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Fleet-footed: Zergans roll a d8 when running instead of a d6. Created by the great arcane flesh shaper, Sir Kirdan Burrus, Almatian Guard Hounds are favored pets and guard animals for many royal families and rich merchants. They are still a rarity and quite expensive, but one would be hard pressed to find an animal with better guard capabilities. An Almatian Guard Hound has a stocky, powerful body. Its fur is usually black and red or black and blonde. The most distinctive trait of these animals is the fact that they each have two fully functioning heads. These heads are square with powerful jaws, sharp ears and bright, intelligent eyes.

Each head has its own personality and one is always dominant over the other, though they are quite affectionate toward each other. Though it is not their natural inclination, Almatian Guard Hounds can be trained so that one is awake while the other sleeps, allowing them to continuously guard an area. Fleet-Footed: Guard Hounds roll a d10 when running instead of a d6. With a raise on its attack roll, it hits the targets most weakly armored location.

Small Guard Hounds are relatively small. As such, they draw two cards in combat and act on the better of the two. However, any time either card is a black deuce, they lose a turn as the heads bicker with each other over what to do. Dual Jaws: A Guard Hound can attack once per round with each head at no penalty. Descended from ornamental lapdogs, Royal Terriers were bred to defend their owners. A nobleman realized that his wife carried her dog with her everywhere and, finding its uselessness somewhat offensive, he decided to breed something for his wife and daughters that would actually protect them.

He found the most aggressive, loyal, brave lapdogs that he could find and began breeding them together. His sons took up the task after his death. Within a few generations, they had developed an actual breed. The results are dogs that are incredibly loyal to their masters usually mistresses, playful, and affectionate. They bond with their masters and defend ferociously both their masters and anyone their masters care for though they are often jealous towards their owners husbands.

Royal Terriers are small, with curly, exceptionally soft fur. They have upright, pointed ears. Rather stocky, they have short legs. Their muzzles are relatively short and they have powerful jaws. They have big eyes that are usually a very deep brown but are occasionally pale blue or, even more rarely one of each color. Fleet-Footed: Royal Terriers roll a d8 when running instead of a d6. The Dog in the Fight: Due to their small size, attackers subtract 2 from their attack rolls against Royal Terriers. The Fight in the Dog: While sweet and loving to their masters, Royal Terriers are fierce, fearless fighters against their foes.

One Master: Royal Terriers bond closely with a single owner. Tentacles: 4 attacks per round. On a raise target is grappled. Victim may only attempt an opposed strength check to escape. Once grappled, Zethyrling automatically does bite damage every round.

May only grapple 1 target at a time. Here are a couple of myths from my homebrew setting. They both feature Amaz and Tauronus, those two avatars of the battle of the genders. As might be expected, they feature some pettiness, fighting, sex and falling from grace.

When the world was first populated by men, elves and dwarves, both Amaz and Tauronus looked upon it and decided that they wanted mortal children of their own. Amaz shone her light down on a fertile patch of soil and plants in the shape of beautiful women sprang up. As they were made in her own image, the goddess named them after herself — Amazons. Tauronus quested deep into the earth, finding stones imbued with the power and energy of the soil itself.

He brought them back to his home and carved his own likeness into them. With a mighty clap he awoke his sons and gave them his own name — Minotaurs. For untold centuries neither Amazon nor Minotaur knew the sensual touch of another. When an Amazon wanted a daughter, she lay upon fertile soil for a day, baring herself to the powerful rays of Amaz herself. If she found favor with the goddess, a new Amazon would sprout and over the next months she would care for the tender plant that was her daughter until she was old enough to pull free of the soil and walk on her own.

Minotaurs would delve deep into the earth, following labyrinthine passages that would bewilder others and leave them stranded and lost. If they please Tauronus, they would find a magic stone, one almost too large to carry and have to haul it back out. Then, they spent months carving the stone into the likeness of a minotaur. When the carving was done, their son came to life to walk on his own. And Minotaurs and Amazons were happy but the goddess Sivis Kee was not.

She was jealous of the two races because all other men and animals in the world worshipped her as they mated but Minotaurs and Amazons had no need to. In her pride and greed, Sivis Kee set out upon a plan to bring them to her, as well. Her first target was the king of the minotaurs, for she knew that if she could corrupt him the rest would follow. She lay in wait for him the next time he delved into the caverns to find a stone to become his new son, taking the form of a female minotaur.

He came across her before he found a stone and she seduced him, using all of her sensual skills and arts to show him the pleasures of the flesh. She also provided him what he had originally been looking for, giving birth to a minotaur and handing it over to him. The amazon queen was no more difficult to seduce. As she lay in the light of Amaz, Sivis Kee appeared to her as a male amazon. Their children with Sivis Kee naturally had a rapacious desire for the pleasures of the flesh.

Worse, all of the children conceived in the way of other mortals were incapable of reproducing in the traditional ways.


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Eventually, all minotaurs and amazons were only capable of reproducing as other mortals do. Both Amaz and Tauronus were furious with not only Sivis Kee but also their own people. Sivis Kee cooled the ire of both gods in her usual way. Their mortal followers were not so lucky. Because they had chosen the way of other people Amaz cursed her chosen people to bear their children as other people did. Amazons had to carry their babies in their wombs for 9 months just as human women did and had to suffer through the pain of childbirth just the same.

Because minotaurs had allowed themselves to be distracted by the female form, Tauronus made that distraction an obsession. No longer would his chosen people have the focus and calm necessary to make the wondrous stone carvings that could come to life. At all hours of the day and night, thoughts of women and the pleasures they could provide would creep into their thoughts. And that is how amazons and minotaurs came to be like other mortals. In fact, it is this joy that takes her across the heavens every day, her glowing shield providing heat and light to all those below.

Centia could run faster than the wind and for weeks without tiring. She was more beautiful than the moon with a gleaming, sleek coat, straight back, and proud head. She was also filled with wisdom and Amaz often asked her for her advice, always finding it valuable and true. She was so glorious that gravity refused to hold her and she was capable of crossing sky and stars as easily as land and water.

She was so beautiful that, one day as she was bearing Amaz across the heavens, Tauronus caught a glimpse and immediately lusted after her. He approached Amaz and asked the goddess to gift her mount to him. Centia was not her property but her friend so Amaz could not give her to Tauronus.

Tauronus then offered to buy her from Amaz, providing ever more extravagant payments, until he finally brought her an entire mountain. When Amaz laughed at his exorbitance, he cast it into the sea, creating a small island. Taking the form of a massive, well-formed bull, Tauronus snuck into the pasture where Centia spent her nights while waiting for Amaz to ride her each day. She was wary at first but he simply grazed in her field the first night.

On the second, he got a little closer. On the third closer still. After a month, they were grazing side by side. Another month and they were cavorting together. Amaz did not realize anything was wrong, though she noticed her otherwise indefatigable steed was growing ever more listless and dreamy. That is, until Centia began to show. Centia had freely given Tauronus the gift that Amaz refused him and was carrying the inevitable results. Amaz was furious that she had been bested by the other god. In her fury, she attacked him, but they were too evenly matched and she soon gave up the assault when it became obvious that the outcome was far from certain and that Retra and all on it would likely be destroyed in the conflict.

Unable to vent her ire on her fellow god, she instead took her anger out on her former friend. Centia was stripped of much of her divine power and cast down to live on Retra. This child was named after both his parents — the first centaur. Centia was saddened by her reduction in stature.

Tauronus took pity on her and reshaped her so that her form was more in matching with that of her son. Without the constant reminder of what she was, Centia was soothed somewhat, though still prone to melancholy.

The Dalaran Heist

It is said that, even today, Centia roams the deepest parts of the Sea of Grass, still beautiful, still powerful and swift, though only a little more than mortal. It is also said that Tauronus still visits her from time to time. The results of these dalliances are the centaurs who possess horns like their fathers, individuals who are always destined for greatness and glory.

A violent post but not a martial one. The Ravnivori and the two other Empires on their home planet were all warrior cultures so dueling has been an important part of their society. And gladiators have been an important part of their entertainment.

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If so, I apologize. I try not to duplicate content. The Ravnivori Empire is a vast conglomeration of societies and nations. As such, it has a diverse culture and set of traditions. Some of these traditions remain true to the history and culture of the people who originated them while others have adapted to the influence of other cultures over the years.

One area that is especially indicative of both these types of changes is the wide variety of Dueling Traditions. Almost every society inducted into the Empire had some set of behavior and or rules that were considered honorable. It is little surprise then that each had its own manner of dealing with situations where one person challenged the honor of another. It should also not be surprising that the traditions and rules surrounding these challenges have changed both as new societies have been introduced to each other and as the semi-cohesive society of the overall Empire has grown and become more stable.

It should be noted that in all cases it is the purview of the person challenged to chose the terms and conditions of the duel. Thus, most people consider carefully before challenging someone that they know is very adept at one of the dueling styles. Especially if they are not as proficient in that field. In fact, it is not unheard of for a pair of foes to exchange insults for weeks before one of them finally snaps and makes a challenge, allowing the other person to pick more favorable terms. In a way, this has become its own sort of dueling. Ravnivori: Duels in Ravnivori society have their origins in the challenges of one chieftain by another in the ancient, barbaric tribalism of their past.

After years of intertribal warfare decimating the population of the Ravnivori continent, the practice of having the chiefs of opposing tribes challenge each other grew. Whichever man proved the victor gained the territory or supplies or tribe or whatever else the two groups might have been warring over with a minimum of bloodloss. While this method was not always used and large and small scale battles continued to occur, it did lessen the losses. Originally, these duels were fought with whatever weapons were most favored by the combatants and were not required to match.

