Guide Hybrid identity formation of migrants: A case study of ethnic Turks in Germany

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The relation between immigrant groups and the larger society has come to the fore, and different strategies have been proposed for how to better integrate immigrants in their new surroundings. This paper focuses on how ethnic identities and cultures are maintained and transformed in diasporic situations, namely though music. Through a systematic review of academic articles published in the last 20 years, this paper investigates the role of music in cultural identity formation among ethnic groups.

The review finds that the literature stresses four particular areas: context the diasporic situation ; space for recognition and resistance; time and memory to allow identity maintenance and transformation; and politics social subordination or resistance. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of further studies on identity formation in diaspora, not least about diasporic consciousness as a resource and restriction in the social positioning and orientation of groups. Ethnic identify formation among immigrants is a recurrent theme within broader debates on issues such as migration, integration, and social cohesion.

While studies have demonstrated that connections to home countries foster cohesion in diasporic communities Erol , it is still unclear whether internal social cohesion distances these communities from the society around them or encourages relations to and exchanges with it.

Political debates about international terrorism have stressed the dangers of identity polarisation in opposition to the surrounding society. At the same time, some commentators stress that a multicultural society can thrive only if its members have access to their cultural heritage and that strong collective identities do not necessarily lead to oppositional attitudes to others Taylor Engaging with one's cultural roots does not mean being walled off by tradition; rather, such engagement is an essential part of an individual's or group's effort to orient itself in society Gilroy Because culture is a process Hall , not a stable and complete product, cultural resources — artefacts, rituals, and knowledge — provide the basis for continuous construction and renegotiation of ethnic identities.

Ethnic identity formation is, therefore, a contested and challenging issue in politics and research, and it has broad implications for minority communities and individuals, as well as for society at large. In political and public discussions, the relationship between immigrant groups and the wider society has come to the fore, and different strategies have been proposed for how to better integrate immigrants in their new surroundings Vertovec It is noteworthy that whereas models of multiculturalism still seem to be applied to indigenous peoples and national minorities, their applicability to immigrant groups has been questioned Kymlicka Multiculturalism — both as an idea and an institutional framework — has been seriously challenged, and many countries are pondering how to foster social cohesion; one issue related to this concerns the relationship between ethnic identities and the wider society.

This paper focuses on a particular aspect of identity formation in diaspora: the role of music. It involves a variety of social meanings and operates at all levels of society, from the individual to the global, and plays a key role in many people's lives Hallam It has multiple functions; it can allow people to understand themselves, form and maintain social groups, engage in emotional communication, and mobilise for political purposes, among other functions.

Studies within ethnomusicology, however, stress that music not only is a cultural and expressive practice that bonds group members together, but can also cross boundaries between social identities and shape new ones Cidra ; Pettan and Titon ; Post ; Stoker Questions about the ways in which ethnic identities are maintained and transformed in diasporic situations have been voiced for a number of years, and the growing number of studies on the role of music in ethnic identity formation makes it important to summarise the research done so far and provide an overview of this growing field.

The fact that much of the research so far tends to take the form of idiographic studies of particular genres and contexts Rice points to the need for this kind of general overview. This paper reviews studies on the role of music in identity formation among ethnic groups. Through a systematic literature review, it presents the focus, design, and theoretical underpinning of these studies along with their results.

The ambition of this paper is not to develop a coherent theory of how music shapes ethnic identities; rather, it is to give an overview of the field, summarise important findings, and search for areas in need of future research. It is not within the scope of this paper to provide a comprehensive study of this extensive issue, but a first step towards a broader understanding is made here by giving an overview of the field. The paper comprises six parts, this introduction being the first. The second part elaborates a little further on the topic of the study by discussing music's role in identity formation more generally, as well as the conceptual meaning of diaspora.

