A conference paper in electronic form from a conference proceedings which is published on a regularly basis. Herculano-Houzel, S. The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. If the conference paper has been retrieved from a database which is not open for all you should not write the direct link to the document.
The example below is from the database ERIC:. Kamii, C. Why is the use of a ruler so hard? Retrieved from ERIC database. ERIC No. If an entry does not have an author, the title of the entry is placed in the author's place. For web based reference publications, state the date of retrieval, since contents may be changed over time. Link to the homepage or start page of the reference publication.
VandenBos, G. APA dictionary of psychology. Taparia, N.
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Columbia encyclopedia 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: Columbia Press. Treat these references as chapters in books above. If an entry has one or several authors, they should be stated. Add web address if it is an online source. The following example is structured like a chapter in a book.
Graham, G. Zalta Ed. If an entry has no author, state the entry word first. Add web address if it is an online source see example above. In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary 11th ed. Entries in Wikipedia are usually of uncertain date, therefore use n. In Wikipedia. If there is no author stated but there is an organization behind the web site, the organization name should be given as author corporate author. If no date is available on the web site, use n. Since web site content might be edited from time to time, it is very important to state the retrieval date.
World Trade Organization. Nicholson, J. APA writing style assistance and grammar pearls. Some of the examples below, like Facebook and Twitter, are not included in the latest APA style manual, but suggestions are given on how to construct them. Social media, which includes blogs, Facebook and Twitter posts, are usually not archived for posterity. With this last point in mind, it is a good idea to self-archive this kind of documents, in print or digitally, if you are using them as source material for a paper.
Remember that the main point is to be clear and make your sources retrievable. Write the author name or author nickname, followed by year, month and day of entry. Also state document type in square brackets. Rosenhouse, J. What is scientism? Re: What is scientism? The APA style manual does not give any guidance on how to construct Facebook references. In the meantime, before any guidelines are created by APA, here are some suggestions on how to construct such references, partly taken from the APA Style Blog.
Obama, B. Facebook pages that are private or for friends only cannot be retrieved by everyone and should therefore be treated like personal communication and only cited in the text of the document.
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Construct Twitter posts in the same way as Facebook posts see above. Help on schoolwork in the New Year: use the rich archives of science journalism found on Science News for Kids. Audiovisual media incorporates motion pictures, radio and television broadcasts, podcasts, static objects like maps, artwork, and photos. Format: Producer, A. Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.
Grazer, B. A beautiful mind [Motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios. This includes, for example, instructional and educational videos. Use descriptions of main entry main contributor , such as producer. A producer may be an organization. If a work is available from a web site, a link to this site should be given. Format: Producer Producer.
Title of video [Medium of recording: DVD, videocassette etc. Available from link. American Psychological Association Producer. Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. The title of the news report video is moved to author position, in italics, followed by description of medium [Video file] and, like newspaper articles, year and date. The reference ends with a link to the video:.
Title of news report [Medium]. Year and date. The daring message hidden on Hong Kong's tallest skyscraper [Video file].
Main entries are constructed in the same way as motion pictures see above. Use descriptions like writer and director. The whole reference is constructed in the same way as a chapter in a book. Use appropriate description in square brackets. Format: Writer, A. Episode title [Television series episode]. Producent Executive producer , Name of television series. Location: Television or media company.
Example: Egan, D. Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. Shore Executive producer , House. State producer as main entry. Write year, month and day in square brackets. Give appropriate media description in square brackets, such as audio podcast or video podcast. Add link to website. Year, month and day. Title of podcast [Medium]. Example: Van Nuys, D.
Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. As main entry, state the name of the person or persons who have written the piece of music, and not the one who has recorded it. If some one else other than the originator has recorded it, this is stated in square brackets. If the recording year is not the same as the main entry year, this is stated last in parantheses. Copyright year. Title of song [Recorded by B. Artist if different from writer]. Location: Label. Year of recording if different from song copyright year. Example: Song writer and artist is the same person: Lang, K. Shadow and the frame.
On Watershed [CD]. Song writer and performing artist are not the same: Jagger, M. Gimme shelter [Recorded by av P.
On Twelve [CD]. New York, NY: Columbia.
In the latest edition of APA's style manual, this type of refere nce is not included. But according to APA's facebook pages, such a reference can be constructed in the following way:. Format: Artist. Year of recording if different from copyright year. The wall [CD]. Original work published This type consists of works in progress, submitted to publisher for publication or works that are finished but have not yet been submitted for publication. This category also includes works that have not been formally published but are available on personal or institutional web sites.
Web address is stated when the document is retrieved from the Internet. Unpublished manuscript [alternatively "Manuscript submitted for publication" or "Manuscript in progress" etc. Example: Limberg, L. Unpublished manuscript. It is a very good idea to state a university or organizational affiliation when this is stated in the document. Web address is given when the document is retrieved from the Internet. Blackwell, E. A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives.
If the year is not known, n. Dahlqvist, J. The market newness of new ventures. Manuscript submitted for publication. Write the inventors' names as entry in the reference list. Add the publication year also issue date of the patent, not the filing date. If you have found the patent in a database, the name of the database should be stated. Format: Inventor. Publication year. Patent number. Retrieved from Database name. Example: Appleman, B. US A1. Retrieved from Google Patents. Please note! According to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6.
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