Catalina, si es que era su nombre, y su familia. Todas ordenadas y atadas con un lazo rosa. Arriba, en el trastero, todo sigue lleno de recuerdos. Cajas con ropa vieja, muebles por restaurar La foto del rodaje de mi primer corto. Una rana que hice en el Ahora es verano. Voy a pintar las paredes de color pastel. O de siglos. De milenios Mientras rasgo el papel pintado he pensado en unos versos de Jaime Gil de Biedma.
Don Pedro was my great grandfather. He and his family lived in a house in the upper part of town and here he kept animals, although it is now a home. On one of the stones in the arch at the entrance, there is an inscription. My mother strongly suspects that this is an Iberian inscription. It could be because, in Horta, remains of an Iberian settlement have been found. Who knows? The stables were right here, in what is now the living room of the house. In the s, the women in the family — my grandmother, my mother and my aunt — took responsibility for transforming them into a home.
The house is brimming with reminders of almost four past generations. These people here, for example, starting from the right, are my grandfather, my grandmother and my great great grandmother. I asked my mother what my great grandfather was called. His name was Enrique. He was a painter and this is a self-portrait. The other two are also his works. But my mother does not remember the name of my great great grandmother. She thinks it's Catalina, but would have to check. In this house, my mother saves everything. Some of these mementos are very precious to us, such as this photo of my grandmother playing the harp, or this one from when an article about her was published in the newspaper.
She was a harp-player and was going to record an album; but war broke out. My mother framed the newspaper article so this memory can never be lost. She also keeps drawers full of photos. My favorite is definitely this one. They are my great grandparents: Catalina, if that was her name, and her family.
We will never know what happened, and the photo, if it is kept in good condition, will long continue to be an anecdote for which no explanation will ever be possible. Another memento that my mother has saved is this: these are the cards that my grandmother wrote to my grandfather while they were living apart. He never responded to any one of these letters. However, he stored them like this, ever so delicately: all neatly ordered and tied together with a pink bow. Up in the attic, mementos are everywhere you look: boxes of old clothing, furniture in need of restoration and… Los Tininos.
Los Tininos are the pictures that my aunt Tinina painted when she was about my age. It was my father who affectionately dubbed them as such before taking them down from the walls and carrying them up to the attic. This is a bust of my aunt Tinina which was produced by a well-known sculptor from the village.
My aunt lived in Madrid, but spent long periods here. Her influence can still be felt in the house. Besides Los Tininos, her collection of ceramic dogs still remains. Now it's summer. I am taking advantage of the break to renovate my room. The wallpaper my mother put up 40 years ago when she was my age. I'm going to paint the walls in shades of pastel. I do not know what the future holds for us in the coming few years; or decades; or centuries; millennia even Translation - English The facility contains an automated product-dispensing system whereby each wash-cycle is securely controlled via the internet.
The control system allows us to evaluate optimum wash-program settings based on cost, productivity, clothing type, and different wash-loads kgs. Y los extras fueron contratados entre los habitantes de los pueblos y entre diversos grupos de teatro de Zaragoza. Una vez que Paco se hace adulto, sus intenciones de mejorar la vida de aquellos que viven en las cuevas es manifiesta. El inicio de toda vida comienza con el bautismo. En este momento, el filme nos presenta a los personajes principales de esta historia.
Esto es tomado de una manera muy seria por Paco. Aquel lugar conmociona al joven Paco, pues las condiciones de vida son miserables. El anciano yace en una especie de lecho de tablas primitivo. Nadie puede hacer nada, solo su ingenuidad infantil que ve esta injusticia social es capaz de querer actuar. Mateo Laguna Esteve, Fernando…. Ha elegido a gente baja, sin cultura ni principios. Me niego. Su actitud es reacia a aceptar el cambio. Lo que revela, ya, una postura contraria y negativa.
Porque temen lo que pueda suceder le piden que hable con Paco. Y Valeriano se ve en el deber de irse del pueblo ante tales hechos. El filme, construido en base a esta mirada, nada casual, hacia el pasado, contiene significativos flashback que acaban siempre retornando al momento presente de la historia. Contrariado, se queda un segundo pensativo hasta que se escucha un relincho.
Y se acaba por sentar, con gesto derrotado, en una silla de mimbre. El pueblo ha recuperado la paz social a cambio de tener que renegar de su conciencia. El caballo blanco de Paco pasea en una plaza desierta. En esto soy como mi difunto padre —dice con una sonrisa- En cuanto a la misa, yo la pago, salvo mejor parecer.