This usually meant a shield and hand weapon such as a sword, battle axe or mace, but paired weapons, two handed weapons and spears were not uncommon. For that matter, the two opponents were wielding entirely different weapons more often than not. However, many times, one of the duelists would fight underarmed. For instance, they might fight with only a short sword and buckler when their opponent was using a full sized shield and longsword. Occasionally, this was a strategy that depended on speed over reach and protection, but more often it was a not so subtle insult.

This ploy backfired with shocking regularity and the person offering the insult often died for his or her pride. It worked often enough, however, that a trend of using smaller and smaller weapons developed. Many of the duelists would rather suffer injuries to their bodies than their prides so no one wanted to be out done by using a to large or effective weapon. By the time the Possessed had consolidated the Ravnivori continent under there rule, the generally accepted weapons were a full-sized shield and a short sword.

On the positive side, both parties in a duel were far more likely to survive when these weapons were used than when the more brutal ones of the past were utilized. The escalation or de-escalation did not end there, however. As the fighting to conquer the Almatian Confederation grew, the fighting amongst the fighting amongst the Ravnivori hardly decreased.

Especially since the Ravnivori nobles and noble families fought to claim domains in the new lands. By the time Ravnivorous and his fellow Possessed slew Sunchaser, the Ravnivori duelists used only a dirk and short sword. And, of course, the infighting continued even when the still shaky Ravnivori Empire faced the powerful Shan dynasty. By this time, however, the weapons were small enough that few duels were to the death, though any number of scars and maimings occurred.

Still, the movement towards smaller weapons continued and by the time the Shan Emperor pledged the loyalty of his people to Ravnivorous, no respectable Ravnivori Duellist would fight with more than paired daggers. Dueling in the Ravnivori courts has become pretty stable. There are several unwritten rules revolving around it.

The most important is that only daggers, knives, dirks and katars are acceptable weapons. In all cases, a total length for the weapon can be no more than twelve inches. In most cases, this means that the hilts are approximately 4 inches long with 8 inch blades, although the blades are commonly longer with katars and shorter with Minotaurs and other species with large hands which is why many Minotaurs fight with katars. And of course, any number of methods of ornamenting these weapons to show wealth and power have also grown up over the years. Almatian: Almatian duels have their origins in very similar situations as the Ravnivori.

Originally a way for nobles and generals to settle their differences with little loss of life. However, there has always been a more uniform set of arms and armor in the Almatian Confederation than there was amongst the Ravnivori. From very early in their history, most of the Almatian warriors were armed with a shortsword, shield, dagger, spear, javelins and a bow.

While each race and nation might focus on one of these weapons or weapon combinations more than another, in the end, they had a fairly standardized method of fighting and skill with certain of the weapons was respected more than others. Thus, the most commmon duel amongst the Almatians takes place with each combantant having several javelins and a shield.

Each combatant takes up a position yards apart. Then, taking turns as determined by lots, they hurl one of their javelins at their opponent. It also means that the number of steps to be taken has been set at exactly 5. However, centuries of practice have made things much more complex. A number of factors go into the honor surrounding such a duel including strength, bravery and accuracy. Thus, it is quite common for the first throw from both individuals to far overshoot their marks as each person attempts to prove that they are stronger.

Then, for the next several throws the two challengers will often purposefully miss. Ironically, this proves their accuracy as each tries to hit as close to his opponent as possible without hitting him. It also allows them to prove their bravery as the chance of getting hit and injured increases dramatically with each round of the two opponents getting closer. There have been several times when a pair of duelists have been less than 20 yards apart before the first javelin hit a shield. While not so grievous as losing outright, any victor who was the first to strike is considered slightly tainted and it is the height of disgrace to both be the first to hit and lose a duel.

In the end, it is possible for a stronger, more accurate and braver duelist to technically lose a duel and yet win honor for him or herself. Shan: Unsurprisingly, a society as conscious and focused on honor and duty as the Shan have developed dueling to a very rigid structure. While the Ravnivori and Almatians have settled on one set of weapons that are commonly used to duel, the Shan will not duel with any weapon but one: the katana.

However, it is not the weapon that is strictly regulated, but all aspects of the duel from how far apart the two people should stand to the way in which the challenge should be presented to the types of cuts allowed. This type of duel demands amazing skill and speed and most Shan duellists begin training at an early age and continue until they die.

Numerous philosophical and practical works have been written on the art. However, almost all modern duellists are students of a few schools of thought. One of the most common is the style based on the writings of Ishihara No Siki. In Shan, a person always has the option to allow someone else to defend their honor. Thus, very few people of power fight their own duels. Instead, most noble families and clans of any note include a duelist in their ranks. Sometimes this is a member of the family who has been trained since a young age for this duty, sometimes it is a ronin who has similar training who has been adopted into the family or clan.

The most powerful clans have entire stables of duellists and schools for the express purpose of training duellists. Lesser families often send their prospective duellists to these schools for proper training. Most Shan duels are to first blood. This has led to the quest for single stroke victories. More rarely, one of the duelists will not even get a chance to draw before he or she is defeated.

A few duels are to death or unconciousness, usually chosen by the rare duelists who depend on their toughness or defensive abilities more than their speed and dexterity. Even these duels are often shockingly short and single stroke victories are far from unheard of. In all cases, the duelists begin just far enough apart that they cannot quite reach each other with their swords.

There is no official start to the duel with each duelist simply standing until one draws. It is not unheard of for this part of the duel to last hours as each person refuses to the the first to draw. Duelling is a very public and popular event in Shan lands and skilled duelists can gain more honor and admiration than many nobles. As such, the abilities of most duellists and their duelling styles are generally well known. This is especially true since there are a limited number of schools that teach the duelling arts and the style and methods of each have remained essentially unchanged for centuries.

Because of this many duels do not run to completion. Previous to the first draw, each duellist is allowed to back out of the duel with only a small loss of face. Thus, it is more commmon to see a pair of duellists study each other for several minutes before one calmly bows out literally bowing to his or her opponent to indicate their acknowledgement of his or her superior abilities without ever coming to blows. Imperial: Although all types of duels have been altered by the advent of the Empire in any number of ways, at least one form has developed because of the rise of the Empire.

Gladiatorial duels have their origins in the traditions of dog and cock fighting and bear and bull baiting. While these bloodsports were originally created and fostered simply for entertainment, it was often only the rich upper class who could truly dedicate the resources necessary to the endeavors to produce effective bloodlines.

Thus, alternative methods of settling disputes were sought out. The usage of animals fighting each other was struck on rather early in the birth of the Empire. Since that time, Gladiatorial Duels have enjoyed an explosion in popularity and diversity. As time went on, it grew cliched to use a dog or cock to fight in such a duel and more exotic animals were sought out. It was not long before all manner of unusual and rare creatures were being collected, bred and trained for this express purpose.

More than one kazya has started a bloodline of kazyas that voluntarily bred themselves to be skilled gladiators. The children of these families are often raised as warriors from a young age and taught the family business early. A number of free warriors have also made a living offering their services for those who needed a gladiatorial champion. Unlike the other dueling styles which have become highly stylized and organizes, gladiatorial dueling is essentially a free for all. There are no standardized rules regarding the practice.

Often, there is no more agreement between the two challengers than where to meet and when. This means that completely unbalanced contests are shockingly common, especially if one of the challengers does not have resources on par with the other. Of course, any stipulations that can be agreed to by both parties can be enforced and any number of limitations are possible. This can include what type of species are involved, weapons used, size and weight limitations and even number of participants on a side.

Many wealthy people amass stables of warriors of all types simply to have a viable option under as many circumstances as possible. Others simply focus on having the most dangerous or deadly creature they can own and do their best to avoid any limitations in their duels. Another industry has arisen around this type of dueling. It is highly profitable to own and maintain arenas where such duels can be enacted. Not only do the proprietors often charge the duellists a nominal fee for using their location, but also they charge admittance to the crowds that gather to watch the bloodsports.

Since they have little overhead other than keeping their arenas in working order, the coin they make is almost pure profit. The most successful of these arenas have waiting lists and draw capacity crowds for several hours every day. Many operate continuously, offering night battles involving a variety of the nocturnal beasts that are sometimes used in such duels. Refreshments are generally offered at these arenas and many citizens will make a day of it, arriving when the arena opens and staying until the last battle is settled.

Racial Duels. For the most part, the type of duel used and the rules governing it are determined more by national identity than by racial identity. For example, a True Ravnivori human and a True Ravnivori Elf are both likely to choose to settle their differences by the knife rather than by any other method. Elves: True Ravnivori elves use knives just as their human kin do.

However, these knives, while limited in the usual way as far as length goes, are small in other manners. Duels amongst Almatian Elves are generally archery contests rather than any form of face to face confrontations. Dwarves: Ravnivori Dwarves favor thick, cleaver-like blades for their duels. The use of these weapons lead to farm more lost digits and broken bones in relation to the more elegant, cutting blades of Ravnivori humans and stabbing blades of Ravnivori Elves.

Only the impressive sturdiness and durability of the dwarves keep these wounds from being more dangerous. Shan Dwarves use the broad-bladed Daitana that all of their samurai and nobles carry. Although they are as prone to determining the winner of a duel simply by a silent contest of bravery and repuation before a blade is ever drawn as their human counterparts, Dwarven Shan duels are even more steeped in ritual.

It is not unusual for it to take a full day of preparation before a pair of duelists are ready to face each other. Perhaps this is the reason why these duels very rarely end at first blood. More often, they last until one opponent yields or is slain. Considering the stamina and durability of Dwarves, and the fact that heavy armor is not only allowed, but encouraged in these duels, they can last quite a long time.

