My father does not concern himself with me. Yahweh and Sophia: Divine Consorts. Philo was an extraordinary Jewish thinker from Alexandria in Egypt. He lived before and during the first half of the first century of the Common Era, which made him a contemporary of Hillel, Jesus of Nazareth, Paul of Tarsus, and Johanan ben Zachai.
Philo had been to Jerusalem and knew the biblical tradition well, but wrote in Greek. In Philo the tradition of Lady Wisdom, Hokmah , Sophia in Greek, very much continues the ancient Goddess line that was reflected in the Hebrew Bible and reached an acme in the Book of Wisdom, analyzed just above. The process creation is represented in the following passage symbolically but quite unequivocally as procreation. The Architect who made this universe was at the same time the Father of what was thus born, whilst its mother was the Knowledge possessed by its Maker. With His Knowledge gnosis God theos had union, not as human have it, and begot created tings.
And Knowledge, having received the divine seed, when her travail was consummated, bore the only beloved son who is apprehended by the senses, the world which we see. I suggest then, that the Father of the schools, with its regular course or round of instruction The Husband of Wisdom drops the seed of happiness for the race of mortals into good and virgin soil.
Torah, Daughter of Yahweh. Feminine Wisdom and Torah Identified. Particularly after the sixth-century B.
Health & Biology | The Office of the Gender and Women's Studies Librarian
Perhaps the earliest personification of the feminine Torah occurred in Ben Sira, or Ecclesiasticus B. I came forth from the mouth of the Most High From eternity, in the beginning, he created me. All this is no other than the book of the covenant of the Most High God,. Ben Sira , 9, Feminine Wisdom and Torah Identified by Rabbis. The rabbis continued and intensified this identification of the feminine quasi-divine Torah with the feminine divine Hokmah. Hoseia the Elder [c. The Torah says: I am the instrument of God Likewise God looked at the Torah [as a blueprint] and thus made the world.
Simeon b. Laquish [c. Feminine Torah Pre-Existent. The following are a few other such examples. Seven things were made before the world was made, namely, the Torah, repentance, the garden of Eden, Gehenna, the throne of glory, the Holy, and the name of the Messiah. Talmud bPesachirn 54a. Midrash Psalm 90, 3, 12 [Buber a]. The rabbis developed the feminine personification of Torah further than by identifying her with the feminine divine Hokmah and combining the feminine gender of the word with the literary hypostatization of it. They also had God speak of Torah as his daughter, again giving her a divine character.
Whoever recites a verse of the Song of Songs and thereby makes it into a sort of secular song My daughter, that is, the Torah. Thus, beginning at least two hundred years before the Common Era, there was a movement in the Hebraic-Judaic tradition to personify the feminine Torah and give her a quasi-divine or divine character, which movement intensified on into the rabbinic period during the Common, or Christian, Era. The Shekhinah , Rabbis, and a Feminine Divinity. It was first used in the Targums translations or paraphrases of the Bible from around the first century C.
It also appeared frequently in the early rabbinic writings, but did not take on the quality of the feminine dimension of God until the Middle Ages in the writings of the Jewish mystics, the Kabbalists. The foremost scholar of Jewish mysticism, Gershom Scholem, writes:. In all the numerous references to the Shekhinah in the Talmud and Midrashim Nevertheless, there were some rabbinic references to the motherlike equalities of God in the early rabbinic materials.
For example, Shemuel bar Nahman, a rabbi of the late third and early fourth century C. The Feminine God in Jewish Mysticism. Although the feminine dimension of God does not become pronounced in Jewish mysticism until the Middle Ages, and hence is beyond the chronological scope of this book, because the trajectory of the feminine in the divine began before the Hebrew tradition, continued through the Hebrew Bible, the Apocrypha, and Philo, and then faded from view, only to reappear in the medieval Kabbala, a very few examples from the Kabbala will be provided.