Tiene los ojos enrojecidos. El dolor le consume. La pena. Cierra los ojos y vuelven los recuerdos. Otro hombre llama a la puerta. No he visto como quien dice un alma en la iglesia. Con los debidos respetos yo quisiera pagar la misa para Paco. Los hombres se miran pero no dicen nada. Entra el monaguillo.
Monaguillo: Hay un caballo en la iglesia. Valeriano: Esto ha sido una maula, una malquerencia. Seguro que ha sido ella. Me temo que esto sea un sacrilegio.
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Finalmente, abren la puerta y lo dejan salir. El caballo otra vez libre, echa a trotar. Hay ejemplos de sacerdotes que se implicaron en defender y salvaguardar vidas y no todos los falangistas cometieron actos terribles. Su actitud en la violencia no es participativa, ni mucho menos, sino resignada, pues no le queda otro remedio. Hablemos, por tanto, de estos denunciantes como son los personajes secundarios de Valeriano y Gumersindo, de los que podemos calibrar mejor la responsabilidad de cada uno en el drama. Eso no le ha impedido a Valeriano justificar el asesinato de un ser humano.
Sus actitudes, en todo caso, temerosas e infantiles a lo largo del filme, establecen su naturaleza recelosa y poco evolucionada. La ausencia del pueblo entero es representativa. Claro que el filme nos viene a indicar que quienes no olvidan estos hechos son las gentes del pueblo. En sus virtudes radica el valor del retrato social que realiza. Aspecto que, hemos de estimar, no se concretan en el filme. No adquiere rasgos concretos ni reales.
El pueblo, gestualmente, les da la espalda. Cultura y vida cotidiana. Bernecker, W. Memorias divididas. Madrid: Abada Editoria S. Casanova, J. La Iglesia de Franco. Madrid: Temas de Hoy. Madrid: Siglo XXI. Casanova Nuez, E. Teruel: Instituto de Estudios Turolenses. Castillo-Puche, J. Ya, 14 de septiembre de Cervera, J.
La guerra que el cine nos cuenta.
La verdadera economía del compartir: inaugurando una era del corazón
Togores Coords. Cifuentes Chueca, J. In VV. Cenarro, A. Cruzados y camisas azules. Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza. Cominges, J.
David López | A PHILOSOPHY BLOG/UN BLOG DE FILOSOFÍA
Cruz, R. En el nombre del pueblo. Del Rey, F. Paisanos en lucha. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva. Faro Forteza, A. Fentress, J. Memoria social. El contexto de la religiosidad popular. Coords , La religiosidad popular pp. Barcelona: Anthropos. El triunfo del golpe militar: el terror en la zona ocupada. Espinosa Ed. Guarner, J. La Vanguardia, 30 de septiembre de Gubern, R. Hueso, A. El cine y el siglo XX.
Barcelona: Ariel Historia. Llorens, A. Valencia: Filmoteca de la Generalitat Valenciana. Malefakis, E. Barcelona: Ariel. Monterde, J. Mora, R. Ledesma, J. Violencia Roja y Azul. Ortega, J. Payne, S. Madrid: Alianza. Preston, P. Reig Tapia, A. Egido Ed. Hoja del lunes, 29 de septiembre de Richards, M. Godicheau Eds. Guerra Civil. Mito y Memoria. Madrid: Marcial Pons. La Vanguardia, 14 de septiembre de RUIZ, J. Sender, J. Barcelona: Destino.
Barcelona: Planeta. Barcelona: Ediciones Flor del Viento. Vanoye, F. Madrid: Abada editores. The way it shows the past is enormously significant because it demonstrates the way in which a society sees and represents itself. Obviously, it is important to note the relevance that the peasant problem had throughout the entire first third of the twentieth century until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
This film studies the life of Paco, a man who decides to give help to the most disadvantaged; it takes us up close to a fictitious rural society that undergoes a series of changes after the establishment of the Second Republic, as well as the way in which resultant social tensions are eventually resolved — culminating in a bloody feud.
Introduction The past becomes a constant source of collective learning; this fact goes a long way in explaining just how important fictional cinema is when approaching the study of history. However, we should not ignore the fact that the context in which the shooting of the film occurred is also of significance when assessing its meaning and intentions.
