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French literature , the body of written works in the French language produced within the geographic and political boundaries of France. The French language was one of the five major Romance languages to develop from Vulgar Latin as a result of the Roman occupation of western Europe. Since the Middle Ages, France has enjoyed an exceptional position in European intellectual life.

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In medieval times, because of the far-reaching and complex system of feudal allegiances not least the links of France and England , the networks of the monastic orders, the universality of Latin, and the similarities of the languages derived from Latin, there was a continual process of exchange, in form and content, among the literatures of western Europe. The evolution of the nation-states and the rise in prestige of vernacular languages gradually eroded the unifying force of these relationships.

From the early modern period onward, France developed its own distinctive and many-stranded cultural tradition, which, while never losing sight of the riches of the medieval base and the Judeo-Christian biblical tradition, has come chiefly to be thought of as Mediterranean in its allegiance , rooted in the imitation of Classical models as these were mediated through the great writers and thinkers of Renaissance Italy.

In this version, French culture prizes reason, formal perfection, and purity of language and is to be admired for its thinkers as much as for its writers. Other aspects of this legacy—the skepticism of Descartes, calling into question authoritarian axioms; the violent, self-seeking intensity of Racinian passion, fueled by repression and guilt; and the abrasive irony that Voltaire turned against established bigotry , prejudice , and injustice—were less well viewed in the circles of established order.

Frequently forced underground, these and their inheritors nevertheless gave energy to the revolutionary ethos that constituted another, equally French, contribution to the radical traditions of western Europe. The political and philosophical revolutions installed by the end of the 18th century, in the name of science and reason, were accompanied by transformations in the form and content of French writing.

Over the turn of the 19th century and beyond, an emergent Romantic sensibility challenged the Neoclassical ideal, which had become a pale and timid imitation of its former self. The new orthodoxy asserted the claims of imagination and feeling against reason and of individual desire against social and moral convention. The syllable alexandrine that had been used to such effect by Jean Racine remained the standard line in verse, but the form was relaxed and reinvigorated; and the thematic domain of poetry was extended successively by Victor Hugo , Alfred de Vigny , Charles Baudelaire , and Arthur Rimbaud.

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All poetic form was thrown into the melting pot by the Modernist revolutions at the turn of the 20th century. As the novel overtook poetry and drama to become the dominant literary form in the 19th century, French writers explored the possibilities of the genre and, in some cases, reinvented it. In the work of other writers, such as Stendhal , Gustave Flaubert , and Marcel Proust , each following his own distinctive path, a different kind of realism emerged, focused on a preoccupation with the analysis of individual action, motivation, and desire as well as a fascination with form.

Between them, the 19th-century French novelists traced the fate of the individualistic sensibilities born of aristocratic and high bourgeois culture as they engaged with the collectivizing forms of a nation moving toward mass culture and the threshold of democracy. During the first half of the 20th century, Paris remained the hub of European intellectual and artistic life. Its position was challenged from the s, and especially after World War II , by Anglo-American writers, many of whom honed their own skills within its culture and its borders; but it still continued to generate modes of thinking and writing that others followed.

From the s, proponents of the nouveau roman , or New Novel , mounted a radical attack on the conventions of the genre. At the same time, boulevard drama felt on its neck the breath of the avant-garde; and from the s onward French writers began stimulating new approaches to almost every field of rational inquiry. The international status of the French language has declined steadily since World War II, with the rise of American market hegemony and, especially, with the rapid spread of decolonization. The contribution of Francophone authors outside its borders to the renewal of French literary traditions has become increasingly significant.

This article focuses on French literature produced within the Hexagon, as the country of France is often called because of the configuration of its boundaries, from the 9th century to which the earliest surviving fragmentary texts belong to the present day. Literary works written in French in countries outside the Hexagon, including former dependencies, are discussed under the appropriate national entries. For the French literature of Belgium, for example, see Belgian literature: French.