But first a word about the importance of the Shekhinah as the feminine element in God from Gershom Scholem. The introduction of this idea was one of the most important and lasting innovations of Kabbalism. The fact that it obtained recognition in spite of the obvious difficulty of reconciling it with the conception of the absolute Unity of God, and that no other element of Kabbalism won such a deep degree of popular approval, is proof that it responded to a deep-seated religious need.
Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism , p. God the Mother and Father. There are many passages in kabbalistic writings, particularly the most celebrated of them, the thirteenth-century Zohar, in which the feminine and masculine dimensions of God are expressed most explicitly.
The language sounds very much like that of the ancient Gods and Goddesses, of Proverbs, Hokmah, the developed Sophia language of the Book of Wisdom and Philo, and that of the Christian Gnostics, to be discussed below. However, doubtless, as with the Christian belief in a Trinity, the Jewish kabbalistic teachings about the Mother other terms are also used and the Father in God also presumes monotheism. What is of note here is that the female and the male dimensions are both seen as essential elements in divinity. Never does the inclination of the Father and the Mother toward each other cease.
They always go out together and dwell together. They never separate and never leave each other. They are together in complete union. And they find complete satisfaction incomplete union. Also, many are the kabbalistic passages that speak not only of the Mother and Father God, but also the Son and Daughter sometimes called Matronit God. The Supernal H [i.
And when the W emerged, his female mate [the Daughter, represented by the second H in the Tetragrammaton] emerged with him. Zohar III. Union with the Feminine Divinity. The goal of mysticism is the union of the human with the divine. Since in the Jewish mystical tradition the Divinity, insofar as it relates to creation, is known as the female Shekhinah , it is with her that the Jewish mystic strives for union. This of course simply continues the ancient Hebrew tradition of Hokmah being God vis-a-vis creation, with whom union was avidly sought by human beings.
Moses had intercourse shimesh while he was in the body of the moon. The Shekhinah and a Female Messiah. In the seventeenth century one offshoot of Jewish mysticism, Sabbatianism, developed a trinitarian notion of God, including the Shekhinah, who had a corresponding female Messiah. From this original dualism some Sabbatians developed a Trinity of the unknown God, the God of Israel and the Shekhinah, and it did not take long for the idea to develop that the completion of Salvation is dependent upon the appearance of a Messiah for each of these three aspects of Trinity, with a female Messiah for the last!
Kabbala Nevertheless Fundamentally Masculine.
The Problematic Nature of Defining Grendel’s Mother in "Beowulf"
Despite the projection of a feminine dimension in the Divinity by Jewish mysticism, two counterpuntal elements should be noted: one, the female represents not the tender but the stern; two, like most of the rest of Judaism, Kabbalism is by and for men. It is of the essence of Kabbalistic symbolism that woman represents not, as one might be tempted to expect, the quality of tenderness but that of stern judgment Both historically and metaphysically it is a masculine doctrine, made for men and by men.
The long history of Jewish mysticism shows no trace of feminine influence. There have been no women Kabbalists; Rabia of early Islamic mysticism, Mechthild of Magdeburg, Juliana of Norwich, Theresa de Jesus, and the many other feminine representatives of Christian mysticism have no counterparts in the history of Kabbalism. As noted above, the Hebrew word for Spirit of God, Ruach , is also feminine. However, the Greek word for Spirit, Pneuma , is not feminine, but neuter.
Nevertheless, in the Book of Wisdom the two, Wisdom and Spirit, are identified. Because the tradition of Wisdom as feminine was so strong, plus the fact that Spirit is also feminine in Hebrew, though neuter in Greek, the identification of the Spirit of God with Lady Wisdom has at times in the Christian tradition led to the imaging of the Holy Spirit as feminine. A few examples follow. Holy Spirit the Mother of Jesus - I. In the second-century Coptic-language apocryphal Epistle of James see below, pp.