Also, he wished to commemorate the consolidation of a democratic regime brought about by the election of the first socialist government after the termination of the Second Spanish Republic Likewise, the film has never ceased to serve as a metaphor for social injustice and the loss of thousands of lives; these themes are symbolically represented through the character of the peasant after the triumph of the reactionary forces. Thus, in the words of Gubern, it was his "unprecedented vision of the Franquista repression which aroused such great interest" Gubern, , p.
In this way, the image converts the past into the present.
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The film was shot in the towns of and Envid and Codees, not far from Calatayud. The extras were the inhabitants of local towns and villages and from various theater groups in Zaragoza. Its budget was a hundred million pesetas and the film was funded, in part, by the Spanish Ministry of Culture and by local government in Zaragoza. Mosen Millan recalls the years up until the time when a requiem for Paco is to be held: Paco was put to death by firing squad following the triumph of the rebel forces and condemned for his commitment to the defense of improving the conditions of rural peasant life.
He assists the priest in his religious duties and visits to dying parishioners, as well as the religious festivals celebrated in this small rural settlement. Once Paco becomes an adult, his intention to improve the lives of those living in the caves becomes manifest and this project is helped by the establishment of the Second Republic.
However, the military uprising shatters this hopeful outlook and means that the people of the town are forced to contend with Falangists who have come to clean up. However, once arrested, he will nevertheless be killed. A portrait of Spanish peasant society At the beginning of the twentieth century, Spain underwent a process of secularization, accompanied by a drive for modernization — slower than in the rest of Europe — which began to take place in the big cities such as Madrid and Barcelona and in other regions of Catalonia, Asturias and the Basque Country.
However, despite these significant socio-economic changes, Spanish society, for the most part, depended on and subsisted by means of farming and agricultural activity. Ever since the Restoration, the Spanish political system had been cementing the foundations of a Liberal-Conservative system which had allowed the despotism of caciques to take root. Therefore, the lukewarm reforms that were intended to have been brought to bear in the countryside had been held up or utterly canceled out due to the impossibility of altering land-tenure, of promoting agriculture, or of improving the working and living conditions of the peasantry Payne, , p.
This artistic spirit is sharply reflected in the film. Overall, the adaptation of the novel is almost exactly the same as the rather filmic text, except in some small details. Moreover, although the film has a more complex structure, the use of flashbacks allows us to view the facts and events retrospectively an element absent in the novel.
This study will guide us chronologically, highlighting the most significant aspects of rural peasant life and the conflicts generated within it. The film kicks off with a baptism. At this point, the film introduces us to the main characters in the story. In front of him, next to the baptismal font, is a baby held by his parents; Paco will be his name.
The presentation of the character of Paco and his social surroundings helps to unveil the values of the peasantry — founded in religion and in the parish communities where people were registered Casanova Nueva, , p. Likewise, the "moral authority the clergy held over the population was very considerable" Gil Pecharroman, , p. This socio-religious sphere was united not only by rituals, baptisms, marriages and deaths as will be shown in the film but by the extent to which these rites followed the rhythm of seasonal agricultural cycles.
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All of this depends on interdependent factors which, bit by bit, will be significantly altered by events. In the film, Paco's birth symbolizes a new generation and its emergent values and ideas. This change follows a rather precise evolutionary path: one which can be observed in the series of events through which the main character is dragged. However, the story is told from the perspective of the lower classes, far removed from the social elites with whom they come into conflict. The town, in short, comes to be the very incarnation of values such as "courage, honesty, dignity, hard work, sacrifice, intelligence, ingenuity, willingness to suffer A temporal ellipsis transports us to the period in which Paco has become a boy and messes about with another friend in the church attic, both of them playing with holy images of the saints.
Paco takes this offer very seriously. On the way home, he bumps into the shoemaker, a man who "did not go to Mass but worked with painstaking care for the priest and charged him less. However, in subsequent scenes, Paco is shown doing his very best to fulfill his duties in preparation for an Easter-Week procession, in which the whole town is involved. This reveals "the traditional power of Catholics in the local community" Del Rey, , p. That place shakes the young Paco, as living conditions are dreadful.
The old man is lying on a kind of bed made from rudimentary planks. But Paco the child is not able to see things this way and intends to do something to change the situation. Nobody can do anything; only the childish innocence that allows him to perceive this social injustice is capable of spurring him, and him alone, to act; but he must wait. These images neatly sum up the level of hardship endured by a large number of rural laborers, whose standard of living was one of bare subsistence and nothing more. As is noted in the film, it was "believed that the roots of social problems were of a spiritual and moral nature and had nothing to do with the unequal distribution of wealth and power created by men themselves" Casanova, , p.