Anything less than an hour is rare and there are legends and apocryphal accounts of duels lasting a week or more. Amazons: Amazons excell at both horsewomanship and archery and these combat skills are those most exalted by the race. Therefore, these are also the two that are tested in duels. They resemble Almatian elven duels in the fact that they are essentially archery contests. However, these contests take place on the backs of galloping horses. Another difference is that accuracy is only one of the factors that determines the winner in an Amazon duel.

Horsewomanship is just as important as archery. The speed and skill with which they control their mounts as well as the daring gymnastics they perform on horseback are prime factors in determining the winner of a duel and the duels themselves are often spectacular sights. Minotaurs: Minotaurs revere strength, stubborness and ferocity most in their warrior tradition. Their duels are thus settled generally through contests of wrestling with shockingly few rules. They are not allowed to bring or use weapons and gouging the eyes or striking the groin leads to disqualification.

The duel continues until one participant either gives up or is incapacitated. Those are, essentially the only rules, however, and not a few Minotaurs have met their ends on the horns of their opponents in such a duel. Lizardfolk: The concept of honor and organized dueling is an alien one to primitive lizardfolk.

The closest thing they have to dueling is the savage though seldom lethal fighting that arises between males for breeding rights when a female comes into heat. These conflicts often involve a great deal of posturing and threatening but very little physical combat. Advanced lizardfolk are still developing their own culture distinct from their more primitive ancestors. They often use Ravnivori dueling methods and rules when necessary. Wronging another Naga is tantamount to wronging oneself. In situations where Naga disagree, they generally meditate to come to an acceptable compromise or utilize the wisdom of the race as a whole to come to an answer.

Troglyns simply do not settle their differences face to face if they can avoid it. This carries over to other races as well. A Troglyn will generally suffer any indignity and humiliation rather than stand up for itself. However, anyone doing so should bear in mind that the diminutive creatures are extremely patient and cunning and that retribution is likely. Centaurs: Though Centaurs are a proud people with a high sense of honor, violence amongst them is relatively rare. Thus, most questions of honor are settled not with a fight of some sort but with a contest of skill or physical ability.

Most common amongst these contests are simple races, testing either sprinting speed or long distance stamina depending upon the preferences of those involved. Wrestling matches, pulling contests and various tests of agility and dexterity are also common. If forced to prove their combat capabilities, Centaurs generally resort to archery contests, generally the running style preferred by Amazons. Alternatively, they might prove their martial puissance through a hunting contest with the centaur bringing home the most impressive prize after a certain time limit being the winner.

Dracotaurs: Though Dracotaurs are more martial than their Centaur ancestors, the family ties amongst them are also stronger. It is not much of an exaggeration to say that all Dracotaurs are cousins and while the rivalries amongst them are high they generally have little desire to truly harm such close kin. Thus, they too prefer nonlethal duels and contests of skill to more lethal methods.

Races are not as popular with Dracotaurs, but wrestling and contests of strength are. They also often spar and duel with large, but relatively light clubs. These weapons are capable of severely injuring or killing more fragile species, but the durability of Dracotaurs means that they seldom get injuries more severe than bruises. However, their empathic bond and close kin ties also keep them from doing each other real harm in most cases.

While they are less likely to simply settle their differences through meditation than their Naga kin, they generally find some other non-violent means. Archery and climbing contests are common. Possessed: In dueling, as in most things, the Possessed are as diverse in their preferences as they are in their backgrounds. Generally, they will utilize the dueling methods common to their cultures before any other considerations. However, most Possessed will also utilize their abilities as efficiently as possible. Thus, if they are skilled in close combat they will attempt to ensure that a duel involves melee whereas those who have advantages over distances will try for a ranged contest.

Given how warlike the Ravnivori are and how debauched Almatian entertainment can become and even the fascination of Shan with studying animals, it is no surprise that gladiatorial games of all sorts are common in the Ravnivori Empire. These range from small, simple animal against animal combats to massive simulated battles.

Most cities of any size have their own coliseum, though these range dramatically in size depending on how prosperous the city is and how popular such bloody displays are. There are a wide variety of levels of lethality between different arenas and even between different matches in the same arena. Some arenas use a great deal of padding and blunted weapons so that long term injuries are uncommon while others use normal weapons but stop combat after the first injury and others last until someone is incapacitated and still others go until one or more of the particpants are dead.

Predictably, the bloodier the battle, the more popular it is. Following are some common types of gladiatorial combats in the Empire. Beast Battles: The simplest of these are the dog fights in Ravnivori lands, cock fights in Almatia and beetle battles in Shan. Generally nothing more than two animals tossed into a pit and made to fight until one cannot fight any more, these fights are seldom more organized than a group of friends getting together on a regular basis.

Larger fights, using larger animals such as bears or bulls are common as well, though these demand an arena of some sort. More exotic beast battles are common in even the smallest coliseums and utilize more dangerous creatures like tigers and zergans. Larger coliseums feature both these kind of beasts and even larger and more exotic creatures such as elephants and the assorted kaiju from Shan lands. Many people make their livings by either breeding or capturing the beasts used in gladiatorial battles and at least as many make their livings by owning stables of these animals and selling their services to different arenas.

Gladiatorial fights: The simplest of these fights are nothing more than one bare handed individual fighting another bare handed individual while spectators are present. These are most commonly boxing matches amongst the Ravnivori, wrestling matches in Almatian lands or a display of one of the various martial arts practiced by the Shan in their culture.

Of course, it is a small step to go from a boxing match to a knife fight and from knives to larger weapons and gladiatorial combats with the participants using weapons and armor are more common than the simpler sorts of fights. Some of these fights are highly stylized, reproducing, at least thematically, assorted myths, legends and historical encounters and campaigns. These generally feature specific weapons and armors for the participants in keeping with the theme.

Other matches are free-for-alls with no limitations or loose limitations on what weapons and armor can be used by the participants. Straight gladiatorial fights are generally considered to include anything up to ten characters either in multiple teams or everyone for themselves. Anything larger than that falls under the Battle Fight category.

These generally consist of war slaves or life slaves, though more than one stable is made up of free men and women who want to make money in the arena who are managed by the same person. Mixed Duels: Beast on beast and man on man battles are not the only possibilities. Quite early on, promoters discovered that fights pitting man against beast were quite popular. Like man on man battles, these often follow some kind of theme, with a specific species of animal facing a person using a specific set of armor and weapons in accordance with some ancient myth or tradition.

Almatians, for example, favor bull fighters with the human utilizing a short spear and small shield with a long cloth streamer against a bull. The streamer is used to distract the bull as it charges. The most common example of this in Ravnivori lands are battles between a single man with an sword, shield, helmet and chain mail sleeves and leggings facing a pack of war hounds or wolves. More prestige and popularity and pay are given the larger the pack faced. In Shan lands, snake charmers are popular. Facing their opponent with no armor and wielding an axe and a special two pronged spear, the men in these battles face down giant, highly poisonous snakes.

Other popular battles involve multiple men facing elephants or kaiju, lightly armored individuals battling sharks from small platforms and most recently men armed only melee weapons facing Zergans. Gimmick Fights: Promoters and stable owners are constantly trying to find a way to increase the popularity of their battles. One of the more popular of these are maze battles, where temporary walls are added to the arena and the contestants begin from different places with a goal of either escaping through a specific exit or being the last one standing.

In certain arenas, it is possible to flood the floor, pumping in enough water until the liquid is waist deep. This changes the mobility of the fighters and, often, savage swimming creatures are also released into the water to make things more interesting. A simpler gimmick is blind battle. The gladiators involved are fitted with locked helmets that have no eye slits.

They then try to pummel, cut or stab each other to pieces without being able to see. Some times, they must simply do this with no assistance. Other times, each gladiator also wears a bell to help indicate his or her position. Wars: Possible only in the largest of arenas, gladiatorial wars are always grand spectacles. Though occasionally, these forces are battling just to destroy each other, there are usually larger goals that each side has to achieve to win victory. As with most other battles, a few wars follow certain themes from history or myth with the participating gladiators wearing specific armor and using specific weapons.

Other times, the rules are only that each side must have a certain number of gladiators. Wars often include aspects of other gladiator battles and naval battles are not uncommon in the largest and most ornate arenas with some level of the arena being flooded for the spectacle and the threat of drowning a real possibility for the participants. Even all the ones I just used make it seem inconsequential when it is often far more important than the mechanics. In the end, the mechanics are just rolling dice and comparing numbers but this sort of thing is what creates the story. Marriage in the Ravnivori Empire can be both a simple and a complex thing.

A sentient being is allowed to marry any other sentient being who will agree to it. Inter-species marriages are not uncommon at all. Likewise, homosexual marriages are relatively common. However, the complexity of marriage laws in the Empire begins with the fact that multiple marriages are also legal. A single individual in the Ravnivori Empire may be married to as many other individuals as will agree. It is important to note that everyone in a marriage is married to everyone else.

For example, if a man wants to marry two women, those two women must agree to marry each other as well. Likewise if three men and three women are married, all the men are married to each other and all the women are married to each other. The same is true if a new spouse is added to an existing marriage. Everyone currently in the marriage must agree to marry the new person and the new person must agree to marry all the people already in the marriage. Divorce is legal in the Empire and can be both as simple and complex as marriage, unsurprisingly.

At any time, any single member of a marriage may legally leave it. However, the individual must divorce everyone in the marriage. The person getting the divorce becomes single once more. The person getting a divorce receives an equal share of the property and money of those in the marriage.

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Thus, if there is a large marriage and two people want to be married only to each other going forward, they must convince the other people in the marriage to leave it to remain married. All crimes in the Ravnivori Empire are punishable by either fines or slavery. The idea of leaving able bodied people locked in a cage doing nothing is alien to the Imperials. Far better to put criminals to work and get something useful out of them.