The third part presents the empirical study, the research review, and the methodological and empirical implications of its design. In the fourth part, a general characterisation of the material is given. The fifth part conducts a deeper analysis of the material, in particular by identifying four thematic areas in which the reviewed publications are centred.

The sixth and concluding part discusses some issues of central importance that hitherto have not been given sufficient attention. Before presenting the study the literature review , it is necessary to present some more thoughts about the topic of this study. Focusing on the role of music in identity formation in diaspora raises two questions: what does the research have to say about the role of music in identity formation in general? Music is a human universal, but its meaning is not Titon b. It occurs in many settings and includes many different kinds of action and ways of organising sound into meanings.

Researchers have stressed that the fundamental meaning of music lies not in objects e. This activity is not unidirectional, from musician to listener. Instead, it is a dynamic process involving context and culture, thereby creating, maintaining, and changing meanings. The theme of the relationship between music and identity is growing in importance in music studies, not least within the subfield of ethnomusicology Rice Music is a constitutive part of culture and hence is important for individual and social identity formation.

It can serve as a space and practice that binds group members together, so that they understand themselves as belonging to each other and maybe even having a specific task or mission to accomplish. Through musicking, emotional, social, and cognitive ties can develop, implying the construction and enactment of a social identity and a social memory where the individual and social are linked Sheleman An important part of all identity formation is the making of boundaries; music can be used to draw boundaries between groups, thereby shaping and strengthening social identities Rice , p.

Due to globalisation processes, with their flows of ideas, people and products, hybridisations are continuously arising between cultural identities, practices and belongings Ong ; Robinson Individuals and groups constantly must respond and relate to new phenomena and practices, and it is increasingly difficult to speak of distinct and fixed cultures. This also applies to music, where the global spread of musical genres provides opportunities for musical hybridity, which may influence identity formation.

To sum up, music provides an opportunity for the expression of identity, and it can facilitate the reproduction and transformation of established social identities. Music provides resources for a group to construct and renegotiate its identity, but it may also be a resource for controlling space and pushing groups into the periphery. Diaspora is a vague term, the meaning and coverage of which have shifted over time and have been stretched in various directions, thereby acquiring a broad semantic domain Brubaker ; Shuval ; Silverman In its most general and fundamental sense, diaspora concerns a triadic relation — between a group of people, a host country and a homeland — but the character of this relation and the meaning of its parts are contested.

Originally, the idea of diaspora was developed to conceptualise the historical experience and current situation of peoples that for different reasons have been dispersed and must live between two cultures. The Jewish and Armenian experiences often serve as paradigmatic examples. Diaspora denoted forced dispersal, exile, and loss Clifford Those belonging to the diaspora experienced a tension between physically being in one place where you live and work but mentally being somewhere else which you regularly think about and long for.

In contrast to this view, constructivist understandings of diaspora have emerged, where diaspora is not seen as a product and entity, but as a dynamic process of lived experience. This does not mean that diaspora ceases to be a relevant concept. Identity formation always takes place in particular contexts, and diaspora is a particular context where an immigrant minority's origin real or mythical is privileged Anthias Diaspora concerns being part of an ongoing transnational network that includes dispersed people who retain a sense of their uniqueness and an interest in their homeland — a subjective experience of displacement.

It is a social construct founded on feelings, consciousness, memory, and mythology, one that narrates and gives meaning to a particular group identity Shuval , p. A persisting transnational network that includes a homeland does not, however, necessitate a binary relation between diaspora and homeland, but rather can constitute a dynamic field of ongoing relations among diaspora communities as well as between these communities and their respective homelands.

A diasporic identity is only one of many identities a person may encompass. Due to their multiple belongings, members can navigate between different cultural claims and negotiate their identity in relation to different contexts and cultures. As studies on flexible citizenship have shown, cultural citizenship is not something unilaterally constructed by a state, to which the population then acquiesces Ong ; Studemeyer Instead, groups take active part in its mutual construction.