Paco understands that this is not the case, that it is their neighbors and fellow citizens who are responsible for helping these people, and that their situation is not merely a question of morality. For this reason, an opportunity to help is presented when the beginning of the Second Republic is proclaimed. Similarly, the absenteeism of many landowners is underscored as a relevant factor.
At another point in the film, Paco, who has now become a man, helps his father out with the farm work. Paco takes an interest in what they pay in rent to the Duke, who owns the land. It does not seem fair. This was a time when it was felt that "the distribution of that land could put an end to the utter poverty of a large part of the population", yet there were those who believed that landlordism and the existence of large estates were necessary.
In any case, it would be "this clashing of viewpoints which would cause major conflicts in the Aragonese countryside" Casanova, , p. Nevertheless, the omniscient figure of the Duke continues to be a character who symbolizes traditional Spain, archaic and cacique: a Spain where social injustice was doing so much damage to the working classes.
However, all this makes clear that the underlying thesis of the film can be found in the idea that "economic backwardness was a root-cause in the outbreak of the civil war" Cenarro, , p. Ambitions, suspicions and hopes during the Second Republic In the Spain of the first part of the century, land-distribution was highly unequal, plots were harvested poorly and there were uncultivated zones of huge potential; above all, thousands of laborers lived in pitiable squalor, as reflected in the film. It is, as Cruz writes, "a town which, in the end, felt that an injustice was being committed and which rebelled against it The municipal elections of April 12, later became a referendum whereby the monarchy was lost.
The reformist spark had caught fire and put an end to the monarchical regime. As in other parts of Spain, in Aragon, the elections of April 12, awarded Republican and Socialist candidates with clear victories councilors against the Monarchists councilors Cenarro, , p. At the same time, this development favored the implementation of a series of local contracting policies and even helped keep security forces under control. I simply refuse. However, what interests us is the reaction against this by Valeriano and Gumersindo, who personify the power and influence of traditionalism.
They describe the elected councilors as "riffraff". Their attitude is one of reluctance to accept change. What it reveals is a contrarian and negative posture. The establishment of the Republic "was not received with the same enthusiasm everywhere" Reig Tapia, , p. In certain disadvantaged social strata, it was thought that the introduction of the new regime would allow "the popular masses to achieve equality through mobilization and participation" Cruz, , p. But it was not as simple as that, and existing power relations, although altered somewhat by the Republic, remained rigidly in place.
Spain might have apparently fallen asleep Monarchist and woken up Republican the next day, but that did not mean that all of society followed suit, in sync or in unison. This shows the relationship between "political and social Conservatism" and the Church Casanova, , p. Because they fear what might happen, they ask him to talk to Paco. They attempt to mediate with the most publicly-recognized figurehead associated with the reforms to be launched.
This meeting succinctly captures the feeling that the Republic was yearning anxiously for reform. These laudable goals, though simplified to a certain extent, are clear at the time of presenting them to a cinema audience as part of a permanent vindication of the peasantry. Clearly, for this to happen, those long-standing and traditional cacique power structures would have to be demolished and the bases of privilege attacked. Here, we are presented with a contrast between the stark and bleak reality of the bare, gray peasant household, and the living room where Paco and Valeriano have their meeting.
This room is furnished with every manner of luxury and comfort and, as such, demonstrates to us the differences in living standards from one social class to another. However, "the worsening social and economic tensions that, in turn, provoked contradictory processes of modernization" Malefakis, , p.
In the movie, despite everything, Paco manages to occupy this land. Furthermore, Valeriano finds himself obliged to get out of the village because of such events. Although, in the film, it seems that they obtain reforms in what is an exaggeratedly idealized version of reality, the real historical reforms did not even address the demands of the peasantry leading up to the Civil War.
This fomented a tension between pro- and anti-revolutionary factions, more a product of propaganda and rhetoric than anything else, which resulted in fears and exaggerations that created fertile ground for military uprisings. In any case, it should be added that, at the end of the Republican period, the question of land distribution had still not been resolved Malefakis, , p. We should not ignore that "the major contribution the editing has made to the filmic narrative structure is that it allows the audience to see parallel and simultaneous acts which happen in different places" Vanoye and Goliot-Lete, , p.