The risen Christ says to James and the other disciples:. You are chosen, you are like the Son of the Holy Spirit. Vigiliae Christianae , Vol. Another motherly image of the Holy Spirit is found in the apocryphal Gospel to the Hebrews, written around A. And it came to pass when the Lord [Jesus at his baptism in the Jordan River] came up out of the water, the whole fount of the Holy Spirit descended upon him and rested on him and said to him: My son Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher, eds.
Even so did my mother, the Holy Spirit, take me by one of my hairs and carry me away onto the great mountain Thabor. In the third-century Gnostic Christian apocryphal Gospel of Philip the Holy Spirit of God is at one place assumed to be a woman, as is clear from the quotation below referring to the Matthean and Lukan claims of the virginal conception of Jesus. They do not know what they are saying. When did a woman ever conceive by a woman? Mary is the virgin Robinson et al.
The Acts of Thomas, an early third-century Gnostic Christian apocryphal writing, contains several lengthy prayers and one brief one, which address or refer to the Holy Spirit in feminine imagery. The three lengthy prayers are all epicleses , that is, prayers calling on the Holy Spirit to descend upon the liturgical matter, usually the bread and wine used in the celebration of the Eucharist. The first orthodox text of one is from Hippolytus in the early third century, contemporaneous with the Acts of Thomas.
In the latter, two of the epicleses are invocations of the Holy Spirit at a Eucharist, but one is connected with Confirmation, which is also customary in orthodox Catholic Christianity. And the apostle took the oil and pouring it on their heads anointed and chrismed them, and began to say:. Come, holy name of Christ that is above every name;. Come, power of the Most High and perfect compassion;.
Come, thou highest gift;. Come, compassionate mother;. Come, fellowship of the male;. Come, thou fem. Come, mother of the seven houses, that thy rest may be in the eighth house;. Come, elder of the five members, understanding, thought, prudence, consideration, reasoning,.
- A Nice Place to Visit.
- In Teddys Arms?
- Aspects of Life?
- Auto Insurance Tips: Buying A New Car? Find Out About Insurance First.
Communicate with these young men! Come, Holy Spirit, and purify their reins and their heart. And give them the added seal in the name of the Father and Son and Holy Spirit. And spreading a linen cloth, he set upon it the bread of blessing. Come, gift of the Most High;.
Come, perfect compassion;. Come, Holy Spirit;. Come, thou that dost know the mysteries of the Chosen;. Come, thou that bast part in all the combats of the noble Athlete;. Come, treasure of glory;. Come, darling of the compassion of the Most High;. Come, silence. That dost reveal the great deeds of the whole greatness;. And make the ineffable manifest;. Holy Dove. That bearest the twin young;. Come, hidden Mother; Come, thou that art manifest in thy deeds and dost furnish joy. And rest for all that are joined with thee;. Come and partake with us in this Eucharist.
Which we celebrate in thy name,. And in the love-feast. In which we are gathered together at thy call. And when he had said this, he marked the Cross upon the bread and broke it, and began to distribute it. The Deaconess a Type of the Holy Spirit. In the third-century A. Then woman, a deaconess, is likened to the Holy Spirit. And the deaconess shall be honored by you as a type of the Holy Spirit. Didascalia The Holy Spirit, Mother of Humanity.
A man who is yet unmarried loves and honors God his father and the Holy Spirit his mother. Mt ; Mk ; Jn Of course, in Christian tradition the Holy Spirit is also said to be the spirit of love, so that the two currents of meaning flow together. But it is also particularly interesting to note that the dove is also a very ancient symbol for the Goddess of Love, which of course fits perfectly well with the Hebrew Bible symbol of love and the Christian carry-over of the feminine Wisdom traditions to the Holy Spirit, who is also the Spirit of Love, and thus also the Christian continuance of the Goddess of Love, the Mater Magna , the "Great Mother.
However, since the most ancient times the dove is the holy animal not only of the Cyprian Aphrodite, but also of almost all the Goddesses of Fertility and Love of the Near East. Already in neolithic times the "Great Mother" who was venerated in Crete was represented with dove and lily. However, as also with the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus, the dove was always holy to them.