At the same time, the national context is important, as it often provides schemes of racial differences which homogenise immigrants with different backgrounds Studemeyer Also, a diaspora can be strategically used for social and political reasons, either by the group itself, to gain a privileged position Safran , or by other groups, resulting in an essentialisation of the diasporic identity, which becomes a bounded and fixed entity in which the different experiences and expectations of the members are homogenised.

To sum up, even if it is difficult to separate diaspora from other kinds of minority communities, it does have a distinctive feature: it involves a collective memory or myth of, and connection with, something seen as a homeland culture Safran ; Shuval The content of this homeland culture and the border between it and other contexts and cultures are not given, however, but are constantly negotiated and renegotiated. This means that much of current political and public discussions — referred to in the introduction to this paper — are oversimplified.

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They are often based on a particular view of national integration where cultures and ethnic populations are distinct and static entities that are not a part of a national culture, and where the general problem is to find a proper balance between minority cultures and the culture of the society at large. Instead, current research on diasporic communities stresses that identification with political or geographical entities does not need to be binary, but often involves several belongings and loyalties Shuval It can be of a quantitative character, where the aim is to understand what works and what does not, how a certain process or intervention works, and why certain processes or interventions work; on the other hand, it may be of a qualitative character, where the aim is primarily to characterise the research conducted within a field.

The research review conducted in this paper is performed in three steps. As a first step, the research topic is developed in terms of key words and combinations of key words.

1 Introduction

As a second step, a literature search is carried out by retrieving references from a specialised database. The first gathering of references is collected in the form of abstracts that are read in order to determine whether they discuss the topic under study. The most relevant of them are then singled out for deeper consideration. The third step is to read and analyse the selected articles using a specific procedure protocol developed to focus on their central aspects.

This study uses the database Sociological Abstracts , which covers 1, serial publications in the social and behavioural sciences see appendix for more information about this database. The Proquest platform has been used as a search application. The search was conducted in October As the list shows, the search resulted in hits, but due to overlaps different search strings find some of the same articles , the total number of articles found was All abstracts were read, and 31 articles were found to be relevant and selected for detailed analysis.

The articles are published by 23 different journals, most of which are in the field of cultural studies see Table 1. It is difficult to synthesise contextual information and make a coherent whole of studies involving different assumptions, designs, and areas of focus Petticrew and Roberts , p. However, the aim of this study is not to map the state of knowledge or to elaborate a coherent theory on music's role in ethnic identity formation; rather, it is modestly to explore research that discusses this topic, summarise the findings, and also point to topics in need of future studies.

Hybrid identity formation of migrants

Like all research designs, this study has its limitations. The main problem for systematic literature reviews is that even if they are systematically conducted, they may be biased in terms of not including all relevant journals, all formats or all languages. All databases are specialised, implying that in many cases there is no perfect match between a single database and a research topic, resulting in key literature perhaps not being included in the review. Sociological Abstracts covers 1, serial publications in social sciences and behavioural science, but provides less coverage of humanities.

The research topic studied here is a social scientific issue; however, there are still relevant journals that are not indexed by Sociological Abstracts. International databases are built on serial publications, meaning that monographs, dissertations, and reports are only covered to a very limited degree. International databases mainly include literature written in English. This means that literature from regions and countries where English is not dominant is not well represented in the literature review.

Sociological Abstracts covers the central areas of the studied topic. It indexes journals that explicitly focus on ethnicity, diaspora, identity, and music. As shown above Table 1 , the reviewed articles are published in journals of broad scope, covering culture, migration, identity, and music. It should also be noted that this study is of an exploratory character, and is intended to take the initial steps towards characterising the field and its findings.

Table 1 above lists the 23 journals where they appear, while Table 2 below gives an overview of the content and character of the papers. Concerning this latter category, it should be noted that some papers are empirical studies that do not relate to any specific theory or make use of any theoretical concept. The analysed papers employ a variety of theoretical approaches and empirical focuses. It is important to note that none of them has a quantitative design, i.