The film, constructed around a far-from-accidental gaze on the past, contains significant flashbacks that always finish right at the present moment in history. This filmic mechanism, besides breaking away from the traditional chronological narrative form because certain stylistic preferences, establishes a close relationship between past and present, both of which are united by memory.
It is no coincidence that it took more than three decades to adapt the novel to cinema. Not by chance has the interest in dealing with a guilty conscience been reignited. This is not exclusive to the priesthood or the final cut of the film, which is haunted by the memory of still-un-exorcised ghosts, but also affects a certain part of society which collaborated with those groups spearheading repression.
He ends up sitting, with an air of defeat, on a wicker chair. The town has regained social peace in exchange for abandoning its conscience. For this reason, their absence represents their disapproval of the way in which the parish and local power have proceeded.
However, the metaphor is extremely telling. The populace was highly aware of the barbaric events and openly condemned them. Continuing with the film, the young altar boy heads toward the place where the church-bell rope is situated. Belonging to quite another generation, this adolescent is not aware of the seriousness of recent events — events which have changed the future of the local area.
This is because he has not lived through anything similar before, despite having learnt a song about this tragic sequence of events; this song allows us to assess how such events came to be expressed by people from many towns, such that we should never forget what happened. We appreciate this when we hear Paco singing as he rings the bell.
At the end of the song, a new flashback is introduced. He is going to be baptized in the church. In a certain sense, the song becomes the collective social memory of a town which is accustomed to remembering events in this way — events in which the town is immersed. No group of human beings is made up, no action undertaken and no thought communicated without their involvement; this story is as much a product of social memory as a source of it Fentress and Wickham, , p. In the film, a man tosses candies to the children, which are then picked up with great joy.
The children are singing a song but stop when they enter the church. The silence of this image in the half-light of the room, punctuated only by the sound of horseshoes against the ground, reveals a quiet, withheld sadness; this, once again, whisks us off to another memory of the young Paco who, still a child, is mulling over his experience in the caves where he sees how many of his neighbors live.
He bows before the altar and his sonorous footsteps reverberate in the ceiling of a deserted church. Away with all those bad feelings! Tell me: how much is it? His eyes are bloodshot. He is being consumed by pain. It hurts him. We anticipate a tragic story. He closes his eyes and the memories come flooding back. Another man knocks on the door. Upon hearing him, he looks up and, brusquely observes the arrival of the last of the men who have come to pray for Paco. Enter the altar boy. Yes, a horse! Surely it was her. Crazy as anything but as mischievous as ever. The horse, free once again, begins to trot.
Indeed, "the results of Civil War cut short hopes of agrarian reform and, resultantly, gave rise to a generalized feeling of resignation" Richards, , p. With this forcefulness and conviction, a reality can be revealed through images. Arguing from another perspective altogether, Cervera states that, in the film: "War is presented as the culmination of the confrontation between the ever-powerful and the underprivileged, in the context of rural Spain" Cervera, , p.
The role played by the Church is assessed as being negative. However, when underlining these facts, it is worth clarifying that the film is remiss, once again, in making clear that the Republican regime was of importance in awakening aspirations within the Spanish peasantry: a line which is sketched out, in an implicit way, within both the literary and film narratives.
It is true that "priests, Falangists and landowners instigated murders" Bernecker and Brinkamann, , p. There are examples of priests who were involved in defending and safeguarding lives and not every Falangist committed terrible acts. He does not participate in violence by any means, but rather resigns himself to it because he has no other choice. Those responsible for the executions were those who drafted blacklists. These names could only be given by local residents: not knowing who the accuser might have been "allowed people to point the finger at competitors for work, love rivals, or no-longer-loved partners" Ledesma, , p.
Let us speak then about these accusers: such are the secondary characters Gumersindo and Valeriano, from whom we can best gauge the responsibility of every player in the drama. This, in a way, sums up his old-fashioned mentality, typical of an era characterized by highly rigid social and moral hierarchies. This, coupled with his fabrications and false accusations, marks him out as a conservative and suspicious soul.
In any case, their attitudes — fearful and childlike right throughout the film — establish them as distrusting and not-in-the-least-progressive characters. Although they have used religion to justify the way they go about things, we are given to understand that their actions have, above all, been driven by another factor of greater weight: the fear of social change.