Most cases are tried before a judge with a lawyer representing each side in the trial. These lawyers are not hired by the participants in the trial, rather they are paid by the state and chosen by random to serve one side or the other. Trials are adjudicated by a jury of 9 citizens. Unlike our legal system, a unanimous decision is not needed in a Ravnivori trial, only a two thirds majority.

The only exceptions to these rules are capital cases. While they might remain silent, the idea of lying baffles them. Thus, anytime the ultimate punishment is a possibility, the Ravnivori do not leave anything to chance. They know the truth will come out. Following are several crimes and their punishments.

When there is a question as to the value of an object, a third party expert sets the price of the fine. Anyone caught committing the same crime twice must pay twice the fine. A third time triples the fine and so on. It does not take long before repeat offenders are broke or enslaved.

Theft: A criminal convicted of theft must return the object stolen and pay an additional fine equal to the value of the object. If the thief no longer possesses the object, either because he has sold it or it has been destroyed, he must pay a fine equal to twice the value of the object. Assault: This crime is one of the few that is up for interpretation from the judge.

The latter portion of the crime is often determined by how much it costs to have the victim healed. The assailant must pay this fee, of course. Any assault bad enough to cause the victim to miss work automatically forces the assailant to pay a fine equal to those lost wages in addition to any other fines. Rape: One of the biggest crimes in the Empire, rape is one of the few that is punishable by life slavery. Both the perpetrator and victim are scanned and if the rape was one of intent then the criminal is automatically consigned to life slavery. If, for some reason, the perpetrator believed the intercourse to be consensual, then the criminal is instead convicted of assault and must pay the fines associated with that crime.

Treason: Perhaps the biggest crime in the Empire, treason is the second infraction that is punishable by life slavery. This is, perhaps, the vaguest of crimes. It includes anything from actively fighting for an enemy of the Empire, sabotaging Imperial supplies, passing information to enemy states or even pledging loyalty to a nation other than the Empire.

Murder: The last of the big three crimes, murder is arguably the worst. While killing in combat and causing the deaths of life slaves through work or violence are hardly commented upon in the Empire, killing a free citizen of the Empire is considered utterly abhorrent. Tried by Triad, the intent of the perpetrator is taken into account when determining guilt for murder. If the perpetrator intended, in any way, to kill the victim then he is automatically made a life slave. Slavery is legal in the Ravnivori Empire, although it is carefully regulated through a number of laws and traditions.

The first of these apply to how a person may become a slave. First, no person can be born a slave. Even the children of slaves are not destined to become slaves themselves although because of some of the other causes of slavery it is fairly likely. There are three ways that a person can become a slave. The first is that he or she can be sold into slavery. A person can either sell themselves or in limited circumstances be sold by others. There are a number of reasons why a person might sell him or herself into slavery. First he or she might need to pay off a debt.

In fact, any time a person defaults on a debt they are sold to their debtor or someone willing to pay off the debt for a length of time sufficient to pay off the debt as well as a slight handling fee. Second, a person might want to raise a large amount of money in a short amount of time. Slaves are given a great deal of money, significantly more than they could earn as a free person for their services.

This is because they are completely at the whim of their employer who can order them to perform almost any service and punish them for disobedience essentially at whim. In return for this loss of freedom, the slave is paid more. Additionally, the slave is paid their full salary at the end of their term of service in one large, lump sum.

Finally, a child might be sold into slavery by his or her parents. Until the age of 15 children are considered the property of their parents, who can do with them as they wish. Both parents must agree to this, though a woman may sell her child alone if she can prove that the father is unknown. Likewise, if only one parent remains alive, or only one cares for the child, he or she may sell the child alone. If both parents are involved in the sale, then they split the profits, and it is not uncommon for parents to sell their children in order to avoid slavery themselves or buy out the end of their own contracts.

Children under the age of 10 are always sold for life as they have little value as slaves before this age and there is no guarantee that the child will survive long enough to be valuable. Any child over the age of 10 can only be sold on a contract basis. At the age of 15, all of these children become free. Of course, he or she can immediately sell him or herself back into slaver to the same or a new master.

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In this case, any profits made off this sale go to them rather than to their parents. The second way that a person can become enslaved is as a punishment for a crime. All violent crimes in the Empire carry slavery as their punishment. Rape and murder always entail lifelong enslavement though, it is important to note that it is not illegal for a master to rape his or her slave. Less violent crimes call for less harsh punishments ranging from a year to 20 depending on the savagery of the crime and the amount of pain inflicted.

The final way a person can become a slave is through being captured in war. These people are always enslaved for life. This law applies to both soldiers defeated in battle and civilians in conquered lands. Thus, there have been times when entire nations have been enslaved. It should be noted, however that if a person surrenders and pledges allegiance to the Empire, then they become an Imperial citizen rather than a slave.

The Empire goes to great pains to ensure that all in their path realize this. All slaves are originally the property of the Empire. If they are contract slaves they remain the property of the Empire for the duration of their contract and they are leased to anyone willing to pay for their services. Thus, any permanent damage done to these slaves is damage done to Imperial property and carries the same punishments.

If they are lifelong slaves, they begin as possessions of the Empire and then are sold completely to their new owners, becoming their property to be disposed of as they wish. Contract slaves are divided into four categories when they are made slaves. These categories are: Common, Expert, Combat and Pleasure slaves. Contract slaves can also request one of the categories, though they will not be placed in a category that they are not suited for. A contract slave remains in his or her category for the duration of his or her contract and cannot be forced to perform tasks outside of it.

Common: This is the catch-all category for any slave who does not fit in the other categories. The people who fall into this category are generally used for the most menial, back breaking jobs. They are commonly farm hands, dock workers, rowers, ditch diggers, or pack bearers. Expert: Expert slaves are those who have some sort of professional or technical skill.

This includes everything from blacksmiths to accountants. Most people who can read and write can be considered expert slaves. Combat: Combat slaves are used specifically for battle. These include those who are contracted for gladiatorial games, bodyguards and troops of various sorts. A combat slave must prove his or her abilities with one or more weapons before being put into this category. Pleasure: Pleasure slaves are used for entertainment.

This can range anywhere from a musician, artist, dancer, or actor to a skilled masseuse to a sex slave. Most slaves put into this category are young and attractive, but it is not unheard of for someone of plain features but exceptional ability to become a pleasure slave. Each category of slave has a name in the Ravnivori language. Lifelong slaves are in a different situation. The owner of a lifelong slave can force him or her to perform any act or job they please at any time. And here is a quick history of the Main Empire of my Homebrew setting.

Up until they reached out into the Void, anyway. The Empire of Ravnivorous began on a planet already dominated by a pair of Empires. The first was the Empire of Shan, a truly ancient nation whose hereditary rulers had held sway over a massive area for centuries. The Shan Empire was one of tradition and mystery with very few outsiders seeing even the smallest portion of the land. The Shan preferred this, having no desire to go against the decrees of their Emperors and mix with those they considered barbarians.

The second empire was on the same continent as Shan but was located on the much smaller land located west of the mountains that divided the continent. This land, known as Almati was once several diverse nations with diverse races that warred with each other almost constantly. This changed when an ancient Golden Dragon known as Sunchaser took up residence in the mountains that separated the two empires. For decades Sunchaser paid no mind to the chaos around him, living a simple life of eating mountain goats and the occasional buffalo from the plains and hoarding what treasure he could find or the local tribes offered him in tribute.

Then, one of the human tribes offered him a great deal of gold to assist them in their battles. Strangely, Sunchaser agreed. Not only did he love gold, but also he felt that it was time to bring some peace and stability to the land around him. With the might of a dragon and eventually, his descendants behind them, it only took a little more than a century for the tribe and Sunchaser to consolidate the peoples west of the mountains into a single, cohesive nation.

They formed a Commonwealth where each nation had representation in a governing Council. Having brought peace to the land, Sunchaser retired from active life once again, and accepted the tribute his expanded nation provided him. However, about the same time that Sunchaser decided to take a more active hand in the world events around him, a group of men and women hundreds of miles away on another continent began a course of action that would shake the world.

These thirteen sorcerers combined their powers to summon and make a pact with a group of demons. However, even the combined might of these spellcasters was not enough to overcome the inherent dislike of the material world of even moderately powerful Demons. Instead, they had to content themselves with a group of only marginally sentient, rather weak spirits. There were advantages to utilizing these entities, however.

The first was that they were only marginally sentient. This meant that once they were bonded to their host, the humans were able to completely dominate the spirits and there was no contest of wills. The second is that the price of the pact was low. All the spirits wanted was the visceral experiences that only physical entities can enjoy and a portion of the soul energy released by each person they killed.

The gifts they provided in return were originally fairly meager. For the price of one soul a year, the demons completely halted the aging process in their hosts, giving them a sort of immortality. However, the true power of the spirits would soon prove itself apparent as the Possessed, as they came to call themselves began to experiment with their newfound symbiotes. The Possessed soon discovered that the demons they now shared their bodies with needed very little soul energy to sustain them.

This extra power translated into more powerful abilities for the hosts. While a single soul had little effect, the more that were given to the spirit the more powerful the adaptations they provided. He was born in from Arras and grebes, and carried on his father's blood riesenschnauzer and maternal ancestry.

It was a very pedigree, large and showy male, massive, with strong bones and muscled. The demon possessed pedigree, good pro portions and head lines, massive muzzle, right Lying E ears and small dark eyes. The bite was in the Demon scissor. Supplied neck, body and limbs Demon were spotless. Coat it is quite rough, gu wait, with long, wavy outer coat. Sons of Black Demon and were used in the Dave close inbreeding to his father. Perhaps the best pro- facturers of this group were the Maison Engri , and Co-owner repanov. Repeatedly zainbridirovannoe on the Demon and his sons offspring gained a lightweight skeleton, vysokonogost.

