The continuous influx of migrants, further incorporations of municipalities and insolvable problems of language and nationality established an atmosphere fraught with conflict. Instead, they embraced aestheticism and concentrated on the study of interior worlds. Through analysis of individual psychological and emotional dimensions in their works, they grappled with the entanglement of life, love and death, the power of dreams and imagination, as well as a permanent quest for identity.
With the latter mostly came anguish and nervous irritation, often leading to a feeling of being alienated from reality and turning towards artificial lifestyles, resulting either in isolation or in a dandyish appearance.
Viennese Jewish Modernism: Freud, Hofmannsthal, Beer-Hofmann, and Schnitzler By Abigail Gillman
Shortly after Hermann Bahr had returned inspired from Paris, Herzl also spent an influential period in the French capital. Er war ein deutsch-nationaler Burschenschafter. He was born in Pest to German-speaking Jews and moved to Vienna with his family in , at the age of eighteen. Although the young Herzl had aimed to become a writer, he began studying law. It is most likely that Herzl had begun searching as soon as he could for an outlet for his desire and energy for political participation.
This commitment, however, met with profound anti-Semitism. Only shortly after Herzl had joined Albia, Jews were no longer admitted to the league. Even though Herzl was allowed to stay, he eventually resigned. The incident certainly lasted in his memory. In , Herzl was appointed the coveted position of foreign correspondent in Paris. Certainly, the Albia experience was still on his mind. Herzl and his Zionist companions would later declare the Dreyfus affair as the pivotal moment in realizing the essential need for a Jewish nationhood.
In the majority of cases, scholars willingly adopt this popular version of events. However, during the Panama scandals two years prior to this, in , Herzl had begun to experience anti-Semitism at an alarmingly close range. Herzl soon realized that the discrimination against Jews in France would shortly occur in Austria as well. Cut off from any contact with his family and friends, even going as far as staying away from his office and neglecting his appearance, Herzl laid the foundation for his Zionist mission.
Ich erfinde nichts [ Does he thus not confirm the once vehemently denied fantastical nature of his Jewish state when publishing his utopian novel Altneuland The Old New Land in ?
Potentially, his first national draft would have been scrutinized more intensively for its fictional content or would just as well have gained a utopian label, had not the course of history effectively led to the founding of Israel after World War II. In many sections of his text, Herzl makes use of metaphors and allegoric language.
Wir wollen aber den Juden eine Heimat geben. This not only became clear in his texts, but likewise in his political operations. In , he founded his weekly newspaper Die Welt The World and decided on a provocative design for it. It appeared on a yellow cover — yellow being the color conventionally assigned to Jews — and showed the Palestinian map framed by the Star of David in its title logo. Ephraim Lilien, the most famous Zionist artist and illustrator, was jointly responsible for turning Herzl into an emblem of the modern heroic Jew.
In the following, several such aspects shall be explored and contrasted with a number of Young-Vienna writings. The very beginning of the novel reads as a model of decadent literature:.
Dann setzte er sich an den runden Lesetisch, trank seinen Kaffee, las alle Zeitungen durch, die ihm der Kellner beflissen brachte. Friedrich turns to his dreams as the sole source of escape from a dismal daily routine, especially given he had recently lost his two only friends.
- Schatten von vorgestern (German Edition);
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Significantly, one of them resolved to die by a shot to the head as a means to end his ordeal in a world that apparently lacks any positive future prospects. Instead, he simply seems to have passed away as a consequence of the inescapable anguish awaiting every Jewish intellectual at the turn of the century. Die jungen Leute waren heute sehr traurig. Eines Abends vor acht Tagen war er nicht gekommen, sondern war zu Hause geblieben, hatte sich vor seinen Schreibtisch gesetzt und sich eine Kugel durch den Kopf geschossen.