Another characteristic is that the vast majority of the studies concerns diasporic communities in Europe and North America. Of the original articles studied review articles excluded , 12 of them analyse cases from Europe, ten from North America seven from the US and three from Canada , three from Asia two from Japan and one from Jordan , and one each from Africa Algeria , Australia and South America Brazil. Thus, as stressed above, there is reason to believe that this result is partly caused by restricting the study to review articles published in the English language.

The analysis of the findings is structured around four themes: context the diasporic situation , space, collective memory historical consciousness , and politics subordination or resistance. To construct these themes is not unproblematic. While Turkey is largely known as an immigrant sending country there are also episodes of large scale international migration. However, little is known about the economic impacts of these migration flows in the Turkish context. This research project is going to explore the impact of the large scale immigration of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria to Turkey during the late s.

The impact of this migration on the labour market outcomes of native workers i. The study will contribute to both the migration literature in the Turkish context and also the economics of immigration literature in general. The theoretical framework in economics predicts that a shift in the supply of workers due to immigration should reduce the wages and employment opportunities of competing native workers in the receiving country. While the theoretical predictions are clear many studies that try to empirically test these predictions find impacts that contradict these predictions.

In this research project we exploit a natural experiment that increased the supply of labor in certain cities in a very short period of time in some Turkish cities and towns following the arrival of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria. These immigrants were especially placed by government in regions where immigrants from previous waves of immigration to Turkey from Balkans are residing.

The study will be the first one to explore the labor market impacts of international migration in the Turkish context and will contribute to the intense debate in economics literature by providing evidence from a developing country. Overview: This research project will examine political and policy processes behind patterns and dynamics of irregular migration in Turkey, Spain and Greece.

Therefore this research seeks answers to the questions on the policies and politics of irregular migration: why do states treat irregular migrants differently while there is a move toward harmonization of laws and regulations in this area? Under what conditions and to what extent do different policy processes, politics, and democratic principles constrain such divergence? While seeking answers to these questions the research will focus on both external i.

Hybrid identity formation of migrants: A case study of ethnic Turks in Germany

Europeanization and domestic factors i. The project will conceptualize Europeanization as the impact of European Union EU rules and regulations on polity and politics in both member states and accession countries. As for domestic factors the project will focus on the ideas around democratic accountability horizontal and vertical , and participation which operate through state agencies and civil society organizations. Through conducting multidisciplinary comparative research on international migration in urban areas of Turkey, Italy and Spain and initiating a dynamic dialogue among related stakeholders policy-makers, civil society activists, public officials, experts and researchers.

The project activities consisted of comparative multidisciplinary research, networking and exchange of visiting lecturers and researchers, international conferences and workshops, a pilot training course, as well as publications. The project activities are categorized according to 6 work-packages, and include comparative multidisciplinary research, networking and exchange of visiting lecturers and researchers, international conferences and workshops, a pilot training course, as well as publications.

Institutions are chosen by a competitive selection process, taking into account the current transatlantic debate on migration and integration issues. The aim of this study was three-fold. The main focus of the project was on the historical process in which Turkey has been transformed from a nation-building stage to a trans-national state. Though the investigation focused on the international migration and asylum policies in Turkey, it also worked to gain insight into the question of how these policies are related to the social, political and economic spheres of the country.

Despite the recent increased attention given to the policies on international migration and asylum, little was known about the larger context, background and nature of these policies, including some of their social, political and economic components such as whole nation-building process in the early republican period , urbanization, rural-urban migration, and the temporary labor migration to Europe in the s and s, and the globalizing trends in the s and s. Therefore, the project worked to fill this gap by collecting and presenting original empirical data on the international migration and asylum policies and practices and their changing characteristics over time, and by assembling relevant data on the prospects of these policies in the coming decades.

