Shaffer gained responses from Druids in the U. Of these respondents, This reflected a greater proportion of heterosexuals than in the broader American Pagan community. The historian Ronald Hutton estimated that, in , there were approximately members of Druid groups in England, two-thirds of whom were OBOD members. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Modern spiritual or religious movement that promotes connection and reverence for the natural world. This article is about the modern new religious movement. For the Iron Age priests of Celtic religion, see Druid.
Science & Religion: Diviners, Druids and Witches
Main article: Awen. The British Museum. Retrieved 1 December Modern Druids have no direct connection to the Druids of the Iron Age. Many of our popular ideas about the Druids are based on the misunderstandings and misconceptions of scholars years ago. These ideas have been superseded by later study and discoveries.
British Archaeology Forensic Science SA. Retrieved 26 September San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. North Bay Nugget. Michael Introduction to new and alternative religions in America. Westport, Conn. Retrieved 4 January Available online on ODF's website. Available online on IDG's website pdf. Ancient Order of Druids in America. Retrieved 8 December Accessed 12 December BBC News Online.
Retrieved 2 October Charity Commission for England and Wales. Adler, Margot .
London: Penguin. Anczyk, Adam The Polish Journal of the Arts and Culture. Berger, Helen A. Bowman, Marion In Joanne Pearson eds. Milton Keynes: Open University.
CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link Butler, Jenny In Michael F. Strmiska ed. Modern Paganism in World Cultures. Oxford and Lanham: Altamira. Cooper, Michael T. Cunliffe, Barry Druids: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. Doyle White, Ethan Gieser, Thorsten CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link Hale, Amy Cornish Studies. Harvey, Graham Howell, Francesca Ciancimino In Kathryn Rountree ed.
New York and Oxford: Berghahn. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link Hutton, Ronald Witches, Druids, and King Arthur.
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London and New York: Hambledon and London. Hutton, Ronald Hutton, Ronald b. Letcher, Andy Researching Paganisms. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press. In James R. Lewis and Murphy Pizza eds. Handbook of Contemporary Paganisms. Leiden: Brill. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link Shallcrass, Philip As with many modern Neopagan religions the modern druid if approaching Druidism from a religious perspective is more likely to adhere to a polythestic or duo centric religion and worship either a God and Goddess or a pantheon of likely Celtic deities.
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The influence of the nature religion can be seen in many of the Celtic myths and the Celtic deities Cernunnos the Horned God likely being from Druidic inspiration. Similar to Traditional Witchcraft the Druids place significant emphasis on the teachings of their ancestors and those who have gone before. The modern Druid seeks to reinterpret the lessons of those who have trodden the path before us to make the spiritual traditions relevant to modern times.
An example of a modern focus would be learning environmental awareness and looking for ways to improve the health of the planet. The Druids consider animal life to be sacred and believe that individual species of animals can offer wisdom and foresight to the man who takes the time to listen. Animal life is revered but the olden day Druids would not have opposed hunting to kill for sustenence. Later, as more migrations occurred, tribes which have come to be labelled as Celtic settled in these lands, and Druidism evolved as both a spiritual and cultural force that existed from Ireland in the West to Brittany in the East, and possibly as far as Anatolia, now Turkey.
Druidism flourished for over a thousand years until the arrival of Christianity. By the sixth century it had ceased to exist in its complete form, and it was only revived after another thousand years, in the seventeenth century. During the time that Druidry flourished, the classical writers tell us that they were organized into three groupings — Bards, Ovates and Druids. The Druids were teachers and philosophers; the Bards were poets, storytellers and musicians, who used their knowledge of the power of the word and of sound to inspire and enthral, to entertain and to charm — and even to bewitch.
The Ovates were seers and diviners, and it seems likely that they were also healers, herbalists and midwives. It was the Ovates who were skilled in reading omens and divining auguries — whether from the flight of birds, the shape of clouds, or the behaviour of animals or the weather — and it was the Ovates whose task it was to heal, using their knowledge of herbs and spells to cure disease in humans and livestock.
The Ovate seems, in many ways, identical to the type of person many people would describe as a Witch. But what became of the Ovates? With the triumph of Christianity over all indigenous faiths in Britain by about the sixth century, the Bardic tradition continued, with schools of Bards existing in Ireland, Wales and Scotland until the seventeenth century.
The Druids, being the professional elite, were absorbed into the new dispensation. Nothing more is heard of the Ovates, who seem to simply disappear.
Pagan beliefs: nature, druids and witches
Or did they? If you knew how to cure someone, would you stop doing this under a new religious order? Would you refrain from passing on your knowledge to your children, or to your students, so that they too might cure others? The same goes for midwifery skills, for the knowledge of tree, herb and animal lore, and for the ability to do magic, to make spells and potions. It is likely that, with the coming of Christianity, the Ovate stream of Druidry went underground but did not die out, because you cannot prevent this kind of knowledge from being passed on — even though it may change in the passing.
It is possible that through word-of-mouth tradition, the Ovate stream of Druidry became one of the sources that fed later generations of healers and followers of the Old Ways, until they came to be known as the Cunning Folk.