He adores a wealthy Jewish girl, for whom he spends the last of his savings. However, when he dramatically learns of her engagement to another wealthy suitor — a rather unappealing businessman — life loses its appeal to him. Friedrich almost follows in the path of his deceased comrades, but then recalls an advertisement that had repeatedly appeared in Viennese newspapers.
An anonymous person with the pseudonym Mr. Also despairing over life and love, Kingscourt has in the meantime withdrawn from society and chosen a solitary existence on his yacht. This text portrays a man equally advanced in years who has escaped from the worldly hustle and bustle, to instead concentrate on cultivating his own private garden by favor of inner exile:. Die Welt kann einem aber gar nichts geben, sondern jeder hat die ganze Welt in sich.
Kingscourt advertised, which Friedrich had blindly applied to. He thoroughly embraces once Kingscourt divulges what it is.
- Cercasi lavoro disperatamente (Italian Edition).
- Zionism and Viennese modernity Aestheticism in Theodor Herzl’s Zionist novel Altneuland?
- Le coeur cousu (Folio) (French Edition).
However, this first utopian setting on the island is only adumbrated and not specified. Meanwhile, this blank space invites a homoerotic constellation, typical of the decadent movement. Herzl ensures his two dropouts visit the holy land before and after their twenty-year timeout on the island. When stepping on Palestinian soil for the first time on their way to the South Seas, the two men discover the Jewish state as already having been colonized by various ambitious Zionists and yet the overall impression it gives is of being neglected and run-down.
One may argue that Herzl has decided on first showing the land of Zion as being in a desolate condition in order to enhance its appeal when visited for the second time and by then have his characters return to a transformed prosperous Jewish nation. In his novel Der Tod Georgs , depictions of the moon are embedded in comparable wistful scenes.
Friedrich and Kingscourt expect to see the same decadent civilization that they had once willingly left behind, and plan to return to their isolated island after a short interval. Herzl noticeably focuses on the arts as an essential aspect of the new nation. In fact, the Jewish state is revealed to be a dandyish society to some extent, as, for instance, men are required to wear white gloves to the opera, and British aristocrats request to be painted by renowned Jewish artists. Denn die Erde sind wir selbst.
There is a noteworthy sequence in which Friedrich visits Mrs. Littwalk, who is lying in her sickbed in the city of Tiberias. The old woman, who dies toward the end of the novel, is already seriously ill and knows, just as everyone else does, that she will soon pass away. Ich bin ja beinah schon im Garten Eden. Nicht wahr, der Garten Eden? Da schimmerte der See von Genezareth. Wistfulness and contentment band together in Mrs.
He lays his eyes on a romanticized landscape and observes a lovely, flourishing environment in the beginning of spring, surmounted, however, by a castle ruin clearly alluding to decay. Several symbolic contrasts intertwine in the above passage. Embellishing death and combining it with beauty in such an antithetic manner is a technique also frequently employed in writings at the turn of the century.
Uncanny Returns: Literary Zionism and Modernism (Joyce, Spark, Roth)
Sie fuhr langsam das Ufer entlang — — —. Although the imagery of the two texts does of course vary, both reveal a picturesque reconciliation between death and beauty. For the majority of Jews, this idealized version of their homeland represented a rather un-Jewish fiction that was understood to be in homage to a modern European spirit. However, he was unaware of his ideology being expansively influenced by his education as a writer. Herzl was, most importantly, a man of letters who had committed himself to the aesthetics of politics. Posing as a politician operating with literary means, he remained a writer philosophizing about politics.
Altenberg, Peter, Wie ich es sehe. Fischer Verlag, Bahr, Hermann, Der Garten. Wirkung in die Ferne und anderes. Wien: Wiener Verlag, Altenberg, Peter, Der Garten. Beer-Hofmann, Richard. Der Tod Geor gs.
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Herzl, Theodor, Altneuland. Herzl, Theodor, Der Judenstaat. Hofmannsthal, Hugo von. Das Bergwerk zu Falun. Gesammelte Werke.
Modernism and Zionism
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