Furthermore, though space is an experience of an individual consciousness, and no certainty of what we see can be guaranteed or shared, this solipsism is paradoxically a social, collective experience. Without human consciousness space and the things in it would be meaningless. Making sense of space, the spatial self, is something human beings share irreducibly. And, though Kant does not write this explicitly, space is the structuring element of all social relationships, from the infant at the breast to the configuration of chairs in a salon or drawing room.
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The chronotope of the salon was for Bakhtin one that dominated the nineteenth-century novel. The first Critique was published in , the period when the novel was entering its second great phase, and when a spatial and interspatial subject emerges within it. Even when this interspatial relation is under strain, challenged, or interrupted, it never disappears. And what I want to stress in this article is that the interspatial subject is germane to the novel, that social relations are predicated on it.
To start with, then, the interspatial subject is my theme. Kant added a further element to his spatial thought, the body. Indeed, he began with it in an essay of on orientation in space, following this up with two more essays, in and , published in between the first and second editions of the Critique. Relatedness is not inherent in objects but is organized by the body alone. This gives us the power to distinguish one side from another — left, right, up, down, front, back, over there, beyond, behind. Spatial differentiation and the intersecting vertical and horizontal planes of three-dimensional experience projected from the body follow from this crucial capacity to match and not match.
It is this capacity that enables us to occupy a concrete, fully inhabited world, the world of place as well as space.
Even in a dark room such orientation occurs. One need only to think of Maggie Tulliver in The Mill on the Floss navigating her passage in the darkness of the flood and through the markers of bodily and mental memory to see how important the interspatial subject is. In the world of fiction this inhabited space shares the animation that Elaine Scarry attributes to visual experience and sense data in the novel.
She describes strategies of writing that achieve this sensory belief. Her work has prompted me to think of parallel strategies for realizing space in the novel. But these must be different because with space we are dealing with the intangibles of breadth and depth. But these principles are more fully understood when we supplement them with his notion that the orientating corporeal agency of the body is crucial. But though he is a foundational theorist I do not wish to see him as the master theorist.
There is much that is troubling in his axioms. The paradoxical shared isolation or solipsism, rather than a shared understanding of space, as the underlying social bond is an awkward proposition to hold. It is true that without human consciousness space and the things in it would be meaningless: but Kant posited that no human consciousness could know what another knows; a shared world is unknowable; indeed, the world itself is unknowable except through its representations.
Thus, despite his emphasis on corporeality, human consciousness is a rather thin, etiolated entity. Though he agreed with Kant in dismissing the empirical account of space and its circularity, and shared, though in a very different way, his idealism, he refused to countenance an idealism that prevented us from actively mediating the world. He provides us with a fuller sense of the self than Kant, and an account of space that is not a representation but a material reality that is multi-perspectival. Without denying the four axioms described above, both enable us to think of space in a way that extends the possibilities of the sensuous body in space.
First, Hegel denied that space is subjective. We are not trapped in representations. To begin with, if we are confined to appearances, we cannot think in terms of infinitely generative knowledge. While Kant had stated that the empirical was a limit on cognition, Hegel argued that an account of representation was actually the limiting factor, because it confronts us with an unknowable world. Self-conscious thought requires a constant dynamic act of self-externalization and return, an understanding of the not-self as object and a return to the self as subject. These reorientations are essentially spatial in nature Hegel, pp.
Nor do I attempt to suture together two incompatible forms of thinking. Despite disagreement, both thinkers agree that space is not predicated on sense data. It is this foundational account of space that we need to explore in the nineteenth-century novel. How does the novel represent space? Elaine Scarry shows how sensory awareness in the novel is cognitively intensified if an existing scene is overlaid with a transparent medium, which is then manipulated or removed.
The scene takes on a paradoxical solidity when we are reminded that its sensory substantiveness has been made to disappear. In a like manner, I think, the way a novelist can produce space in language is by alternately negating and confirming the four principles that make spatial experience possible: take away the body, reintroduce it; empty space of objects, restore objects; obliterate partitioned space, reinstate division. All of these are procedures that can be reversed or combined with one another. We are prompted into intensified spatial imagining when the novelist signals a change in spatial relations.
To show how this works in practice, I want first to explore two moments of hurtful spatial disorientation. In chapter 10 of North and South , Thornton has been invited to tea at the Hales.
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A warm and aesthetic domestic space has been evoked as the group argue about the responsibilities of the great factory owners to their men, or hands. At his departure, Thornton shakes hands with the senior Hales, but when he approaches Margaret, the conventions of polite society in the south prevail, and, unprepared for this gesture, she fails to reciprocate. Here is the spatial choreography: When Mr Thornton rose up to go away, after shaking hands with Mr and Mrs Hale, he made an advance to Margaret to wish her goodbye in a similar manner.
It was the frank familiar custom of the place; but Margaret was not prepared for it. She simply bowed her farewell, although the instant she saw the hand, half put out, quickly drawn back, she was sorry she had not been aware of the intention. She has also taken that space for granted in a different way, that it will not be traversed. Thornton and Margaret both orientate themselves through the body.
