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A common application was in articulated locomotives, the most common being that designed by Anatole Mallet , in which the high-pressure stage was attached directly to the boiler frame; in front of this was pivoted a low-pressure engine on its own frame, which takes the exhaust from the rear engine. More-powerful locomotives tend to be longer, but long rigid-framed designs are impractical for the tight curves frequently found on narrow-gauge railways.

Various designs for articulated locomotives were developed to overcome this problem. The Mallet and the Garratt were the two most popular, both using a single boiler and two engines sets of cylinders and driving wheels. The Garratt has two power bogies , whereas the Mallet has one. There were also a few examples of triplex locomotives that had a third engine under the tender. Both the front and tender engines were low-pressure compounded, though they could be operated simple high-pressure for starting off. Other less common variations included the Fairlie locomotive , which had two boilers back-to-back on a common frame, with two separate power bogies.

Duplex locomotives , containing two engines in one rigid frame, were also tried, but were not notably successful. For example, the Pennsylvania Railroad's T1 class , designed for very fast running, suffered recurring and ultimately unfixable slippage problems throughout their careers. For locomotives where a high starting torque and low speed were required, the conventional direct drive approach was inadequate. The common feature of these three types was the provision of reduction gearing and a drive shaft between the crankshaft and the driving axles.

This arrangement allowed the engine to run at a much higher speed than the driving wheels compared to the conventional design, where the ratio is In the United States on the Southern Pacific Railroad , a series of cab forward locomotives were produced with the cab and the firebox at the front of the locomotive and the tender behind the smokebox, so that the engine appeared to run backwards. This was only possible by using oil-firing. Southern Pacific selected this design to provide air free of smoke for the engine driver to breathe as the locomotive passed through mountain tunnels and snow sheds.

Another variation was the Camelback locomotive , with the cab situated halfway along the boiler. In England, Oliver Bulleid developed the SR Leader class locomotive during the nationalisation process in the late s. The locomotive was heavily tested but several design faults such as coal firing and sleeve valves meant that this locomotive and the other part-built locomotives were scrapped.

The cab-forward design was taken by Bulleid to Ireland, where he moved after nationalisation, where he developed the "turfburner". This locomotive was more successful, but was scrapped due to the dieselisation of the Irish railways. The only preserved cab forward locomotive is Southern Pacific in Sacramento, California. In France, the three Heilmann locomotives were built with a cab forward design. Steam turbines were created as an attempt to improve the operation and efficiency of steam locomotives.

Experiments with steam turbines using direct-drive and electrical transmissions in various countries proved mostly unsuccessful. The Turbomotive ran from to , when it was rebuilt into a conventional locomotive because many parts required replacement, an uneconomical proposition for a "one-off" locomotive. However, all designs failed due to dust, vibration, design flaws or inefficiency at lower speeds. Despite functioning correctly, only three were built. Two of them are preserved in working order in museums in Sweden.

Fireless locomotives were used where there was a high fire risk e. The water vessel "boiler" is heavily insulated the same as with a fired locomotive. Until all the water has boiled away, the steam pressure does not drop except as the temperature drops.

Another class of fireless locomotive is a compressed-air locomotive. Mixed power locomotives, utilising both steam and diesel propulsion, have been produced in Russia, Britain and Italy. Under unusual conditions lack of coal, abundant hydroelectricity some locomotives in Switzerland were modified to use electricity to heat the boiler, making them electric-steam locomotives. A steam-electric locomotive is similar in concept to a diesel-electric locomotive , except that a steam engine instead of a diesel engine is used to drive a generator. Steam locomotives are categorised by their wheel arrangement.

The two dominant systems for this are the Whyte notation and UIC classification. The Whyte notation, used in most English-speaking and Commonwealth countries, represents each set of wheels with a number. These numbers typically represented the number of un-powered leading wheels, followed by the number of driving wheels sometimes in several groups , followed by the number of un-powered trailing wheels. For example, a yard engine with only 4 drive wheels would be categorised as a "" wheel arrangement.