With such a dual focus on neoliberalism, this research seeks to understand and explain how different trajectories of cities under neo-liberal policies account for the variation in tactics and strategies of incorporation and adaptation for migrant entrepreneurs. These strategies and tactics are embedded in not only the socio-economic and politico-institutional environment of the receiving locality but also the social networks to which migrants are affiliated.

Overview: Since s travel of Turkish nationals to European countries has been restricted via visa regimes due to the reasons mainly related with migration control. These restrictions and new regulations combined with the arbitrary and tiring practices of visa granting consular units led to many problems and have concrete impacts and effects for Turkish citizens. It is these effects that motivated the designation of this project. One can group these influences in two separate categories. The first category consists of mainly the impacts of these regulations and practices over the flows and human mobility.

Have visa procedures and practices led to a decrease in the number of Turkish nationals who travel Europe and have they led to some much more structural changes over the travel patterns and behavior of Turkish citizens, are the questions that can be asked from within this first category. Second category is about the socio-political impact of these policies. As it is known Turkey is the only country which signed a customs union agreement with the Union without being a full member. In these circumstances the visa creates a lot of repercussions over the functioning of this relationship between Turkey and the Union.

The visa influences dynamics of Turkey-EU relations as it creates an unfair competition between the European and Turkish traders and as it makes the accession process, cultural and social integration slower. Another indirect impact of the visa is related with the increasing Europhobia and nationalism. The visa itself would be one of the reason of increasing Europhobia and nationalism in Turkey. So this study will first try to discover the direct concrete effects of the visa.

The questions here are: Is there a decrease in the number of Turkish nationals visiting Europe, and is there any change on travel patterns of Turkish citizens? Then, the study will focus on the indirect effects of visa which is observable in the form of Europhobia and nationalism. Overview: In the last two decades Turkey has faced a considerable inflow of foreign migrants. According to the available data, also Azerbaijani and Armenian citizens are part of this migratory process. Due to historical, political, and cultural reasons, the neighbouring countries Armenia and Azerbaijan have different and particular relations with Turkey.

However, both, Armenia and Azerbaijan, are still suffering from the consequences generated in the post-socialist transition. The aim of the proposed research project is to describe the sociological characteristics of the Azerbaijani and Armenian migrants in Turkey in a comparative perspective and by an ethnographic approach. Accordingly the conditions determining the choice of migration and Turkey as a destination country have to be reconstructed.

That includes as well the construction of Azerbaijani and Armenian identities, their different perception of the Turk, their differing perception of the border between Turkey and these two countries, and finally their expectations concerning the new cultural environment. Conclusively the assumed change of these elements during the migratory experience has to be verified and evaluated.

Overview: Population removals, transfers and expulsions, which were heavily practiced by the Ottoman Empire, have also been legitimate ways of settling ethnic conflict in modern Turkey especially within the past twenty years. In doing so, it deploys a comparative analysis of historical population removals in the Empire according to their motivations economic, ethnic, religious, and military between the 16th and 20th centuries. Overview: With a whole array of political, economic and technological developments, a new media order is rapidly forming that renders geographic, national, cultural, ethnic and financial boundaries obsolete, and seeks its audiences transnationally.

These developments in media technologies have become major factors in influencing the ways in which migrants are being experienced around the world. Furthermore, they have also become highly effective and significant apparatuses for means of mobilizing diasporas around the world. This research proposes to scrutinise how the broadcast media in Turkey is positioning itself in relation to this new transnational media order.

There are currently more than twenty Turkish television channels that broadcast transnationally — via satellites — to the Turkish diaspora around the world. While two of these are extensions of TRT, the Turkish Public Broadcasting Service, this plethora of channels also include both privately owned, commercial and religiously affiliated, ideological channels. Recognising that at the centre of any given contemporary society and culture, media play a constitutive rather than a reflexive role, the necessity to question how media institutions themselves perceive of their transnational audiences, becomes pressing.