Significant real part of it turned out to be short-haired. Some are descendants met bleached color of the eyes. Dranhenshlyuht, the sons of the winner of the GDR Ajax f. Both are used in nursery matings with females breed black terrier group. Ditter also gave females Hyde and Degu owner Vlad Dimir. A great contribution to the popularization of the breed group black tion Terrier contributed oldest members of the Moscow club official business tion dog, Judge, TA Gusakova and EY Krasnoshchokov, Dogs are perfectly otdressirovannye in the general and special nym services, showed good results in tests and competitions.

TA Gusakova with his Jenna helps the body we police in maintaining public order. In his account Jenna had several arrests. In the early years of the appearance of the breed group of dogs with fans Moscow club of dog breeding these animals led NN Nechayev, save more, ma the material on the history and development of the breed. Authentic breed enthusiasts remain M. Anokhin and GD Danilina. But plans new breeding started later.

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At the various competition on service quality to great success Stigl activist B. Autograph with Thoreau, speaking in voenizi Rowan competitions, and A. Mironov Rocks. In so far- necessarily inter-club teams actively working A. Burov with Artek, S. Semikhina with Nero, M. Shenderovich with Aina Fig. Dmitriev Play along with, L. Vilyugina with Mars and many Gia others. Many owners of BRT helped in the ext untary national teams.

In the late 60's - early 70's black terriers showed high physical endurance, good adaptability to weather conditions, taking teaching stie in three winter hikes. It was a sledge-ski trips by The road of life, running from the city of Vyborg to the spill and the ski hiking in the Gulf of Finland. Already in the section has put the task of preparing qualified fied judges and instructors, pointing to the courses of the club OS Mironova, AP Mironov, N.

Andrianov, MP Shen derovicha. Breeding black terrier in Leningrad began with two imported in ,. Nasty bitches owner Yezhov and Degi owner Vladimirov , different in origin and physical appearance. This bitch was the winner of the Moscow tion exhibitions and exhibitions of Leningrad champion in by appearance, overgrown and format Nastia was closer to his father and possess the qualities of a good official. Part of offspring she gave several long format, wrong in couscous, mostly out of the line of the lower incisors and the inherent Rocks owner Mironov , Aina owner Shenderovich , Chap owner Rykov s disease ears, eyes, interdigital eczema because of the large overgrown.

Posterity was heterogeneous. Each litter was observed splitting tion on the type of hair - from good to have acquired smooth transition given extended format and malocclusion. Dog Sachs had a grayish coat color. Skiff had assessment "Excellent", won first place in the middle age group All Union Exhibition Equal themselves descendants of Scythian not given.

Stesha, Rudd and Ruza had one litter. Despite sharing the type of overgrown and the backbone of the dogs from this litter had high Porodnov. Offspring from this combination malformations were observed bite and gray coat color. Ruza poorly mated to Fang owner kennel "Red tion Star ". Among the offspring revealed dwarfism and Atre- Zia lack of anus. Rocks in two litters of the Lord owner Korzhakov gave the puppies without overgrown, with little overgrown with overgrown by type of Newfoundland.

Females later used in different combinations. From Ayak- ca and Wari were obtained puppies with malocclusion and from absence of premolars. From her well in combination with Ereychem born Puppy with cryptorchidism, and in combination with the Rams in the offspring of sword overbite and spotted coat. In , the Rocks was mated with his own son Zeror, among a significant number of pups born on the type of timeshare stnogo cover and overgrown nearing Newfoundland.

Second imported to the Leningrad bitch Degas-3 owner Vladimirov ditch was born in in the kennel "Red Star" from Risen schnauzer, unilateral cryptorchid Dittera f. Drahenshlyuh- she and Mirta. In It was a pedigree, a large female, strong, rough-type addition, the body and the type of hair reminiscent of Newfoundland Lenda. She had a fairly typical head with krupnovato Too heavy and ears.

Degi dentition was normal, with Couscous scissors. The body and limbs did not cause remarkable tions. Total Degi was obtained from 4 litters. From the Wii owner Nechayev , almost all the puppies were in the type of New Newfoundland and one in the type of Rottweiler. In two litters of Moscow manufacturer Knight owner of Ba- bayants met marriage overgrown. With litter born from a combination of KaratHSte- sha, was used as a producer brought out of 5 0. However, they met marriage of dental system, mainly mandibular hypoplasia Lust.

Active black terrier breed, growing concerned disadvantage in the dental system and the appearance of deformities found necessary to apply a further dilution of the close inbri ding to, identifying and rejected vyschepivshiesya vices, to close desired type of drink. Muse AyaksHBeta Among the descendants of Seth stood by his son Oxeye Fig.

Seth died early. But the close inbreeding at it through the syno Oksaya wei, Monster, Jimmy and Seth different daughters, and then grandchildren, as well as inbreeding to Karajan was fixed desirable tive phenotype of the black terrier with a good overgrown, quad PATH format, boned and light-free movements. In fact, Seth's line was created Fig. As a result, also received the same type, similar to the offspring of Seth pogo love dogs. Vita - the daughter of the Irtysh River Irtysh owner of Nikolayev were picked up by various females Baby, Croesus, Yatanka, Gloria of inbreeding on punishing and without it.

Among notable producers of recent years is Sid owner Shusterovich , derived from the Nemfreda and Unita. He was born in a litter, where he was a great marriage of dental system and coat color. Sid was square, a large dog with a massive first lovoy good and overgrown. It was used as a performance tor with different females and passed to posterity their type. Unfortu- NIJ, most descendants inherited disadvantage and Sid - weak ligaments hock.

From Lenin Novikov hail was imported to Latvia Atika owner Gruzdinsh. These soba- ki and became the ancestors of BRT in Latvia. By , the country had been 90 BRT. Assets whist section black terrier paid much attention to the development of quality of service dogs. In , at the All-Union review comps Considerations Anchar owner Winberg won the title of the winner in their group and took second place at the All-Union exterior ring rated "excellent" in the middle age group. By the second half of the 70s in the kennel "Red Star" and club service dog was insufficient numerous stock that meets the requirements predyav trolled by pedigree group, steadfastly transmitted to the offspring experi- sterernye and constitutional features and performance quality.

Black Terriers are widely used to protect various objects and proved its right to exist. International tion Canine Federation in approved the signs Standard black terrier breed group. There was a question about the prize- nanii breed and breed group on the establishment of official Black Terrier breed standard, taking into account changes in the external shape of a dog taking shape over the years of breeding group. In , the kennel "Red Star" has created a new standard breed, which was legitimized by the existence of long-haired tion of black terrier. The appearance of dogs with this type of wool cover due to the fact that the clubs service dog DOSAAF breeders, amateur preferred good has acquired more spectacular individuals.

By type of fur, overgrown head black terriers Differences were originally. Those dogs which breeding more blood Hemingway Giant Schnauzer or Airedale have a tougher with bruises hair. With this type usually associated wool and more square format, strong bones and overall mobility. This type includes the descendants of Karajan, growling Gift of the template have to toryh despite the lengthening of hair preserved its type.

The dogs which breeding large concentration can moscow diver and, therefore, the Caucasian Shepherd , wool usually straight, long and quite rough. With this hair often involve long format, the more bulky skull with you reflection and transition more massive bones. Some animals found soft, curly, almost corded coat. Currently most black Terriers coat is quite long, tough and clear separation type has. The nature of BRT, its service quality and behavior denie also linked to the origin, with a total equilibrated shennosti conduct wire-haired, square to the size of Dogs are more mobile and reckless.

Dogs with less rigid and abundant hair less mobile and aggressive, they may even seem lazy. Since the mids black terrier became known, and then began to be popular in other countries. In , it was reported that the International Exhibition dogs in Helsinki, where the general attention was attracted by a black terrier. Start breeding BRT in the Nordic countries nah refers to the th year, when the Finnish breeders at found two dogs breed group.

In the Finnish press published an article in which it was detailed appearance and service quality black terriers. In particular, it was observed from the incredulous-alert wearing black terriers to strangers, and at the same time friendly - in relation to freely walk the section of the rabbit. From Max and Christmas trees by breeding closely related fin skie dog handlers have received numerous offspring. The descendants of these dogs live in Finland Fig.

They continue to be the subject of attention on you rates Figure It went experts tizu on the exterior rings 39 black terrier dog breed: 19 males and 20 females. Katyusha - a descendant exported to Finland BRT Black terrier at an exhibition in Finland Despite the hot weather, all dogs except one which went shook long enough movement in the ring walked and trotted at a temperature of It should be noted that the training of dogs to the show on wool Trimming was inadequate, not all the animals were well physically developed, the same type of constitution consistent standards that.

Coat the exposed dogs was mainly rough. Marked soft wool from the descendants of Jim-2, Ram- sa-3, Dick and Nord By groups of Jim Nord, the Rams are not traced disadvantages, as supplied pryamovaty hips, legs too short and as a consequence it is not enough free traffic. Somewhat alarming state of dental system: Zaphod 1 for fixed line and 4 bite bite "at the limit" in a group Rams; 2 limit bite - in the group of Jim and 1 - in the group Dick. Owner Kalinin, A. During the breeding cull set gochislennye animals. The main defects are malformations of bite in any wa RIAC and the presence of different size and shape of white markings.