A locomotive with a 4-wheel leading truck, followed by 6 drive wheels, and a 2-wheel trailing truck, would be classed as a "". Different arrangements were given names which usually reflect the first usage of the arrangement; for instance the "Santa Fe" type is so called because the first examples were built for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. These names were informally given and varied according to region and even politics.

On many railroads, locomotives were organised into classes. These broadly represented locomotives which could be substituted for each other in service, but most commonly a class represented a single design.

Steam engines

As a rule classes were assigned some sort of code, generally based on the wheel arrangement. Classes also commonly acquired nicknames, such as "Pugs", representing notable and sometimes uncomplimentary features of the locomotives. In the steam locomotive era, two measures of locomotive performance were generally applied.

At first, locomotives were rated by tractive effort, defined as the average force developed during one revolution of the driving wheels at the rail head. However, the precise formula is:. The tractive effort is only the "average" force, as not all effort is constant during the one revolution of the drivers. At some points of the cycle only one piston is exerting turning moment and at other points both pistons are working.

Not all boilers deliver full power at starting, and the tractive effort also decreases as the rotating speed increases. Tractive effort is a measure of the heaviest load a locomotive can start or haul at very low speed over the ruling grade in a given territory. Therefore, in the 20th century, locomotives began to be rated by power output. A variety of calculations and formulas were applied, but in general railways used dynamometer cars to measure tractive force at speed in actual road testing. British railway companies have been reluctant to disclose figures for drawbar horsepower and have usually relied on continuous tractive effort instead.

Whyte classification is indirectly connected to locomotive performance. Given adequate proportions of the rest of the locomotive, power output is determined by the size of the fire, and for a bituminous coal-fuelled locomotive, this is determined by the grate area. Modern non-compound locomotives are typically able to produce about 40 drawbar horsepower per square foot of grate. Tractive force, as noted earlier, is largely determined by the boiler pressure, the cylinder proportions and the size of the driving wheels.

However, it is also limited by the weight on the driving wheels termed "adhesive weight" , which needs to be at least four times the tractive effort. The weight of the locomotive is roughly proportional to the power output; the number of axles required is determined by this weight divided by the axleload limit for the trackage where the locomotive is to be used. The number of driving wheels is derived from the adhesive weight in the same manner, leaving the remaining axles to be accounted for by the leading and trailing bogies.

In Europe, some use was made of several variants of the Bissel bogie in which the swivelling movement of a single axle truck controls the lateral displacement of the front driving axle and in one case the second axle too. This was mostly applied to 8-coupled express and mixed traffic locomotives, and considerably improved their ability to negotiate curves whilst restricting overall locomotive wheelbase and maximising adhesion weight.

As a rule, "shunting engines" US: switching engines omitted leading and trailing bogies, both to maximise tractive effort available and to reduce wheelbase. Speed was unimportant; making the smallest engine and therefore smallest fuel consumption for the tractive effort was paramount. Driving wheels were small and usually supported the firebox as well as the main section of the boiler. Banking engines US: helper engines tended to follow the principles of shunting engines, except that the wheelbase limitation did not apply, so banking engines tended to have more driving wheels.

In the US, this process eventually resulted in the Mallet type engine with its many driven wheels, and these tended to acquire leading and then trailing bogies as guidance of the engine became more of an issue. As locomotive types began to diverge in the late 19th century, freight engine designs at first emphasised tractive effort, whereas those for passenger engines emphasised speed. Over time, freight locomotive size increased, and the overall number of axles increased accordingly; the leading bogie was usually a single axle, but a trailing truck was added to larger locomotives to support a larger firebox that could no longer fit between or above the driving wheels.

Passenger locomotives had leading bogies with two axles, fewer driving axles, and very large driving wheels in order to limit the speed at which the reciprocating parts had to move. In the s, the focus in the United States turned to horsepower, epitomised by the "super power" concept promoted by the Lima Locomotive Works, although tractive effort was still the prime consideration after World War I to the end of steam.