Drawing on policy, institutional, discourse and content analysis, this study aims to unravel the incentives, motives, intentions and expectations of Turkish satellite channels in relation to their transnational broadcasts. What is the importance of the Turkish diaspora? And within what sorts of frameworks is the Turkish expatriate conceived? Overview: This study will analyze how the organizational behavior of Turkish immigrant associations helps to explain the political participation of Turks in the US and the Netherlands, using metropolitan New York and Amsterdam as the study sites.

Political participation is one of the most important indicators of immigrant integration. Active participation through electoral voting, membership of political parties, unions, being elected to an office or non-electoral attending meetings or rallies, protests, demonstrations, boycotts, volunteering for campaigns, donating money to a political cause ways constitutes a prerequisite for their complete integration.

My study will focus on electoral participation. This study will take into account the way city level contextual factors structure political opportunities in the host country not only national and local naturalization requirements and registration and voting rules, but also those that affect immigrant organizations and their membership. Over the years, during the process of settlement, Turkish immigrants have formed a large number and diverse types of organisations in their respective host countries. Their formation and development were influenced and shaped by the changing political opportunity structures in the US and the Netherlands, as well as the political and institutional networks and ties retained with the home country.

Thus, I will explain the trajectories of organizational formation of Turks in both countries, assess their migration and settlement processes, how these organizations have been created and branched out over time, the political institutional framework of the host country, and the relations of the Turkish immigrants and their organizations to the country of origin.

I will further describe the structure of Turkish immigrant associations currently existing in both countries, especially in Amsterdam and New York, which will include number, and organizational density, size and number of umbrella organizations, main organizational principles and functional types of associations. Overview: To study migration is a necessity for understanding local dynamism and socio-spatial change. Thus Turkey emerges as a country constantly being shaped and re-shaped through migratory flows.

Unfortunately however migration scholarship was, -and this, up to very recent times- not provided with high quality representative data capable to support and inform neither comprehensive exploratory nor meaningful confirmatory empirical studies on migration.

The production of data bases capable to support multi dimensional migration studies is beyond the data gathering capabilities of scholars, groups and individual academic units. The proposed research will be based upon Public Use Samples extracted from the Census of and and will not involve any data gathering activity. The project will be based on new techniques of relational stratification devised by Ludovic Lebart. This new relational technique combining Correspondence Analysis and numerical taxonomy reduces large data sets into manageable sizes with a minimal information loss.

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The outcome of this proposed methodology is a permuted correspondence matrix. It enables the analyst not only to read off directly the share accounted by each province or eventually group of provinces in the overall migratory flows, but also its contribution to migration profiles of each destination.

The latter point is extremely important as it constitutes the distinctive property of the proposed methodology. The generation of this interaction or input-output matrix enables students to differentiate statistically significant migration flows from those that are not and guides empirical migration research towards flows that are highly influential in shaping the socio economic landscape.

Many scholars examined the characteristics of victims, the reasons of falling victims, traffickers, and their methods in various places of the world. However, there are still major gaps in the human trafficking literature. As a strategic place for political and geographical reasons, and having a dynamic and developing economy, Turkey has been an attractive place for those who look for better job opportunities and a place to live. Nevertheless, it had positive and negative consequences.

Among these negative effects is the trafficking in human beings for the sexual exploitation. Thus, this proposal is exploratory in nature, and aims to enlighten the process of trafficking starting with the conditions that motivate victims to migrate, their recruitment process, methods of transportation, exploitation and ending with the escape from the traffickers, and the structure of traffickers in Turkey and contribute to the human trafficking literature.

First examining the literature and theoretical explanations, this project proposes to use multiple sources of data such as police recorded victim data between the January and June , key personnel interview data, field observations, official reports as well as legal regulations and statistics. This research proposes the use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Analyses include descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, and making qualitative statements. This research expects to make promising policy and research implications.