Let us return to the final images of the film. In the same drawer is the old wooden gun that, as a child, Paco so naively tried to hide from the priest. This "becomes a symbol of death along with his personal memories" Faro Fortaleza, , p. Certainly, his attitude was prescient and not-in-the-least coincidental because, after all, his only weapons were reason and the legality of Republican rule, neither of which injured or killed; on the contrary, the others, the rulers of the town and the Falangists, resorted exclusively violence to impose their will.
Leaving the chalice on the altar, he begins Mass. A wide shot reveals the three men who wanted to pay for Mass kneeling in an empty church. Nobody else has attended the ceremony. Nobody else will. Nobody in the town feels able to attend a ceremony commemorating the tragic life of a man who, without committing any crime greater than distributing land among the very neediest, was murdered like other innocents besides him who met the very same end. The absence of the entire town is significant. This demonstrates a public condemnation of what has happened; rather than being because of fear itself, it is because they fear being confronted by their "shame" Bernecker and Brinkamann, , p.
It would not be believable if nobody attended these celebrations. We must not exclude those who, as believers, saw the substantial value of forgiveness and reconciliation in these acts; however, considering the attitude of the regime at the time, we need not conclude that this is the intention of the director in this scene. Nevertheless, the factor of crucial importance in this scene is the exposition, for the first time and in ever such an illustrative way, of "the loneliness of the Franquista victors" Faro Fortaleza, , p.
This is supported by the socio-political reality at the time: "The condition of the citizenry in the thirties was inextricably linked to the struggle for a specific identity whereby people themselves could establish rights for themselves" Cruz, , p. The image of an empty church is, above all else, the result of cinematographic and novelistic imagination; it is a reminder of a bitter silence and the covert social protest over contemporary events.
Without doubt, it creates a cinematic effect which is useful in recovering the symbolic value of a part of history wherein Franquista repression was deemed unacceptable. Of course, the film eventually indicates to us that those who do not forget these events are the townspeople. Reception, awards and film reviews The film was shot in the villages of and Envid and Codees, not far from Calatayud.
Its budget was a hundred million pesetas and the film was funded, in part, by the Spanish Ministry of Culture and by local government in Zaragoza Rovira, According to Gubern, the movie was received unenthusiastically by critics, who considered it a film which belonged to another era Gubern, , p. Likewise, the director, Francesc Betriu, following some criticism adducing that the film was Manichean because of the characterization of the Falangists engaged in repression, publicly stated that "there can only be a negative judgment regarding the Falangists, as it was they who attacked the Spanish people " Cenarro, , p.
These reasons help explain why the Falangists are shown as the only group to lead the repression in the film since they do not figure in the novel. Certainly, here, the importance that the imagination takes on is clearly manifest: firstly, in emphasizing a singular sometimes functional vision removed from typical historical interpretations and emphasizing the role of the creator-director in this vision; secondly, in revealing the film to cinema audiences.
Neither does critic Jesus Ruiz review it well. Then there is the Hoja del lunes which calls it "superficial tragedy" 29 September Jorge de Comminges, however, believes that the film lacks warmth, even if he considers it to have "very neat, formally classical" narrative Comminges, Despite all this, we have seen how the Spanish public had an appetite for historical cinema. In an interview, the director himself affirmed that, despite the cool reception from Spanish critics, foreign newspapers such as Le Monde, the Herald Tribune and Variety were more positive Llorens and Amitrano, , p.
Among its virtues is the value of the social portrait it paints. This criticism holds even if we accept that the purpose of cinema is not to attempt to capture history in images but to tell its own story. In weighing up the strengths and weaknesses of the film, one must consider that there are elements of great interest that simultaneously convey to us and bring us closer to ways of feeling and thinking present in rural Spanish society in the first third of the 20th century.
This is because the film posits the same conclusions reached by the scholar of Hispanic studies, Paul Preston: "The Civil War was a result of the efforts of progressive leaders in the Republic to carry out reforms against the wishes of those within most powerful social strata" Preston, , p.
This needs to be qualified with the acceptance that some efforts — not always aimed in the right direction — gave prominence to fanatical groups; a fact that, admittedly, is not explicitly recognized in the film. The change introduced at the end, portraying the Falangists as cornerstones of the repression, is given greater weight in the film than the novel, given that the Civil War is referred to directly as a framework in which rupture could occur.
Also, the fact that agrarian problems are so simply and subtly explained leads us to conclude that it would be redundant to treat the question of social injustice as a primary cause of conflict within the range of problems that beset Spain at the time. Therefore, indirectly — through the figure of Paco — we reason that he, as a Spanish peasant, personifies the spirit of change and social justice that had been sown deep within the most disadvantaged sections of society.