Goods trains were designed to run faster, while passenger locomotives needed to pull heavier loads at speed. This was achieved by increasing the size of grate and firebox without changes to the rest of the locomotive, requiring the addition of a second axle to the trailing truck.

Freight s became s while s became s. Similarly, passenger s became s. In the United States this led to a convergence on the dual-purpose and the articulated configuration, which was used for both freight and passenger service. The most-manufactured single class of steam locomotive in the world is the Russian locomotive class E steam locomotive with around 11, produced both in Russia and other countries such as Czechoslovakia, Germany, Sweden, Hungary and Poland. The Russian locomotive class O numbered 9, locomotives, built between and The British GWR class numbered about units.

Before the Grouping Act , production in the UK was mixed. The larger railway companies built locomotives in their own workshops, with the smaller ones and industrial concerns ordering them from outside builders. A large market for outside builders existed due to the home-build policy exercised by the main railway companies. An example of a pre-grouping works was the one at Melton Constable , which maintained and built some of the locomotives for the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway.

Between and , the "Big Four" railway companies the Great Western Railway, the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway all built most of their own locomotives, only buying locomotives from outside builders when their own works were fully occupied or as a result of government-mandated standardisation during wartime. From , British Railways allowed the former "Big Four" companies now designated as "Regions" to continue to produce their own designs, but also created a range of standard locomotives which supposedly combined the best features from each region.

Although a policy of "dieselisation" was adopted in , BR continued to build new steam locomotives until , with the final engine being named Evening Star. Some independent manufacturers produced steam locomotives for a few more years, with the last British-built industrial steam locomotive being constructed by Hunslet in Since then, a few specialised manufacturers have continued to produce small locomotives for narrow gauge and miniature railways, but as the prime market for these is the tourist and heritage railway sector, the demand for such locomotives is limited.

In November , a new build main line steam locomotive, Tornado , was tested on UK mainlines for eventual charter and tour use. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, most Swedish steam locomotives were manufactured in Britain. One of the most successful types was the class "B" , inspired by the Prussian class P8. Many of the Swedish steam locomotives were preserved during the Cold War in case of war. During the s, these steam locomotives were sold to non-profit associations or abroad, which is why the Swedish class B, class S and class E2 locomotives can now be seen in Britain, the Netherlands, Germany and Canada.

Locomotives for American railroads were nearly always built in the United States with very few imports, except in the earliest days of steam engines. This was due to the basic differences of markets in the United States which initially had many small markets located large distances apart, in contrast to Europe's higher density of markets.

Locomotives that were cheap and rugged and could go large distances over cheaply built and maintained tracks were required. Once the manufacture of engines was established on a wide scale there was very little advantage to buying an engine from overseas that would have to be customised to fit the local requirements and track conditions. Improvements in engine design of both European and US origin were incorporated by manufacturers when they could be justified in a generally very conservative and slow-changing market.

Railroads ordered locomotives tailored to their specific requirements, though some basic design features were always present. Railroads developed some specific characteristics; for example, the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Great Northern Railway had a preference for the Belpaire firebox. Altogether, between and , over , steam locomotives were built in the United States, with Baldwin accounting for the largest share, nearly 70, Steam locomotives required regular and, compared to a diesel-electric engine, frequent service and overhaul often at government-regulated intervals in Europe and the US.

Alterations and upgrades regularly occurred during overhauls. New appliances were added, unsatisfactory features removed, cylinders improved or replaced. Almost any part of the locomotive, including boilers, was replaced or upgraded. When service or upgrades got too expensive the locomotive was traded off or retired. Union Pacific's fleet of 3-cylinder engines were converted into two-cylinder engines in , because of high maintenance problems.

These include the C38 class ; the first five were built at Clyde with streamlining , the other 25 locomotives were built at Eveleigh 13 and Cardiff Workshops 12 near Newcastle. In Queensland, steam locomotives were locally constructed by Walkers. Similarly the South Australian state government railways also manufactured steam locomotives locally at Islington Railway Workshops in Adelaide. Victorian Railways constructed most of their locomotives at their Newport Workshops and in Bendigo , while in the early days locomotives were built at the Phoenix Foundry in Ballarat.