Overview: This project aims to reveal the impact of internal migration-related dynamics on different industrial labor processes in a peripheral city quarter in Istanbul, Bagcilar. The primary objective will be to understand the interaction between migration conditions of workers and their workplace experiences. With the s, industrial relations have been going through a significant transformation along with the conditions of migration. As new groups of migrants join the urban space of peripheral neighborhoods, industrial practices become more multifarious: factories are complemented with the sweatshops and home-based work networks.

In return, these workplaces are populated with workers having different migration experiences: how are these differences reflected onto the everyday realities of production?

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The hypothesis is that different conditions of migration funnel individuals to different forms of labor. Thus, the variety of the conditions of migration for a given population eases the use of multiple forms of industrial labor. Characteristics of the pull factors, origin point of migration, and characteristics of the push factors will help to identify the differences in migration conditions.

These dimensions will clarify the association between migration experiences of workers and their conditions of employment. In order to cover the variety of experiences, three different forms of industrial labor will be the focus of the study: factory system, sweatshop labor, and home-based work. The reason why these three forms are chosen is that they can be investigated within one single supply chain. The method to investigate the dynamics regarding factory system and sweatshop labor will be participant observation, in-depth interviews, and structured interviews. For the home-based work; in-depth interviews, structured interviews, and time-use surveys will be the means of data collection.

Some data for the home-based work was generated in and Through a pilot study in Summer of , target workplaces were located: managers of an export-oriented garment factory will provide access to their facilities, their subsidiary sweatshops, and the middlepersons organizing the home-based work.

Consequently, it will be possible to distinguish between the differential impacts of migration-related dynamics in different workplaces connected as parts of one unitary supply chain. The proposed research is concerned with the study of the experience of the Iranian asylum seekers residing in a border satellite city, Van, South-eastern Turkey in the course of this transition process. It analyzes the effects of new legislative measures and current policies on the relationship between the asylum seekers and the official authorities.

In so doing, the research aims to develop an account of socio-political processes surrounding the practices of international migration and to understand the ways the category of asylum seeker is used, produced and adopted in a border satellite city. The proposed research will be composed of two parts. The first part will consists of a survey with Iranian asylum seekers who are recognized as refugees by the UNHCR and who have been waiting for the final decision of the Turkish state on their refugee-status determination.

The survey will aim to provide a general profile about these legal subjects. The second part will consist of in-depth interviews with 30 asylum seekers from different ethnic and religious backgrounds, namely Azeris, Farsis and Kurds aiming to focus on a- their experience of migration and asylum seeking in Turkey, b-changing perceptions of their positions from the moment of entering Turkey as illegal migrant to gaining recognition of UNHCR as a refugee to waiting for the final decision of the Turkish authorities to be sent to a third host country, The key concern of the proposed project is to examine the nature of the relationship between legality and illegality regarding the asylum and migration policies and to understand the effect of the legislative measures on the experience of asylum seekers.

According to the agreement and the appendix in question, The Orthodox Greek Turkish Citizens settled in Turkey and the Muslim Greek Citizens settled in Greece were subjected to compulsory exchange. The exchange had been a popular topic through many scientific researches, however the archive documents, the official enrolments and the records about the migration were underestimated. The gathering of these records were managed by the mixed commision during the purification in Greece.

The official records were the documents concerning the judiciary, social, religious and educational issues of the Muslim Community subject to the Exchange in Greece. It is an index register composed of five volumes. The records mentioned above are listed in this index. Even registers belonging to One of the most important records of the archive is the birth registers of the immigrants which were enrolled one by one. The vakif records of Muslim Community in Greece would also be found among the registers in the archive.

The vakif registers are composed of evkaf council decree, accounts of receipts and expenses and the tables of daily fee. The demands for refinement from the community administration, the place of the vakifs, the category and the value took place in detail. The other group comprises records belonging to the Community Administrative Committee. The records, include decree registers, summary of the decisions, incoming document registers, registers of receipts and expenses and registers of salaries.