Level bite and bite are mainly due to you forward movement of the two hooks at the lower range of different form it and the upper jaw. The most common broad line of upper incisors and a narrow jaw line "boats" of the mandible. Vices dental system incorporated in the rock initially and training slovleny use of dogs with overbite. Cro- IU, these defects may be due to the fact that the parent Kami black terriers were representatives of various breeds con institutional types, differing in the structure of the head. White markings are found most often on the chest, under the beard and toes.

At the initial stage of development for generations of interbreeding took part in divers and dogs with white markings. Description black terrier The dog above-average growth, shirokotelaya, massive, near kai to a square format, strong type of constitution. Type of behavior and general appearance. Dog-balanced tion, mobile. The height at the withers for males is not less than 65 cm, females - not less than 60 cm Index prolixity Typical gait - trot throws, gallop. Good ability to hopping stone and overcome various obstacles.

Wool is rough, thick. Hair length- tion, with bruises or wavy. Well developed decorating hair. On the face, it forms on the upper lip stiff bristly "Whiskers" on the bottom - the same structure "beard". Long the hair on the neck and shoulder forms a "mane". The front legs to lock- children, back to the thighs are well protected by a hard and long in losom, growing at an angle to the vertical line up.

Podsher- drain thick, well developed, black or brown. Firm, elastic, stretched, does not form warehouses Doc and saggy. Solid, well-developed, relief serving. The backbone. Powerful, massive. Long, moderately broad skull, with rounded cheekbones. The forehead is flat, the transition from forehead to muzzle noticeable tion, but not sharp. The muzzle is parallel to the forehead, massive, pointed, equal to the length of the skull. At Shea set high, hanging on the cartilage, small, triangular cutting edges adjacent to the cheeks. The eye and the small, oval, slanting. Teeth large, white, scissor bite.

Chest - broad and deep, with several prominent child ramie, the lower part of the chest is in line with the elbows or slightly below blocked.

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Withers high, stands out sharply on the back line. The spin of a straight, wide and muscular. Loins and short, wide, muscular, slightly you convex. The croup is broad, muscular, slightly falling to high set tail. Abdomen tucked up above the chest. Seen from the front legs are straight and parallel. Elbows pointing back. Forearm direct mye, thick. The pasterns are short, straight set. Seen from the rear straight and parallel are parallel, set slightly wider than the front.

Hips muscovite The leaves are well developed. The Shins long posed slope but. Hock dry, well-defined. Hocks massive, long, set almost vertically. Round-arched and tight, round shape. At- old fingers are not allowed. Set on high, short-cropped. Plant nursery "Red Star" offers its standard black terrier breed, adopted them in The breed standard black terrier Breed black terrier bred in factory nursery "Red tion Star "by reproductive crossing tested TION to work well together and are mutually complementary each other plant species: Giant Schnauzer, Airedale Terrier, Rottweiler.

Black terriers - dogs above average growth, strong, with massive bone structure and musculature. The skin is firm, elastic tion without forming wrinkles and saggy. Dogs of this breed of evil, distrustful of outsiders, hardy, well-adapted to different climatic cal conditions. Respond well to training. They is understood to mined by the long-haired and short-haired. Strong and sturdy rough. A slight looseness and ease of addition tion, underdeveloped musculature. Light bone, weak muscles, and dampness looseness of the addition. Prolixity small size - Stretched format over For males cm, females 64 - 70 cm Shortcomings.

Mostly vysokonogost or stockiness. Height at the withers for males below 66 cm and above 72 cm for females - 64 cm below and 70 cm above Vices. Overbuilt, nizkoperedost. Height at the withers males less than 65 cm and above 74 cm for females - 63 cm below and above The behavior of 72 cm. Shyness, excessive irritability, lethargy. Cowardice, extreme irritability. Males are larger and heavier than females courageous. Small variations of the sexual type.

The sharp deviation from the sexual type. Cryptorchism one-sided and full. Males in the type of bitches. In long-haired dog fur rough, tough, thick and tight. Hair with bruises, cm in length, covering the entire body. Long hair on the neck withers and forms a "mane". The front legs to the elbows, back - to the hip are well protected stiff long hair.

In the long- nosherstnyh and short-haired dogs is well developed decorate extending hair. On the face, it forms a rigid upper lip bristly "whiskers", and on the bottom - the same structure of the "beard" above the eyes - hard bristly "eyebrows". The undercoat is dense, well developed. In shorthaired dogs guard hairs straight, rigid, tight and dense. Straight hair without a change of heart, wavy, soft Kovata a length of more than 10 cm Insufficient overgrown head and extremities.

Long over 15 cm , soft, smooth wool. Lack of overgrown on the head or legs, as well as scheti grained mustaches, beards, eyebrows. Black, black with gray. Brownish or grayish coat. A small white spot on the chest. Brown or gray color, markings, white spots on the chin, head, neck and legs. The muzzle is parallel to the forehead, massive, slightly sharpened slightly shorter than the length of the skull. Mustache and bo- kind of give a blunt muzzle and a square shape. Thick lips, fleshy. The upper lip is tight to the upper jaw, not forming flews. Several legkovat head, prominent forehead, poorly defined or excessively sharp transition from forehead to muzzle.

High cheekbones. Raw lips. Rugged, heavy or light head. Sharoobraz- tion form. Short, turned up or sharp muzzle. Set high, hanging on the cartilage, small triangular cutting edges adjacent to the cheeks. Low-set ears, long, wrinkled, lagging behind the head. Raised on the cartilage, polustoyaschie ears.

Small, oval-shaped, obliquely set, dark. Large or insufficiently dark eyes. The presence of visible third eyelid or droopy eyelids. Large, white, tight to each other. Cutters located in the base line. Scissors-bite shaped. Erased inappropriately age teeth. Presence of broken teeth, not bothering ing definition occlusion and unnecessary pre-cutters or molars. The incisors are located the base is not in one line one or more cutters on the basis NIJ shifted forward or backward relative to the total on line tooth width or more.

All deviation deviations from a scissor bite. Short, loaded, with the suspension, low put neck. Broad, deep, with several prominent ribs E. The lower part of the chest is in line with the elbows or a little below them. Insufficiently broad chest, some not reaching to the elbows. Ploskovatye ribs. Barrel-shaped, wide-open, small, flat or narrow chest. Trim, above the chest. Omitted or excessively tight stomach.

High stood out sharply above the line of the back. Low, poorly developed withers. Straight, wide and muscular. Soft, narrow, weak muscles spin. Sagging, narrow or roach back. Broad, muscular, slightly falling to a high set tail. Horizontal or slightly beveled croup. Weak muscles. Sharply sloping or narrow croup. Set on high, thick, short docked tion left vertebral Low set tail, wrong buy Rowan. Undocked tail. Viewed from the front straight and parallel to each other. Elbows pointing straight back. The forearms are straight, thick, with short straight posed metacarpus.

Pryamovatye shoulders, a slight twisting elbows of inward or outward. Myagkovato pastern, or toes- clubfoot. Straight shoulders. A sharp contortion elbows, curved forearm. Weak pasterns. Seen from the rear straight and parallel parallel to each other, set slightly wider than the front.

Thighs muscular and well developed. Shins long, supplied lennye obliquely. Hock dry, well-expressed conjugated. Underdeveloped muscles. Short Kieu shin, a small convergence or vyvorochennye gallop tional joints. Mostly pryamozadost or saber. The same bias as that of the shortcomings, but you expressed herein harshly.

Large, arched and tight toes, rounded. Splayed feet. Flat or strongly flowing legs. Free, smooth, light. Characteristic gaits are short trot, canter. At the trot legs should move straight to a close as completely forelimbs to the midline, back and loin elastic and elastic springs. A slight deviation from the straight movements of the limbs.

Inadequate extension joints front or rear. Related, heavy traffic. The motion is defined in an oblique direction the dog runs sideways. Strong rocking- of cereals wobble backwards. Disqualifications All deviations from a scissor bite. Absence at least one of the incisors, canines, third-and fourth-premolya ditch, the first and second molars, absence of more than two of the second pre- four or more molars of the teeth in any combination. Kriptor- Hizma sided and full. Piebald and gray color, white paws, burns. Separation of BRT-type wool understandable, as a club of dog coat black Terriers became longer.

Amateur breeders tend to keep a more beautiful, effective fektnuyu dog. Under the conditions of the state and departmental TION nurseries abundant coat with developed decorate schim hair creates additional difficulties and inconveniences in the care of vicious animals. In the standard, apparently, after the presentation of evidence gesture kosherstnogo black terrier should specify the particular timeshare stnogo cover long-haired.

In particular, it should be noted that the hair on the head of long-haired dogs need to incite causeway in accordance with the standard as forelimbs must be trimmed to give them a smooth, poles shape. Probably also need help with stress cabbage cutting line of the back, hind limb muscles, the shape of the tail. Moreover, evidently not be limited to the standard the upper limit of the growth of the black terrier, but it is advisable to specify when assessing dogs should proceed from the overall balanced values and the addition of proportionality, as well as bony.

During trimming, other than tweaks dogs are cut. This wool processing is essential hygienic value. A number of breeds such as the Airedale, Fox Terrier, Giant Schnauzer, black terrier having a hard wool on, about natural molting process is difficult. In the absence of care wool dead hair does not fall out, and continue to find Xia in hair bags of skin. As a result of coat falls, the old dead hair skin irritant and Nyaya dog inconvenience. Time and correctly produced on processing of dog hair gives it not only a beautiful appearance appearance, but also good for health.

With the trimming works to ensure that the coat becomes dense, tough and uniform. Trimming done with a special comb with short and blunt teeth of solid steel. Sometimes schip-ki wool using a piece of hacksaw, part of which is winding are insulating tape in order to make it easier to keep hand tool. It is desirable to have a good machine for Cutting the hair or thin, with long ends hairdressing scissors, which should be well sharpened.