Locomotives constructed at the Newport shops ranged from the nA class T built for the narrow gauge , up to the H class — the largest conventional locomotive ever to operate in Australia, weighing tons. Most steam locomotives used in Western Australia were built in the United Kingdom, though some examples were designed and built locally at the Western Australian Government Railways ' Midland Railway Workshops.

The 10 WAGR S class locomotives introduced in were the only class of steam locomotive to be wholly conceived, designed and built in Western Australia, [68] while the Midland workshops notably participated in the Australia-wide construction program of Australian Standard Garratts — these wartime locomotives were built at Midland in Western Australia, Clyde Engineering in New South Wales, Newport in Victoria and Islington in South Australia and saw varying degrees of service in all Australian states.

The introduction of electric locomotives around the turn of the 20th century and later diesel-electric locomotives spelled the beginning of a decline in the use of steam locomotives, although it was some time before they were phased out of general use. In continental Europe, large-scale electrification had replaced steam power by the s. Steam was a familiar technology, adapted well to local facilities, and also consumed a wide variety of fuels; this led to its continued use in many countries until the end of the 20th century.

Steam engines have considerably less thermal efficiency than modern diesels, requiring constant maintenance and labour to keep them operational. In places where water is available, it may be hard , which can cause " scale " to form, composed mainly of calcium carbonate , magnesium hydroxide and calcium sulfate. Calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on the inside the surfaces of pipes and heat exchangers. This precipitation is principally caused by thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ions but also happens in cases where the carbonate ion is at saturation concentration.

In boilers, the deposits impair the flow of heat into the water, reducing the heating efficiency and allowing the metal boiler components to overheat. The reciprocating mechanism on the driving wheels of a two-cylinder single expansion steam locomotive tended to pound the rails see hammer blow , thus requiring more maintenance. Raising steam from coal took a matter of hours, and created serious pollution problems.

Coal-burning locomotives required fire cleaning and ash removal between turns of duty. The smoke from steam locomotives was also deemed objectionable; the first electric and diesel locomotives were developed in response to smoke abatement requirements, [74] although this did not take into account the high level of less-visible pollution in diesel exhaust smoke, especially when idling. In some countries, however, power for electric locomotives is derived from steam generated in power stations, which are often run by coal.

Since then, diesel locomotives began to appear in mainline service in the United States in the mids. The final Berkshire built was Nickle Plate Road's built in The last steam locomotive manufactured for general service was a Norfolk and Western , built in its Roanoke shops in December, However, the Grand Trunk Western used some steam power for regular passenger trains until , the last instance of this occurring unannounced on trains 56 and 21 in the Detroit area on 20 September with , one day before its flue time expired.

It has always had at least one operational steam locomotive, Union Pacific , on its roster. By the end of the 20th century, around 1, of the over , steam locomotives built in the United States between and still existed, but with only a few still in operating condition. Trials of diesel locomotives and railcars began in Britain in the s but made only limited progress.

One problem was that British diesel locomotives were often seriously under-powered compared with the steam locomotives against which they were competing. Moreover, labour and coal were relatively cheap. After , problems associated with post-war reconstruction and the availability of cheap domestic-produced coal kept steam in widespread use throughout the two following decades. However the ready availability of cheap oil led to new dieselisation programmes from , and these began to take full effect from around Towards the end of the steam era, steam motive power fell into a state of disrepair.

The last steam-hauled service trains on the British Railways network ran in , but the use of steam locomotives in British industry continued into the s. Several hundred rebuilt and preserved steam locomotives are still used on preserved volunteer-run 'heritage' railway lines in the UK.

A proportion of the locomotives are regularly used on the national rail network by private operators where they run special excursions and touring trains. They needed to renew the rolling stock, mostly with steam locomotives designed for accelerated passenger trains.