Often they themselves appeared winged, like a great dove brooding over the world, as in Knossos and Mycenae, in Sicily and Carthage, on the Euphrates and on Cyprus, and even in India. Doves were culticly protected; great towers were built for them in which they could nest; they were called columbaria columba is the Latin word for dove. Columbaria , dove houses, were also known in ancient Rome, however, as grave chambers with niches for urns. The dove is the only symbol for the Holy Spirit that is permitted by the Church.
Thus the figure of the dove in the cupolas or over the high altars of Diessen, Dietramszell, Etta], Ottobeuren, Vierzehnheiligen, Weingarten, and the Wieskirche also point to the "Great Mother" just as much as do the fact that the cathedrals of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, Kiev, and many other Orthodox cities are consecrated to heavenly Wisdom, which is presented in feminine form. Feminine Holy Spirit in Church Art.
Books with a similar title
Let two visible examples indicate that this Christian tradition of depicting the Holy Spirit as feminine continued on into the Middle Ages even in the West. One is a small twelfth-century Catholic church in the tiny village of Urschalling near Prien am Chiemsee, southeast of Munich, which has a fourteenth-century fresco depicting the Holy Trinity.
It has three human forms for the upper half of the body and the lower half wrapped in a single cloak so that there would appear to be one body below.
One of the upper figures is an old man with a white beard, one is a young man with a dark beard, and in the middle is a woman-Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Again there is a man with a white beard, the Father; a man with a dark beard, the Son; and a woman, the Holy Spirit. The sculpture is in the early fifteenth-century parish church of Eggenfelden in Bavaria. The Gifts of the Holy Spirit. In Christian theology the identification of the feminine Hebraic spirit, Ruach , with the third person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit, is reflected in the association of the words of Is with the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit: counsel, piety, fortitude, fear of the Lord knowledge, understanding, wisdom see Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae , I.
But a shoot shall sprout from the stump of Jesse,. The spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him:. A spirit of counsel and of strength,. The Wisdom and the Word of God Paralleled. It should also be noted that in the Christian tradition the texts concerning the feminine Wisdom in the Hebraic-Judaic tradition are at times associated with the feminine Spirit, as discussed, and also at times with the Word or Logos masculine in Greek of God, which in the Gospel of John is identified with both God and Jesus as the Word incarnate.
Already in the pre-Christian period a near-identification of Word and Wisdom is made in Hebraic-Judaic poetry a statement is balanced with the same thought in synonymous terms :. God of our ancestors, Lord of mercy,. In the deutero-Pauline epistle to the Colossians there is a primitive Christian hymn Col which speaks of Jesus in terms very like those of the feminine Wisdom of God, e.
Prov and Ben Sira The Catholic scholar Elizabeth Schuessler Fiorenza carried the analysis a step further when she concluded that not only was Jesus identified with the Logos , Word of God, and substituted in place of feminine Sophia in the several New Testament Christological hymns, but because the source of Sophia was the goddess Isis see p.
Isis virtually took the place of all the other gods and goddesses and she claimed that their names and functions were only names and various titles and functions of her own. Like Isis, Jesus Christ is in the hymn Phil. In this milieu where the hymns and aretologies of Isis are found, the Christian community conceives hymns in praise of Jesus Christ as the preexistent. Wilken, ed. Sophia Christology. In analyzing the Gospel of Matthew, James M.
Robinson found that already in the Q materials putative pre-Matthew and Luke sayings of Jesus-see below, pp. The thanksgiving that in Q culminated in the identification of Jesus with Sophia follows immediately in Matthew, who appends further wisdom material which, like the culmination of that Q section, is applicable to Jesus only because he is Sophia incarnate :.
Come to me all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me; for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. Judaism had already identified Sophia with the Torah, by affirming that Sophia, so often rejected by men and having no permanent abode on earth, had come to reside in the Torah Ecclus. It is to himself as preexistent Sophia that he refers in saying a few verses later Matt. By this time, i.