The Republic was the point of departure for such aspirations to take form. However, as happens in the film Tierra de rastrojos, the Republic remains a mere ideal suppressed by war. It acquires no substantive form. All this said, the subtlety of the message allows for the establishment of the central theme in this social drama, which is clarified in the final scene. The townspeople turn their backs on these characters. The film offers another way of telling the story: tackling it from the present with a critical gaze which focuses on events that so deplorably tainted the future of both the peasantry of this period and the Second Republic.
Another important feature of cinema lies not so much in the stories told, but how it tells them and gives them life and shape in its own internally-credible universe, through imagery.
The reviews advise that such credibility was not fully achieved. Bibliography Aguado, A. Madrid: Abada Editorial S. Ya, September 14, La Vanguardia, September 30, Directed by, no. Hoja del lunes, September 29, Godicheau Editors. La Vanguardia, September 14, Figura 1. Las ciudades objeto de estudio en la sociedad del conocimiento. Tabla 1. Tabla 2. Establecimientos de sectores creativos e intensivos en conocimiento , Tabla 3. Esfuerzo innovador. Tabla 4. Instituto de Comercio Exterior 3. La capacidad innovadora de las empresas.
Para analizar la capacidad innovadora de las empresas se han realizado encuestas en las tres ciudades objeto de estudios. Figura 2. Tabla 5. Tabla 6. Agentes socio-institucionales con presencia activa en las ciudades. Figura 3. Se trata en los dos casos de redes establecidas dentro del espacio regional. Entre los factores que explican tales comportamientos, hay que destacar la capacidad de respuesta de los actores locales ante los problemas y retos a los que deben hacer frente.
Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Milieux innovateurs en Europe. Revista Internacional de Desenvolvimiento Local, vol. Approaches, Experiences and Perspectives, Oxford, Elsevier. Hacia un desarrollo equilibrado y sostenible del territorio de la UE. Valencia, Universidad de Valencia. Territoires apprenants. Caravaca, I.
The idea of transformation prevails symbolically over permanence, and that of rupture over continuity, even when, at times, this might create instability and an impression of insecurity. Theoretical framework and bases of the investigation. The stiff competition to which businesses and territories find themselves subordinated in a heavily globalized economic system conditions their integration within the space of flows and networks, obliging them to remain ever-vigilant in order to make the most of those opportunities which might confer advantages, and moreover, to search out solutions to whichever new problems they must confront.
The technological revolution is the force majeure behind such processes, which are closely related with economic globalization and constitute the base of the society of knowledge Drucker, ; Machlup, ; Boisier, ; UNESCO, ; Rohrbach, …. In this context, the capacity for incorporating knowledge and effecting innovations conditions the way in which businesses and territories insert into an unbalanced and highly changeable world, in which there exist counterposing creative areas capable of successfully responding to those new challenges and of assisting those other businesses left straggling behind because of their structural deficiencies which, in conjunction with their scarce interest in learning and lack of innovatory spirit, impede the reactions necessary for adapting to the logic of the society of knowledge.
It is no wonder, by consequence, that knowledge and innovation have been converted into the point of confluence for different epistemological currents and for scientific disciplines preoccupied with the relations between economic activities and territories Feldman, ; Maillat-Kebir, ; Cating-Lacour-Lung, …. Understood from an all-at-once economic and socio-institutional perspective, innovation is thereby converted into an important factor which conditions territorial development as well as economic dynamism.
In this respect, the conceptual category of the intermediate city Gault, is used to refer to those which, aside from being of a size considered to be medium within corresponding urban systems, are able to act like intermediaries between big cities and rural spaces, thereby contributing to territorial equilibrium.
Such would be the cities which would deserve to belong to the category intelligent cities; these would be recognized as such for their ability to generate or incorporate the necessary knowledge to put their own resources to use in efficient and rational ways which contribute creative, responsible and committed solutions, not only for increasing the competitive capacity of their businesses, but also and above all, for improving the quality of life for the inhabiting populations.
As part of this general context, the object of this article is to create an analysis of the more or less dynamic, competitive or innovatory behaviour of three medium-sized Andalusian cities, observing the unequal capacity of local actors to respond to the new challenges they must confront, and the ways in which they position themselves and integrate in the so-called society of knowledge. As is known, Andalusia is a peripheral region, both in European and Spanish contexts, and is afflicted by a range of structural weaknesses which encumber the developmental process there; a process which demands more effort from its institutions, businesses and society to overcome the inherent difficulties of such circumstances.