Many of the existing predecessors of those types of steam locomotives in Germany had been lost in the battles or simply reached the end of their lifetime, such as the famous Prussian P 8. There was no need for new freight train engines, however, because thousands of the Classes 50 and 52 had been built during the Second World War. Because the concept of the so-called " Einheitslokomotiven ", the standard locomotives built in the s and s, and still in wide use, was already outdated in the pre-war era, a whole new design for the new steam locomotives was developed by DB and DR, called "Neubaudampflokomotiven" new-build steam locomotives.

The steam locomotives made by the DB in West Germany, under the guidance of Friedrich Witte, represented the latest evolution in steam locomotive construction including fully welded frames, high-performance boilers and roller bearings on all moving parts. Although these new DB classes 10 , 23 , 65 , 66 and 82 were said to be among the finest and best-performing German steam locomotives ever built, none of them exceeded 25 years in service.

The last one, 23 still preserved , went into service in The Democratic Republic in East Germany began a similar procurement plan, including engines for a narrow gauge. The DR-Neubaudampflokomotiven were the classes The purchase of new-build steam locomotives by the DR ended in with 50 , the last standard-gauge steam locomotive built in Germany. No locomotive of the classes The last engines of the classes Some of the narrow-gauge locomotives are still in service for tourism purposes.

Later, during the early s, the DR developed a way to reconstruct older locomotives to conform with contemporary requirements.

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The high-speed locomotive 18 and the class Around , the Bundesbahn in West Germany began to phase out all steam-hauled trains over a period of ten years, but still had about 5, of them in running condition. In , the Hamburg and Frankfurt departments of the DB rail networks became the first to no longer operate steam locomotives in their areas.

Two years later, on 26 October , the heavy freight engine 44 computer-based new number made her final run at the same railway yard. After this date, no regular steam service took place on the network of the DB until their privatisation in In the GDR, the Reichsbahn continued steam operation until on standard gauge tracks for economic and political reasons, despite strong efforts to phase out steam being made since the s.

The last locomotives in service where of the classes Unlike the DB, there was never a large concentration of steam locomotives in just a few yards in the East, because throughout the DR network the infrastructure for steam locomotives remained intact until the end of the GDR in This was also the reason that there was never a strict "final cut" at steam operations, with the DR continuing to use steam locomotives from time to time until they merged with the DB in On their narrow-gauge lines, however, steam locomotives continued to be used on a daily year-round basis, mainly for tourist reasons.

Even though all former DR narrow-gauge railways have undergone privatisation, steam operations are still commonplace there. In the European part of the USSR, almost all steam locomotives were replaced by diesel and electric locomotives in the s; in Siberia and Central Asia, state records verify that L-class s and LV-class s were not retired until Until , Russia had at least 1, steam locomotives stored in operable condition in case of "national emergencies".

China continued to build mainline steam locomotives until the late 20th century, even building a few examples for American tourist operations. China was the last main-line user of steam locomotives, with use ending officially on the Ji-Tong line at the end of Some steam locomotives are as of [update] still in use in industrial operations in China.

The last steam locomotive built in China was SY , finished in Owing to the destruction of most of the nation's infrastructure during the Second World War, and the cost of electrification and dieselisation, new steam locomotives were built in Japan until The number of Japanese steam locomotives reached a peak of 5, in With the booming post-war Japanese economy, steam locomotives were gradually withdrawn from main line service beginning in the early s, and were replaced with diesel and electric locomotives.

They were relegated to branch line and sub-main line services for several more years until the late s, when electrification and dieselisation began to increase. From onwards, steam locomotion was gradually abolished on the JNR:. The last steam passenger train, pulled by a C57 -class locomotive built in , departed from Muroran railway station to Iwamizawa on 14 December It was then officially retired from service, dismantled and sent to the Tokyo Transportation Museum , where it was inaugurated as an exhibit on 14 May It was moved to the Saitama Railway Museum in early The last Japanese main line steam train, D, a D51 -class locomotive built in , left Yubari railway station on 24 December That same day, all steam main line service ended.