Other related entries of significance are Anglo-Norman literature and African literature: Modern literatures in European languages. Gaul was overrun by Germanic tribes, in the north principally by the Franks who gave France its name and by the Visigoths and Merovingians in the south. But the Latin speech survived: not only was it the language of the majority of the population, but it was also backed by its associations with the old Roman culture and with the new Christian religion, which used Low Latin, its own form of the Roman tongue. While it retained relatively few Celtic words, the developing language had its vocabulary greatly enriched by Germanic borrowings, and its phonetic development was influenced by Germanic speech habits.

The 9th-century Norse incursions and settlement of Normandy, by contrast, left few traces in the language. The Romans had introduced written literature, and until the 12th century almost all documents and other texts were in Latin. A German version also survives. Only a few other texts, all religious in content, survive from before about Early texts show a broad division between the speech of northern Gaul, which had suffered most from the invasions, and that in the more stable, cultured south, where the Latin spoken was less subject to change. From the last one stemmed Anglo-Norman, the French used alongside English in Britain, especially among the upper classes, from even before the Norman Conquest until well into the 14th century.

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Each dialect had its own literature. But, for various reasons, the status of Francien increased until it achieved dominance in the Middle French period after , and from it Modern French developed. Old French was a fine literary medium, enlarging its vocabulary from other languages such as Arabic, Occitan, and Low Latin. It had a wide phonetic range and, until the decay of the two-case system it had inherited from Latin, syntactic flexibility.

Whatever Classical literature survived the upheavals of the early Middle Ages was preserved, along with pious Latin works, in monastic libraries.

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By encouraging scholars and writers, Charlemagne had increased the Latin heritage available to educated vernacular authors of later centuries. He also left his image as a great warrior-emperor to stimulate the legend-making process that generated the Old French epic. There one finds exemplified the feudal ideal, evolved by the Franks, that was the means of establishing a hierarchy of dependency and, thereby, a cohesiveness that would lead to a national identity.

As stability increased under the Capetians , windows opened onto other cultures and elements: that of the Arabs in Spain and, with the Crusades, the East; the advanced Occitan civilization; and the legends of Celtic Britain. The Roman Catholic church grew in wealth and power, and by the 12th century its schools were flourishing, training generations of clerks in the liberal arts.

Society itself became less embattled, and the nobility became more leisured and sophisticated.

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The machismo of the epics was tempered by the social graces of courtoisie : generosity, modesty, and consideration for others, especially the weak and distressed, and by a concept of love that did not view it as a weakness in a knight but as an inspiration consistent with chivalry. By the 13th century an additional source of patronage for writers and performers was the bourgeoisie of the developing towns. New genres emerged, and, as literacy increased, prose found favour alongside verse. Much of the literature of the time is enlivened by a rather irreverent spirit and a sometimes cynical realism, yet it also possesses a countercurrent of deep spirituality.

In the 14th and 15th centuries France was ravaged by war, plague, and famine. Along with a preoccupation in literature with death and damnation, there appeared a contrasting refinement of expression and sentiment bred of nostalgia for the courtly, chivalric ideal. At the same time a new humanistic learning anticipated the coming Renaissance. Skip to main content. Request new password. Professional Regulations - Texts The French legal system is based, like many others in Europe, on Roman law and respect for the primacy of law.

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French parents are not free to choose the state school that their children will attend; unless the children have special learning needs, they will attend the school allocated to them by the carte scolaire school map. Reasons for attending a state school which is not their nearest include studying an option unavailable in the school to which they were originally assigned e. For many reasons, many parents consider the allocated school inadequate, particularly if they do not like the idea of their children mixing with some of the other pupils at the school.

The Middle Ages

This is especially the case in poor neighbourhoods with large foreign immigrant populations. The two main methods used in such circumstances to get children into a school other than their assigned school are:. A similar trick is used in cases where some classes in a school are seen as "better" than others. For organisational reasons, students taking certain options are grouped into special classes, which may be academically attractive.

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These typically include classes taking German as a first foreign language, or Latin or Ancient Greek as options. After the seconde , most French students choose a general course. In all courses, some subjects occupy more hours in the student's timetable. The syllabus in the specialisation class is unrelated to the material learned in the common class. The courses are designed for students who do not plan to continue into higher education. The vocational training is for craftspeople and involves internships in commercial enterprises.

The courses are suitable for students who are more interested in a hands-on educational approach than in academic schooling.

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