Processed Vat dog must be at least two times a year, depending on the the rate of fouling coat. Before plucking wool nuzh but comb the comb and the areas of tangled hair on the face and legs gently apart. Dog to handle put on a dais to did not have to bend over while working. Most often, trim- ming involved two people: one to produce its own trimming, and the other usually the owner - support and AFS kaivaet dog. The dog should be accustomed to this procedure. When trimming the skin and pull the stick left hand above the tweaks and the right hand, taking a small bundle hair between the thumb and the tool, pull out.

Usually begin with a pinch of the withers and lead her along the back and sides, gradually moving towards the tail. After all the dead hair on the body is removed, start processing ke the head and other parts of the dog's body scissors or machines Coy. When trimming is necessary to make sure that on the shaved sites had bands and steps, and that between the cropped and plucked sites transitions were smooth.

By processing of wool in black terriers usually begin weeks before the show. The main body of the dog should be remove all of guard hair. In the future, the growth of wool, should clean up the undercoat vychesyvaya his fine comb. Begin to cut from occipital tion hill towards the withers, then along the back to the base NIJ tail to get an even and smooth topline.

Neck from the sides trimmed down, trying to create a smooth the transition between the short hair on the shoulders and decorating fiber catfish on forelegs. On the bottom side of his chest hair not trimmed. In the groin and abdomen left short kai wool length of cm in shearing stresses smooth transition to long hair at the underside of the breasts. The tail is equal uniformly trimmed on all sides, it should be rounded and thick throughout. Genital area and anal through hole machine mow as short as possible mm.

Forelimbs carefully comb bottom up and hair clippers reformats them so that they had a flat columnar shape. On the hind legs with scissors to cut out a wool hocks. The hips should remain wool long-tion cm on the metatarsus hair is not touching, removing only sensible spiky hair. In the treatment of head all wool combs forward. From occiput to brow hair cut out a way to the frontal part seemed flat. Leave a "fringe" in after scratching his forehead to continue the line. On the sides of the head are cut from the top down and from the temporal part of the ear to Do apart from the corners of the mouth to the corners of the eyes.

Specify length of wool cm Needless developed Decorative hair bangs, mustache, beard reformats scissors. After treatment with a dog's head the top and side to have a rectangular shape. Ears with internal nal carefully cut out a hand, and on the outside leave the hair length of cm at the base of the ear hair leave the same length as on the head to the ear seemed tight-fitting. It should however be borne in mind that such a character processing coat recommended for clubs with a service bakovodstva since , does not fully meet the requirements of standard Dart, like wool processing Kerry Blue Terrier and the definition divided designed for long-haired dogs with myagkovato wool.

Black terrier, like other breeds, it should be a hedgehog Fluorescent comb to remove dead undercoat and consanguinity hair. In order to prevent ear infections, wool on the inner side surface of the ear and head around ear holes should always clip out. For the prevention of eczema should be cleaned of dirt and wool clip out between his fingers. Always nice to see an ear- fluoropyridinium, neat dog with a clean, shiny, healthy wool. Of these, two - Central Asian and Caucasian Shepherd, still exist in areas of natural distribution, are increasingly spread in large cities, where their breeding implementation vlyaetsya factory methods.

South Russian Shepherd, practical cally disappeared from areas of its native habitat - tavriche Sgiach steppes, there are now only in the cities. Breed Black Terrier was created in a military kennel, then its main part-crossed lovers to the townspeople. In the cities of official representatives of the domestic breeds Dog owners live in the apartments, and only a small part of the animals in the countryside. In the pi-departmental tomnik preference Caucasian shepherd dogs, which are used for guard duty that does not require constant tion of close contact with the animal guides.

At exhibitions, urban dogs mainly taken on the exterior, and the assessment of their quality of service, even in comparison with European breed of service is a formal and far from complete. Of course, at the exhibition competition, the content of the main part of the livestock in the amateurs, with no hard requirements of social order for the breed domestic breeds are becoming more decorative.

In this selection by exterior can be conducted in the direction of the underscore character puter, but hypertrophied forms of each of these species: gigantism and brutality of addition - the Caucasian; looseness layer tion and the sculptural skull - in Central, wealth coat and pure-white color - in the southern Russian Shepherds.

Perhaps even be caught in the dog's coat burs and straws, as do the fans in Europe Komondor, to create the impression that the dog was brought from steppes. This can not be allowed. Little concern urban amateur breeder and users tional quality of domestic breeds. There is no way to provide the citizen with his dog and many kilometers of passages, which made it far ancestors.

Therefore, dogs, bred in a club official business tion dog, qualitatively different from their counterparts, living in their natural environment. And if the city population of Caucasian and Central Asian Shepherd Dogs may still periodically draw breeding material from the areas natural tion habitat, the South Russian Shepherd is no such possibility has.

Black Terrier breed is also developing "a" and all inoporodnye influence it has stopped. The gene pool of these species is extremely limited. Under these conditions, breeding with domestic threshold rows of be coordinated. Need to seek new possibilities opportunities for official use of dogs of these breeds are not limited guard ourselves to the service.

To maintain a working chamber operation and the level of exterior breed you need to spend rates, shows and competitions. It is extremely necessary mym organize an information service, information to be rocks brought to all interested parties. For solutions these tasks it is desirable to create a Union Council in each of the domestic breeds. Particular attention should be paid to promotion of Central Asian and Caucasian shepherds in their areas of native habitat - in Turkmenistan, Georgia, Armenia, Dagestan.

In the breeding work with the rocks in these areas need take into account the demands of modern animal production science, all cally support the traditional use of these breeds of dogs for grazing and conservation herds. Working breeds of dogs was not enough, they had to buy abroad. Therefore, even in the "Russian society to promote and the use of dogs for police service ", established in , experiments were carried out on training for investigative services Kurd tion Shepherd Grizzlies.

But this dog was culled because of extraordinary strength and fury. As he wrote Shidlovskiy I. In , as the train began to experience Dog of Turkestan. Recommended to carry on dog training large population to make representation about the suitability these dogs to use the service in general. A great need for military dog demanded Provence excitation and scientific works. Sun Languages noted that, given the variety of natural conditions of our country, it is extremely difficult to create breed dogs are equally suitable for use as the northern suburbs and in hot climates.

Nevertheless, the need in this breed has existed since the dogs tested west but European breeds German Shepherds, Dobermans, Airedale Terriers had to buy abroad, particularly in Germany mania. It was necessary to identify the most suitable for a wide service use local breed. For this purpose, Sun Language recommend huskies and Caucasian Shepherd. AP Mazower wrote that before the war, the breed was used extensively various departments on guard duty. In , were Central organized course instructors who prepared by border guards and dogs for border guards, they were later renamed the Central School of official dog breeder properties of the Border Guard.

The work of the Central School of official business tion Kennel border troops showed that the average Asian shepherd dogs have good instincts and the ability to dog training on investigative and patrol services. All-Union competition dogs, conducted in , confirmed Dili high of utilitarian qualities of this breed in all services: the winners came out: Archie - by Investigative Service; Package son Archie has grown in the nursery - on guard; Kyzyl - on guard.

So, essentially random dogs targeted by the corresponding The associated to training, representatives surpassed many times proven imported breeds, taking first place in the servi bam, which require intuition and active defense reaction. At present, domestic breeds of dogs used are various departments to guard duty, but a wide whom the application is still not found, as the authorities give preference for German Shepherds. Need to clarify the difference between the guard and the guard howl services. In the guard service dog, exhibitor May for the protection of the object is on the circuit, block, or its freely moves through the protected fenced area.

In all cases, it works independently, attacking evil by hackers, barking raises the alarm and causes the arm or his guide. In the watchdog service dog is in the post together with the conductor, the conductor silently alerts about an intruder appears and acts on the command conductor. In the clubs of dog-breeders DOSAAF lovers of their trained dogs from chickens su training on protective guard and guard services.

Shepherd Training of Asian origin from chickens su training requires great endurance trainer and patience. Well-known in our country, the instructor in training service dogs LI Ostretsova talked about her failed attempt otdressirovat two Central Asian Shepherd argon and Ainu at the rate of total obedience. Dogs did not want to run on the boom, stairs and jump. However, they showed amazing perseverance. It's not moving forward for a long time, until one of dog days suddenly began to carry out these exercises.

Later exercises associated with the movement and jumping, Argon and Aina performed with gusto. But with the techniques that require obedience, things were bad. Knowing the team and understanding what is required of them, the dogs refused to carry them. In the end, LI Ostretsova still left argon and Ainu alone. Over time, they became good guard dog, ideally go nearby, and their jumping ability led to thrill all who touched the fence warehouse. Remembering unsuccessful attempts to train adult dogs, LI Ostretsova began to educate Central Asian Shepherd puppy Akbar from the early childhood.

As a result, Akbar instantly react to any command or gesture was very clever and calm, taking the barrier height of 2. A puppy, he was stubborn and headstrong, but working with him was a great joy for the trainer. It is not easy to work with some black terriers, which also bear the blood of large mastiff dogs. Anyone who wants to get a dog must have a pre representation of the main features of its behavior, to know that you can demand from the animal, and what the requirements are unacceptable, so they do not correspond to the major physiological needs ABILITY dog.

The man worshiped multi- SHM animals, feeling their mystique and power. Traces of these relations will now be seen in the folklore of many peoples ppa. With the advent of religious people are completely separated themselves from animals. Religion deprived animals of the main human Quality - the soul.

In relation to the animals did not exist the concept of cruelty, for the heartless beast, so it istya The knowledge and the killing is not a sin, and do not have jurisdiction. Animal Steel watch or as a means of obtaining meat, wool, draft power on, or as a source of udovol consequence, freeloader, devoid of feelings and sensations. These worldviews, common in our day, have deep historical roots. Since ancient times, gradually gaining experience training animals.