D was retired on 10 March , and destroyed in a depot fire a month later, though some parts were preserved. On 2 March , the only steam locomotive still operating on the JNR, , a class locomotive built in , made its final journey from Oiwake railway station, ending years of steam locomotion in Japan. Used until , the Moga is now in the Railroad Museum. New steam locomotives were built in India well into the early s; the last broad-gauge steam locomotive to be manufactured, Last Star , a WG-class locomotive No.

The only steam locomotives remaining in regular service are on India's heritage lines. Porta modifications in , becoming a new NGG16A class. By almost all commercial steam locomotives were put out of service, although many of them are preserved in museums or at railway stations for public viewing. Today only a few privately owned steam locomotives are still operating in South Africa, including the ones being used by the 5-star luxury train Rovos Rail , and the tourist trains Outeniqua Tjoe Choo , Apple Express and until Banana Express.

On the contiguous North American standard gauge network across Canada, Mexico and the United States, the use of standard gauge main line steam locomotion using s built in for handling freight between Mexico City and Irapuato lasted until By March in Australia, steam was no longer used for industrial purposes. Diesel locomotives were more efficient and the demand for manual labour for service and repairs was less than for steam.

Cheap oil also had cost advantages over coal. Regular scheduled steam services operated from until on the West Coast Railway. Two A B class tender locomotives, A B and A B , were retained at Lyttelton to steam-heat the coaches for the Boat Trains between Christchurch and Lyttelton, until they were restored for the Kingston Flyer tourist train in In Finland, the first diesels were introduced in the mids, superseding steam locomotives by the early s. State railways VR operated steam locomotives until In the Netherlands, the first electric trains appeared in , making the trip from Rotterdam to The Hague.

The first diesels were introduced in As electric and diesel trains performed so well, the decline of steam started just after World War II, with steam traction ending in In Poland, on non-electrified tracks, steam locomotives were superseded almost entirely by diesels by the s. A few steam locomotives, however, operate in the regular scheduled service from Wolsztyn.

After ceasing on 31 March , regular service resumed out of Wolsztyn on 15 May with weekday runs to Leszno. This operation is maintained as a means of preserving railway heritage and as a tourist attraction. Apart from that, numerous railway museums and heritage railways mostly narrow gauge own steam locomotives in working condition. In France, steam locomotives have not been used for commercial services since 24 September In Spain, the first electric trains were introduced en , and the first diesels in , just one year before the Spanish Civil War.

National railway company Renfe operated steam locomotives until 9 June In Paraguay , wood-burning steam locomotives operated until In Thailand, all steam locomotives were withdrawn from service between the late s and early s. Most were scrapped in However, there are about 20 to 30 locomotives preserved for exhibit in important or end-of-the-line stations throughout the country. During the late s, six locomotives were restored to running condition. Most are JNR-built steam locomotives with the exception of a single Indonesia has also used steam locomotives since The last batch of E10 rack tank locomotives were purchased in Kautzor, [ full citation needed ] from Nippon Sharyo.

The last locomotives — the D 52 class, manufactured by the German firm Krupp in — operated until , when they were replaced by diesel locomotives. Indonesia also purchased the last batch of mallet locomotives from Nippon Sharyo, to be used on the Aceh Railway. Pakistan Railways still has a regular steam locomotive service; a line operates in the North-West Frontier Province and in Sindh. It has been preserved as a "nostalgia" service for tourism in exotic locales, and is specifically advertised as being for "steam buffs".

In Sri Lanka, one steam locomotive is maintained for private service to power the Viceroy Special. Dramatic increases in the cost of diesel fuel prompted several initiatives to revive steam power. As early as , railway enthusiasts in the United Kingdom began building new steam locomotives. The Hunslet Engine Company was revived in , and began building steam locomotives on a commercial basis. Demonstration trips in France and Germany have been planned.

These United Kingdom based new build projects are further complimented by the new build Pennsylvania Railroad T1 class No. In , American financier Ross Rowland established American Coal Enterprises to develop a modernised coal-fired steam locomotive. His ACE concept attracted considerable attention, but was never built. In , in his book The Red Devil and Other Tales from the Age of Steam , [] David Wardale put forward the concept of a high-speed high-efficiency "Super Class 5 " locomotive for future steam haulage of tour trains on British main lines.