In Justin Dialogue Origen A. Thus if we collect the titles of Jesus, the question arises which of them were conferred on him late, and would never have assumed such importance if the saints had begun and had also persevered in blessedness. Perhaps Wisdom would be the only remaining one Origen, Commentary on John 1. Thus, the feminine divine Wisdom of the Hebraic-Judaic tradition bifurcated in the Christian tradition, partly retaining the usual Hebraic association with the feminine divine Spirit Ruach by identification with the Holy Spirit at times also feminine in Christian tradition , and partly shifting to the rare Judaic association with the masculine Word, Logos , of God.
The results were, then, that in Christian tradition one person of the Holy Trinity, the Holy Spirit, is identified with the feminine divine Wisdom and is at times described in feminine imagery, and a second person of the Trinity, the Word, is also identified with the feminine divine Wisdom, but is only rarely described in feminine imagery, as in the following examples.
Anselm of Canterbury. The great eleventh-century Western Christian theologian Anselm of Canterbury composed the following prayer:. But thou also Jesus, good Lord, art thou not also Mother? Truly, Lord, thou art also Mother. For what others have labored with and brought forth, they have received from thee.
Thou first, for their sake and for. Thou, therefore, soul, dead of thyself, run under the wings of Jesus thy Mother and bewail under her feathers thy afflictions. Beg that she heal thy wounds, and that healed, she may restore thee to life. Mother Christ, who gatherest thy chicks under thy wings this dead chick of thine puts himself under thy wing. Migne, Patrologia Latina , Vol.
Dame Julian of Norwich. And thus is Jesus our true Mother in kind [nature] of our first making; and he is our true Mother in grace by his taking of our made kind. All the fair working and all the sweet kindly offices of most dear Motherhood are appropriated to the second Person. Gregory Palamas. The fourteenth-century Greek Orthodox mystic-theologian Gregory Palamas wrote in the same vein:.
Gregory Palamas, quoted in George H. Tavard Woman in Christian Tradition , p. An Androgynous God in Catholic Christianity. For what is more essential to God than the mystery of love? Look then into the womb kolpon of the Father. Which alone has brought forth the only-begotten Son of Cod. God is love,. And for love of us has become woman ethelynthe. The ineffable being of the Father has out of compassion with us become mother. By loving the Father has become woman Agapesas ho Pater ethelynthe.
Migne, Patrologia Graeca , Vol. Because it was only late in the fourth century that the canon of the New Testament was finally fixed as we now have it, many of the writings that are now called apocryphal were for centuries widely accepted and used by Christian churches.
Hence, it would be anachronistic to exclude all of them from consideration in matters concerning early Christianity. Still, caution must be exercised in their use , for usually, to a much greater extent than most of the canonical New Testament writings, most of the apocryphal New Testament writings have very little historical basis-the childhood stories about Jesus, for example, are largely legendary fiction.
However, these apocryphal writings are first-class sources for informing us about what many early Christians thought and believed and how they lived: e. Much, though by no means all, of the Christian writing of these early centuries came under the influence of the broad cultural movement called Gnosticism. Gnosticism, as its name indicated gnosis -knowledge , taught that salvation was to be attained by means of a secret knowledge lying below the surface of texts, symbols, and events.
Further, Gnosticism tended to be strongly dualistic in its conception of reality all reality is ultimately made up of two elements: matter, which is evil, and spirit, which is good. In line with that conception it also tended to be very ascetical and anti-sex. Also, partly because of its dualism the masculine and feminine elements were sometimes projected into its conceptualizations of the divinity. Of course there were also other causes of such male-female conceptualizations e.
With such cautions in mind we can proceed. The Triune Thought of God. The Word was the true light that enlightens every human being [ anthropon ]; and he was coming into the world Jn 1: 1, 9. I am Protennoia, the Thought that dwells in the Light. I am the movement that dwells in the All, she in whom the All takes its stand, the first-born among those who came to be, she who exists before the All.