Apart from them, records regarding the Muslim schools, the number of students and the course materials are found in the archive.

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In conclusion, the archive materials would have an important role in the reassessment of the exchange process and analyzing the pre convention social, cultural and economic activities of the Muslim Community in Greece and the islands. The uniqueness of the archive is because of the inefficiency of Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives and the others. It is planned to detect and to classify the mentioned records that take place in the DG of Vakifs, İstanbul District Office.

To expose the content of the documents and to sample the information in the direction of the record topics is also in the agenda. Overview: This purpose of this proposed research is to study the rural-to-urban migration in Turkey during the last thirty years of five five-year periods of , , , , and It is planned that the study will provide basis, framework for further in-depth detailed micro studies. Source of data will be the Population Censuses. Overview: What are the effects of displacement on the processes of identity building? How does a community chose to define itself at times of drastic social transformation?

In which ways do conceptualizations of identity and history change in the aftermath of major events? How does the mode of migration shape the nature of the diasporic experience of a displaced people; how is this related to the ways in which they reconstruct the social memory of their past and of the homeland they left behind? Do migrants and non-migrants within the same community relate to collective experiences of displacement differently, and if so, how?

I propose to address these questions from the looking glass of the Rum Orthodox of Istanbul. Being one of the oldest and most eminent resident communities of the multicultural city, the Rum experienced the most drastic demographic change throughout the 20th century. Unlike other communities undergoing rapid migration, such as the Rum of Asia Minor, the processes of displacement for the Rum Orthodox community of Istanbul have been disconcerted: they were forced to leave their city in different periods, for various reasons, and under dissimilar conditions.

Some of them fled violent attacks overnight; some of them were deported in a fortnight; others left their homes gradually and voluntarily with the anticipation of a better life abroad. The Istanbul Rum are not just another community of migrants, immigrants, refugees, deportees, exchangees, minorities or members of a diaspora. Given the longevity of their history in the city and the complexity of their experiences, they are none or all of these at the same time.

While this makes any attempt at their generalization problematic, it makes their study all the more valuable for purposes of comparison. The proposed original research will focus on the Rum who continue to live in Istanbul, which will update, further, and complement my dissertation fieldwork on the diasporic Istanbulite Rum community residing in Athens Using a variety of ethnographic and oral historical methods, including network analyses, comparative event narratives, life stories, genealogy charts, and semi-structured encounter interviews, as well as statistical data analysis, I will reevaluate my previous findings in the light of new information towards reaching ratified conclusions regarding: 1 the differences in the recollection of a particular event of displacement with age, gender, social status, ideological position, and place of residence, 2 the effect of changing political environment in Greece and Turkey on the conceptualization of displacement by Rum migrants and non-migrants, 3 the impact of specific personal experiences of displacement on the perceptions of self, Greeks, and Turks by the Rum community.

Overview: Izmir, the third biggest metropolitan area of Turkey, possesses a rich culture which has been shaped by the migrations of hundreds of years. Within these, the migration due to Greco-Turkish War and the Population Exchange of hold a unique place, as they have led to thousands of Turks originally residing in Crete and Thessaloniki to immigrate to Izmir. These people have cultivated their identities into the culture of Izmir, which has been influential on the third and fourth generations.

The proposed research aims to shed light upon the cultural identity of these immigrants and their descendants who reside in Izmir today. This movement is usually considered as one of the products of globalization and the emergence of the new transnational ways of life. It is also seen as a process that eventually integrates national and local economies within the international property market.

Since June , when Turkey legally opened up its real estate market to foreign buyers, it is estimated that more than 25, foreigners had purchased land for residential or commercial development. Some take it as evidence that retirement migration has changed its former route, Spain, Italy, Greece, and France moving towards the coastal areas of Turkey where prices are much more reasonable. Immigration, Prosperity, and Change.

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