The idea was formalised in by the formation of 5AT Project dedicated to developing and building the 5AT Advanced Technology Steam Locomotive , but it never received any major railway backing. Locations where new builds are taking place include: [ citation needed ]. In , the Coalition for Sustainable Rail [] project was started in the US with the goal of creating a modern higher-speed steam locomotive, incorporating the improvements proposed by Livio Dante Porta and others, and using torrefied biomass as solid fuel.

The fuel has been recently developed by the University of Minnesota in a collaboration between the university's Institute on the Environment IonE and Sustainable Rail International SRI , an organisation set up to explore the use of steam traction in a modern railway setup. However, any demonstration of the project's claims is yet to be seen.

In Germany, a small number of fireless steam locomotives are still working in industrial service, e. The same company also rebuilt a German locomotive to new standards with modifications such as roller bearings, light oil firing and boiler insulation.

History of rail transport in Great Britain - Wikipedia

Steam locomotives have been present in popular culture since the 19th century. Folk songs from that period including " I've Been Working on the Railroad " and the " Ballad of John Henry " are a mainstay of American music and culture. Many steam locomotive toys have been made, and railway modelling is a popular hobby. Rowling 's Harry Potter series. They have also been featured in many children's television shows, such as Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends , based on characters from the books by Awdry, and Ivor the Engine created by Oliver Postgate.

The Polar Express appears in the animated movie of the same name. According to author Van Allsburg, this locomotive was the inspiration for the story and it was used in the production of the movie. A number of computer and video games feature steam locomotives. Railroad Tycoon produced in , was as "one of the best computer games of the year" [ citation needed ]. There are two notable examples of steam locomotives used as charges on heraldic coats of arms. One is that of Darlington , which displays Locomotion No.

The other is the original coat of arms of Swindon , not currently in use, which displays a basic steam locomotive. Steam locomotives are a popular topic for coin collectors. The 20 euro Biedermeier Period coin , minted 11 June , shows on the obverse an early model steam locomotive the Ajax on Austria's first railway line, the Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn. The Ajax can still be seen today in the Technisches Museum Wien. As part of the 50 State Quarters program, the quarter representing the US state of Utah depicts the ceremony where the two halves of the First Transcontinental Railroad met at Promontory Summit in The coin recreates a popular image from the ceremony with steam locomotives from each company facing each other while the golden spike is being driven.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. Play media. See also: History of rail transport and Category:Early steam locomotives. This section does not cite any sources.

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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Fire box Ashpan Water inside the boiler Smoke box Cab Tender Steam dome Safety valve Regulator valve Super heater in smoke box Piston Blast pipe Valve gear Regulator rod Drive frame Rear Pony truck Front Pony truck Bearing and axle box Leaf spring Brake shoe Air brake pump Front Center coupler Whistle Main article: Steam locomotive components. Further information: Category:locomotive parts.

See also: Thermal insulation. Lagging on Early Steam Locomotives. Main article: Safety valve. Main article: Pressure measurement. Main articles: Spark arrestor and smokebox. Main article: Mechanical stoker. Main article: Condensing steam locomotive. See also: Railway brake. See also: Lubrication. Main article: Buffer rail transport. Main article: Train whistle. Main article: Cylinder locomotive.

Main article: Valve gear. Main article: Compound locomotive. Main article: Articulated locomotive. Main article: Duplex locomotive. Main article: Geared steam locomotive. Main articles: Steam turbine and Steam turbine locomotive. Main article: Fireless locomotive. Main articles: Steam diesel hybrid locomotive , Electric-steam locomotive , and Heilmann locomotive. Main article: List of locomotive builders.

Further information: List of South African locomotive classes. Further information: List of heritage railways and Steam locomotives of the 21st century. The Biedermeier Period coin featuring a steam locomotive. The state quarter representing Utah, depicting the golden spike ceremony. History of rail transport List of steam technology patents Live steam Reciprocating motion Steam locomotive production Steam railroad Steam turbine locomotive Timeline of railway history.