However, the training methods were extremely cruel Kimi, as it was believed that the animal needed to tame, to break down, made to work for man. Books on the history of the circus, equestrian sports, dog full of examples of this attitude toward Mrs. The behavior of animals reveal their feelings and characteristics ra wrote the famous German zoologist and promoter Alfred Brehm However, in describing the world of animals, A.

Brehm started from the human perception of the world, it is completely equating nival psyche of animals to the human psyche, finding in animals qualities such as cruelty, treachery, friendship, foresight. His description of the characters and actions of animals highly humanized, anthropomor. But still significant tion as it is the ancestor of animal psychology. From the very beginning zoopsiholo ergy divided into two irreconcilable trends - fur nitsizm and anthropomorphism. Representatives from these areas, ve probably, the wrong equally.

Mechanists believed that the animal - a living machine, and so with it you can do anything, ignoring on yelp, which is nothing more than a scratch badly oiled tion mechanism. Supporters of same anthropomorphic animal is man - a creature capable of suffering, to love, to think, reason and act completely human. Of great importance for the development of animal psychology were unemployed Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution, summarized in the book "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" This work has shown that a person closely associated with stomach nym and the world as a representative of the animal world has ever completely freed from the power of the laws of evolution.

Work Darwin's "Expression of emotions in man and animals" is essentially zoopsychological. Darwin pointed out, that the higher animals possess memory, imagination and intel Lect. Among zoopsychologists who studied animal behavior and its development, highlighting a number of scholars, of which I would like to called E. Thorndike, a psychologist B. Keller, Russian scientists V.

However, animal psychology in the first quarter of the XX century was Nana September painful blow from the physiological school, whose head was Pavlov. Scientist battled mental humanization of animals, against anthropomorphism. He is skeptical of attempts by some psychologists to explain the behavior of animals purely human terms and concepts. Pavlov developed a scientific objective physiological tion method for the study of animal behavior and the functions of the brain. This method is known as the method of conditioned reflexes.

The teaching of Pavlov was immediately taken into service practice tics-trainers. Unfortunately, it so happened that the address of sirovschiki took only one side of Pavlov's teaching. Having clarified that, based on the behavior of animals is a reflex activity of the higher centers of the brain, many of them have become identify the animal with a reflex machine. At its core, Many trainers have become the position of mechanists. Educational nicks on dog breeding for several decades continued shook emphasize the idea of the absence of the higher animals do not only the rudiments of intelligence, but also the simplest desires, citing on the authority of Pavlov.

However, Pavlov did not deny the possibility of the existence animal elements of thinking, but he was not the enemy physiological explanation of this process, it was against experimenter to give explanation for the behavior of animals based only on their own human feelings. Attitude the animal only as a primitive mechanism, responding mu to stimuli, was also alien to him. After Pavlov's physiological method of studying the brain and the behavior of the animals continued to develop and perfect vatsya.

In place of the relatively simple methods and devices for were modern techniques and sophisticated instruments. Physiological method for studying the behavior of animals led to major discoveries. But at the same time with the physio- logical method of the old animal psychology has developed another method of studying animal behavior - ethological ethos in Ancient Greek means behavior. If physiologists and many zone opsihologi old type animals studied in the laboratory, ethologists began working in the field. The object of their study of the animals were in an environment similar to the group itself TION.

Ethologists development of forms of behavior in the course of evolution tion of wildlife, the development of animal behavior ranging from his birth to death, the influence of the environment on mills tion behavior in the early periods of individual development, communication and communication in the animal world. Krushinsky, AD Slonim, LA Firsov et al To some extent, the role of the observer, and is ethologist an inquisitive dog breeder who is not only to train their dog, but also carries with her a large part of his life, trying to understand her needs, desires, behavior.

It should be noted that the animals are always motivated behavior. In animals, there is no aimless activity, always there exist motives and reasons behind certain behavior. Therefore, analyzing the behavior of the dog, you should always take into account the its internal state, the actions of other people, Obst the setting.

Dog peculiar desires, needs arising based on instincts, some memories. How often leaving the house for a walk with the dog and the provision Substituting choose her own path, the host is watching her swing a path selection. While at home, lying alone on a litter, dog not always asleep, do not lie thoughtlessly, as neodushevlen tion subject.

Her senses are working tirelessly to give a lot of information from the outside. The man does not even themselves how much information that is not available to him, revised Tuva dog's brain. It is very possible that in her mind vspyhi off and continually replace each other different olfactory, auditory, visual images that cause a variety of desires, emotions and behaviors.

In general, a dog - is living being with his inner world, and not the poor and the non-primitive copy of the inner world person. Watching a dog, you may find she has three basic tee pas behavior: instinctive, formed on the basis of learning of elementary and rational activities. Instinctive forms of dog behavior Instincts - are complex, congenital forms of behavior, inherent in this type of animal.

These behaviors are the result of changes in the nervous and mountains monalnoy systems of animals. Instincts ensures vayut physical survival of the animal and allow it there Vova in a group of their own kind. The first group is particularly true instinct of self conservation. Any living creature seeks to avoid danger, to save the state of comfort. Dogs of domestic TION rocks, especially Caucasian shepherd dogs, do not like them make for some unknown reason, for them to move from convenient place for them. They do not like to have Daughtry trons strangers or when someone comes closer permissible limit distance.

In response to the reluctance of human century to consider these factors dog may respond aggression. On the basis of self-preservation instinct is formed oriented rovochny instinct of the animal for a long time studying the new for him the situation and fear of unfamiliar objects, as long as it is secure their own safety. Instinct self-preservation is more pronounced in females than in males. On the basis of the instinct of self-preservation instinct is formed economy of effort. Thanks to him, the animal tends not to consider hodovat force until the end, and save them.

The instinct of economy of force especially peculiar wild predators who happen long ods of hunger strikes and to meet the needs of in food are often required many kilometers of passages. In dogs domestic breeds instinct of economy of effort as well ex-wives. For example, the Caucasian and Central Asian Shepherd usually lie quietly watching the scene, and only minutes danger, they are very active.

In groups of dogs always stand out less and more economical individuals employees and lazy. Domestic breeds of dogs on external impression often refer to the latter. Perfectly adapted for life in harsh climate matic conditions of the Central Asian and Caucasian Shepherd eco autonomously spend the heat generated as a result of vital activity sequences. As you know, the normal body temperature of a dog 37, The animal struggled to maintain this pace ture. This is achieved by either increasing heat generation and reduction of its impact in the cold, or a decrease heat generation and increasing its impact in the hot.

In summer, when the ambient temperature is higher than the rate ture of the body, the dog tries to move less, since Traffic generated more heat, lay sprawled shis to lose more heat, sticks out his tongue and often Di shit that by evaporating the liquid from the language to use up as much heat. In winter, when the temperature of the ambient outgoing air below body temperature, is covered by the dog fur, more moves, and at the same time it increases consumption Property in the food.

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If the dog is, it tries to cover as much as possible less space: back bends, picks up his legs, snout interposes between the hind legs, that is doing everything in order, to keep your body cool. The instinct of careful spending of heat and maintain the internal temperature of the body is the etsya feature of domestic dogs.

In hot in , they tend to use any shade, very little transfer move, even reinforcing the impression of laziness. The group of instincts that ensure the physical survival animal also apply all hunting, eating and defensive instincts. These instincts can only be satisfied poo by interaction with other individuals of their species. Formerly only in the interaction of the animal group has Xia in the position of a baby.

In this period, the action involves Xia mechanism known as imprinting imprinting. Imprintin g - this property is young animals, the expression tal in remembering the true or adoptive parent and the formation of stable attachment to it. According to the multi- GIH scientists, dogs best time to form imprintin ha - the age of 3 to 10 weeks. The adult animal is in a group in the role of sexual partner, showing the complex sexual instincts, parents with all its inherent mind gamut of parental instincts; the host site or a stranger when the instinct territoriality, the leader of the group or its subordinate members, following programmed instinct hierarchy.

And finally, the third group of instincts combines instincts you're facing the future. The issue is- Xia instinct of freedom and orienting research sumer first instinct, which express the need to move, action, the novelty of experiences in learning the skills which rye may be needed in the future. These instincts are satisfied with the animals games, role model, simulate the actions of adult animals. While playing, the young animals acquire the skills necessary later in life, hone them and train.

For the development of this group of instincts needed peers. If those at the Puppy is not, the game becomes a companion for man century. And the owner, who took the puppy, must be psychologically prepared for this role. The instincts of the same species are strictly constant. They change under the influence of the environment is extremely slowly, over the lives of hundreds of generations, gradually and with pain great difficulty. However, animals are not born with a well immediately twisted instincts.

For the development of instinct, as for every inborn unconditioned reflex, characterized by certain steps of maturation and consolidation of extinction.


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Thus, the entire group instincts, facing the future, characterized primarily young animals. Instincts are closely connected with the activities of the internal glands It secretion and appear under its influence. It is not always the person to communicate with animals allows value instincts, which are a powerful stimulus to behavior. Taking away the puppies from the mother very early in the month impact plants, depriving people of their very important period of communication with ma teryu and with each other, condemning to loneliness.

Usually, puppies begin to actively communicate with each other and play 3 weeks of age. Their behavior appears elements follow the mother and peers. In weeks begins to emerge following the instinct of a mother. To this Puppies have time to meet the full range of movements, postures, sounds, which refers to them mother. They gradually handle skills in group behavior.

The period of a month or two after birth is extremely va wives for the development of relations in the group zoosotsialnyh odnopomet nicknames for the healthy mental development of puppies.