As a counterpoint to the above, the process requires a territorial resource of special interest for the approach followed here: a well-balanced urban system which can facilitate the dissemination of innovation and knowledge through a large-scale network of medium-sized cities which are well distributed within the region.
To select cities which meet the requirements of the study, diverse criteria relating to their size, the territorial context where they are located, and the functionality of the economic base to which they belong, have been considered. Figure 1. Object cities of interest in the study of the Society of Knowledge. In close relation with the reflections and newly enlivened debate surrounding the so-called society of knowledge, the studies which have sought to compare the position of the cities in this context by utilizing indicators related to the formation of human capital, the presence of intensive knowledge-based activities, the innovatory efforts made by businesses, or the results of those efforts, are already diverse in range.
BUY ON AMAZON'S NEVER EASY
Bearing these in mind, the most up-to-date information has been selected, although for some indicators, the only available source was census data from , once more evidencing the deficiencies of local records. One first group of indicators is related with the resources and infrastructures relating to knowledge and innovation.
Among these, of special interest is a resource quite as basic as the population with a greater preparation for effecting innovation, as well as their weight in the job market. This demonstrates that in these municipalities, the job market has, compared to other cities in the region, a higher absorption capacity for the more qualified part of the population.
Table 1. Resources and infrastructures for innovation. The specialization of activities particular to the society of knowledge can be measured through the number of business establishments with connections to them. Table 2. Establishments in the creative and intensive sectors of knowledge , For the analysis of the innovatory effort exerted by these businesses, it is useful to consider the number of projects which have received public financing and the investment mobilized for these projects and the help or incentives received, as well as the strategies of differentiation based on the support for good quality.
Table 3. Innovatory effort. Lastly, the results of innovation can be measured from the number of registered patents and the capacity of businesses to insert into external markets. Table 4. Results of innovation. The innovatory capacity of businesses. There is already a great tradition of the analysis of business innovation in scientific literature. For quite a long time, this analysis was identified with the transmission of codified knowledge and, for this reason, it was knowledge which was easily reproducible and therefore apt for exchange and acquisition on the market; besides this, it was considered to be related with the internal factors of the firm itself Lundvall, The emphasis, then, was put on tacit knowledge which, not being codified, is transferred through interpersonal relations.
Agreeing with the aforesaid, Moulaert insists on the deeply rooted character of knowledge and on the prominence that the territory acquires with it. For the above reasons, the more or less innovatory behavior of businesses conditions the extent of integration of cities within the economy and society of knowledge. Surveys have been carried out to analyse the innovatory capacity of businesses in the three cities being studied. The behavior of Antequera turns out to be very different because the weight of the strategies of differentiation which use brands or emblems of quality is significant.
Figure 2. Source: surveys However, the innovatory capacity of the businesses is in good measure conditioned by the collaborative relations they establish with other firms and socio-institutional agents — something which makes this an aspect which deserves attention. Even so, in all three cities, only scarce development of cooperation networks between businesses is observed, while the most common networks are those established with socio-institutional actors. Table 5. Socio-institutional innovation and networks of cooperation. Confronted by the traditional perspectives which attempt to explain socio-economic and territorial behavior through isolated decisions, a greater attention to collective learning and socio-institutional innovation is now advocated, because it is considered that they constitute an important base for construction processes in innovatory cities.
In this way, joined to business innovation, the relationship between other private and public socio-economic and institutional agents is gaining increasing importance; agents which act in each sphere while conditioned in greater or smaller measure by territorial contexts, inherited socio-economic structures and by the presence of those resources which make up their endogenous capital. This implies that the characterization of an innovative territory must include, along with the diverse forms of business innovation considered before, those others related with socio-institutional innovation: social mobilization, compromise and agreement, cooperation among distinct institutions with competences in the territory, and the active participation of the society in the determination of its future.
Observen muy cuidadosamente las acciones e intenciones de los principales donantes a organizaciones de caridad y no gubernamentales, que frecuentemente pretenden ser los salvadores heroicos de los pobres destinando grandes sumas de dinero a su causa elegida. Valiosas y frecuentemente vitales como puedan ser estas actividades, no representan de ninguna manera una conciencia social prevaleciente de lo que significa vivir en inofensividad, simplicidad y correctas relaciones con respecto a la naturaleza y todos los seres sentientes.
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