The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. Hamlyn Publishing Group. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Our Home Railways, volume one. London: Frederick Warne and Co.

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Google Books. Dog Ear Publishing — via Google Books. Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 13 June A south Wales town has begun months of celebrations to mark the th anniversary of the invention of the steam locomotive. Steel Wheels.

Cannwood Press. Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive reprint ed. The Hamlyn Publishing Group. History of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.


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Back Track. Atlantic Transport Publishers. The British Steam Railway Locomotive from to Koopmans: The fire burns much better Semmens and A. Retrieved 12 November The American Steam Locomotive, Vol. Archived from the original on 7 January Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 29 May OED Online. March Accessed May 22, Locomotives seventh ed. Mechanical Engineering: Railways.

London: Longman. The Great Book of Trains. London: Salamander Books. Cass City Chronicle : 3. Archived from the original PDF on 26 September Retrieved 26 September US National Park Service online history resource. Retrieved 9 November London: British Transport Commission. Railway Magazine. London: International Printing Company. UK Statute Law Database. Retrieved 5 March Bruce, First Edition, W. Compound locomotives, an international survey. Penryn, England: Atlantic Transport Publishers. Archived from the original on 2 December Archived from the original on 20 February Cassell's Engineer's Handbook.

London: Cassell and Company. Locomotive Practice and Performance in the Twentieth Century. The British Steam Railway Locomotive — London: Bracken Books. XIII : — Retrieved 10 July British Transport Commission. Life magazine. Retrieved 24 November Trains Magazine. November Textile mills, heavy machinery and the pumping of coal mines all depended heavily on old technologies of power: waterwheels, windmills and horsepower were usually the only sources available. Changes in steam technology, however, began to change the situation dramatically.

As early as Thomas Newcomen first unveiled his steam-driven piston engine, which allowed the more efficient pumping of deep mines. Steam engines improved rapidly as the century advanced, and were put to greater and greater use. More efficient and powerful engines were employed in coalmines, textile mills and dozens of other heavy industries. By perhaps 2, steam engines were eventually at work in Britain. Usage terms Public Domain New inventions in iron manufacturing, particularly those perfected by the Darby family of Shropshire, allowed for stronger and more durable metals to be produced.

The spinning of cotton into threads for weaving into cloth had traditionally taken place in the homes of textile workers. The weaving process was similarly improved by advances in technology. Steam technology would produce yet more change. Constant power was now available to drive the dazzling array of industrial machinery in textiles and other industries, which were installed up and down the country. Large industrial buildings usually employed one central source of power to drive a whole network of machines. Other industries flourished under the factory system.

In Birmingham, James Watt and Matthew Boulton established their huge foundry and metal works in Soho, where nearly 1, people were employed in the s making buckles, boxes and buttons, as well as the parts for new steam engines. Usage terms Public Domain Though not all factories were bad places to work, many were dismal and highly dangerous. Some factories were likened to prisons or barracks, where workers encountered harsh discipline enforced by factory owners. Many children were sent there from workhouses or orphanages to work long hours in hot, dusty conditions, and were forced to crawl through narrow spaces between fast-moving machinery.

A working day of 12 hours was not uncommon, and accidents happened frequently. Though many mines stood close to rivers or the sea, the shipping of coal was slowed down by unpredictable tides and weather. Because of the growing demand for this essential raw material, many mine owners and industrial speculators began financing new networks of canals, in order to link their mines more effectively with the growing centres of population and industry. The early canals were small but highly beneficial. In , for example, the Duke of Bridgewater opened a canal between his colliery at Worsley and the rapidly growing town of Manchester.

Other canal building schemes were quickly authorised by Acts of Parliament, in order to link up an expanding network of rivers and waterways. By , over 2, miles of canals were in use in Britain, carrying thousands of tonnes of raw materials and manufactured goods by horse-drawn barge.

Usage terms Public Domain Most roads were in a terrible state early in this period. Many were poorly maintained and even major routes flooded during the winter. Journeys by stagecoach were long and uncomfortable.