She Protennoia is called by three names, although she exists alone, since she is perfect. I am invisible within the Thought of the Invisible One. I am revealed in the immeasurable, ineffable things. I am intangible, dwelling in the intangible. I move in every creature I am the Invisible One within the All.
It is I who counsel those who are bidden, since I know the All that exists in it. I am numberless beyond everyone. I am immeasurable, ineffable, yet whenever I wish, I shall reveal myself. I am the movement of the All. I exist before the All, and I am the All, since I exist before everyone I am a single one fem. I am the Mother of the Voice [which is another name for the Father!
It is in me that knowledge dwells, the knowledge of things everlasting. It is I who speak within every creature and I was known by the All. It is I who lift up the Sound [another name for the Mother] of the Voice to the cars of those who have known me, that is, the Sons of Light. Now I have come the second time in the likeness of a female and have spoken with them.
Trimorphic Protennoia , Nag Hammadi Library , pp. Mother, Father, Son God -I. However, there is a certain unclarity because of a language difficulty. The document was originally composed in Greek and was subsequently translated into Coptic Egyptian. Unfortunately the Greek is lost and the Coptic is obviously not always a precise rendering of the original, leaving us with certain unclarities.
Nevertheless, it is sure that the divinity was conceived of as threefold, as Mother, Father, and Son, although it is not clear whether or which, the Father or the Mother, is prior. But perhaps such ambiguity is deliberate. In any case, the feminine, maternal dimension is there at the heart of divinity, as well as the masculine and paternal. He [the Son] gave Aeons for the Father of all Aeons, who is 1, the Thought of the Father, for Protennoia, that is, Barbelo [a name often given to the feminine dimension in these Gnostic documents], the perfect Glory and the immeasurable Invisible One who is bidden.
Then the Perfect Son revealed himself to his Aeons He is! The Son of God! In the somewhat earlier before A. I am the one who is with you forever. It is he who exists as God and Father of everything, the invisible one who is above everything, who is imperishability, existing as pure light which no eye can behold. He is the invisible Spirit This is the first power which was before all of them and which came forth from his mind, that is the Pronoia of the All.
Her light is the likeness of the light, the perfect power which is the image of the invisible, virginal Spirit who is perfect. The first power, the glory, Barbelo, the perfect glory in the aeons, the glory of the revelation, she glorified the virginal Spirit and praised him, because thanks to him she had come forth. This is the first thought, his image; she became the womb of everything for she is prior to them all. Apocryphon of John, Nag Hammadi Library , pp. A third Gnostic Christian document, the Coptic writing called the Gospel of the Egyptians, apparently written somewhat after the above-cited Apocryphon of John, also speaks of a triune God, Father, Mother, and Son.
First it is the great silent unknown Father which is the source of the three powers, the Mother, Son, and Father [the Father being an active force, in this usage]. Three powers came forth from him; they are the Father, the Mother and the Son, from the living silence, what came forth from the Incorruptible Father. These came forth from the silence of the unknown Father The first ogdoad The second ogdoad-power, the Mother, the virginal Barbelon The third ogdoad-power, the Son of the silent silence, and the crown of the silent silence, and the glory of the Father, and the virtue of the Mother.
Gospel of the Egyptians, Nag Hammadi Library , p. Though Gnosticism was vigorously attacked by catholic Christianity and most of the Gnostic writings were burned, along with as many of the apocryphal writings as could be confiscated, the idea of Motherhood in a triune God either persisted or reappeared in medieval Western Christianity as also in medieval Judaism, i. There is here obviously no subordination of Motherhood to the other properties of God. I beheld the working of all the blessed Trinity. In which beholding I saw and understood these three properties: the property of Fatherhood, and the property of Motherhood, and the property of the Lordship-in one God.
I saw and understood that the high might of the Trinity is our Father, and the deep wisdom of the Trinity is our Mother, and the great love of the Trinity is our Lord. Even most of the Gnostic Christian material quoted in the pages just above speaks of the Mother and the Father in the divine separately. Apocryphon of John, Nag Hammadi Library , p. I am androgynous. I am both Mother and Father since I [make love] with myself.
I [make love] with myself and with those who love me, and it is through me alone that the All stands firm. I am the Womb that gives shape to the All by giving birth to the Light that shines in splendor. I am the Aeon to come. I am the fulfillment of the All, that is, Meirothea, the glory of the Mother. Trimorphic Protennoia, Nag Hammadi Library , pp. Another second-century Gnostic Christian document, also originally written in Greek but this time available only in a Syriac translation, the Odes of Solomon, also speaks of the divinity in androgynous terms.
However, they are different from those previously cited. Second, the androgyny appears when the Father is said to have milk-filled breasts! A cup of milk was offered to me;.
Shop by category
And I drank it in the sweetness of the delight of the Lord. The Son is the cup. And He who is milked is the Father;. And He who milked Him is the Holy Spirit. Because His breasts were full;. And it was not desirable that His milk should be spilt to no purpose. And the Holy Spirit opened His [literally Her] bosom.
And mingled the milk of the two breasts of the Father,. And gave the mixture to the world without their knowing:. And they who take it are in the fullness of the right hand.
Harris and A. Mingana, eds. Summary: Feminine Imagery of God. Brief summary note should be taken here of the extraordinary contact, and even conflation, in the orthodox Jewish and Christian writings, to say nothing of those outside the mainline traditions, of several of the divine personifications that have been discussed. Mention has already been made of the identification between Hokmah and Ruach both feminine , Hokmah and Torah both feminine , and Hokmah-Sophia and Logos feminine and masculine. This happens in the Hebrew Bible, e. In the Christian tradition there is also a kind of identification that takes place between Logos and Torah.
Besides these co-identifications in the strictly orthodox Jewish and Christian writings, there are the further manifold conflations of the Mother, Father, Son, Spirit, Light, Voice, Thought or Logos cited above from the Gnostic Christian writings. Furthermore, writing of the Jew Philo, Samuel Sandmel said:. The Divine Logos was a synthesis of these earlier ideas, and were brought together into an amalgam. Samuel Sandmel, Judaism and Christian Beginnings , p. Something similar was said of Saadia, one of the important kabbalists, by Gershom Scholem:.
In Hebrew literature there are at least two traditions about the nature of woman. One, in attempting to describe what the original state of humanity-before the Fall-must have been like, is positive and depicts woman as the equal of man, if indeed not the perfection of humanity. The second tradition, attempting initially to explain the actual subordinate condition of women in society-after the Fall-is negative and describes woman as inferior to man because of disobedience.
God Created Humanity: Genesis 1. There are two accounts of the creation of humanity in the book of Genesis.
- Wesenszüge der Musik im antiken griechischen Drama (German Edition).
- Country Profile of Algeria.
- Vie et mort de Ludovico Lauter (Du monde entier) (French Edition)!
- Health & Biology.
- Deadly Choices?
The later account, composed by the Priestly writer 1 , is completely egalitarian in its description of human creation. God is described as creating humanity immediately in its dual sexual form; there is no priority or inferiority expressed or implied. Eckard Bolsinger. Aaron Levenstein. William J. Arjun Sengupta. Susan Cardinale. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter.
Popular Features. New Releases. Product details Format Hardback pages Dimensions Other books in this series. Add to basket. Beyond the Secular Mind Paul Eidelberg. Cities of Gods Nigel Biggar. Flash Point Michael D. Carr The Hague: Mouton Publishers, pp. Robert E. Bjork and ohn D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska P, p.
G H Giulia Hatton Author. Add to cart. Emphasis my own. Sign in to write a comment. Read the ebook. Anglistik - Literatur Beowulf - Quellen und Analogien.