The reader too, I think, orientates herself in this notional space. When the expected gesture is not made, the spatial depth between the two characters earlier established inconspicuously becomes suddenly, for both characters, charged, fraught, leaping into awareness. It becomes a gap. This existential gap becomes a social and class space, an affective space charged with rejection for Thornton and with regret by Margaret.
It is a political space for the narrator. The narrative makes space the external, organizing form of relations, which we cannot think away, by first placing space under erasure or making it inconspicuous, and then by suddenly reintroducing its relational force. With wonderful subtlety, Gaskell introduces another spatial relation as Thornton leaves the house. The Duke of Omnium, temporarily staying in his country house, which has been almost taken over by guests his wife has invited ostensibly to further his power, decides to take his usual walk.
Until, that is, he is surprised into awareness. The exotics with which it was to be filled were at this moment being brought in on great barrows. He stood for a moment and looked, but said not a word to the men. They gazed at him but evidently did not know him. How should they know him, — him, who was so seldom there, and who when there never showed himself about the place?
Then he went further afield from the house and came across more and more men. A great ha-ha fence had been made, enclosing on three sides a large flat and turfed parallelogram of ground, taken out of the park, and open at one end to the gardens, containing, as he thought, about an acre. The man stared at him, and at first seemed hardly inclined to make him an answer. He evidently regarded the stranger as an intruder who was not entitled to ask questions, even if he were permitted to wander about the grounds.
The Duke is shocked into spatial awareness and reintroduced to his estate by the wholly unexpected changes made to the terrain of his own property. A new conservatory has been erected unbeknown to him. It is when he sees that he has been alienated from his land that he is most aware of its spaces.
Rather, it presses upon him. The space between the Duke and the workman is a level space. Forced to ask questions about his own land, the Duke may not be absolutely the slave in a master—slave relation, but he is certainly subservient to the workman. The novel of this era lives through charting divided and demarcated spaces, the new historical spaces generated by the new forms of work and pleasure created by industrial capitalism, and the new urban spaces it brought with it in particular — public gardens, parks, railways, suburbs, theatres, clubs, shops.
But it goes further than registering these epiphenomena of capital. External and internal spaces can be divided and sectioned in the minutest ways. It is only when this occurs that we can live the space of the novel, and again the strategy is the same: to subject space to division and then to erase that division, or conversely, to introduce division where formerly division is not apparent. The space of the pleasure principle and erotic adventure reconfigures the separate order of study and billiard room one of the study doors is blocked off from the billiard room by a bookshelf prior to the play.
Austen never offers a continuous account of these new spatial allocations: we learn of them intermittently, but the sum total of these repartitionings is enormous. Tom Bertram initiates the new divisions by insisting on a curtain p. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value and a pedestrian poem of none at all. The purest or, at least, the most intense literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic , dramatic, narrative, and expository verse.
Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetry , because the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form. Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio.
The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: its subject matter was of comparatively minor importance. Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalism , although there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists. Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama , and the arts.
Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer. Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, and scope. Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The Dialogues of Plato 4th century bc are written with great narrative skill and in the finest prose; the Meditations of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, and the Greek in which they are written is eccentric.
Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific content has become outdated. This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance. Oratory , the art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art. The oratory of the American Indian , for instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry and oratory.
Chattopadhyay's stories focused on the social scenario of rural Bengal and the lives of common people, especially the oppressed classes. The prolific Indian author of short stories Munshi Premchand , pioneered the genre in the Hindustani language , writing a substantial body of short stories and novels in a style characterized by realism and an unsentimental and authentic introspection into the complexities of Indian society. In he wrote " A Legend of Old Egypt ". The Brazilian novelist Machado de Assis was the most important short story writer from his country at the time, under influences among others of Xavier de Maistre , Lawrence Sterne , Guy de Maupassant.
Writing about the former slaves, and very ironical about nationalism , Lima Barreto died almost forgotten, but became very popular in the 20th century. In Portuguese literature, the major names of the time are Almeida Garrett and the historian and novelist Alexandre Herculano.
Hector Hugh Munro — , also known by his pen name of Saki , wrote satirical short stories about Edwardian England. Somerset Maugham , who wrote over a hundred short stories, was one of the most popular authors of his time. Wodehouse published his first collection of comical stories about valet Jeeves in Many detective stories were written by G. Chesterton , Agatha Christie and Dorothy L. Short stories by Virginia Woolf are " Kew Gardens " and "Solid Objects," about a politician with mental problems.
Graham Greene wrote his Twenty-One Stories between and A specialist of the short story was V. Pritchett , whose first collection appeared in Arthur C. Clarke published his first science fiction story, " Travel by Wire! Evelyn Waugh , Muriel Spark and L. Hartley were other popular British storytellers whose career started in this period. In Ireland, James Joyce published his short story collection Dubliners in These stories, written in a more accessible style than his later novels, are based on careful observation of the inhabitants of his birth city.
The demand for quality short stories was so great and the money paid for such so well that F. Scott Fitzgerald repeatedly turned to short-story as Matthews preferred to write it writing to pay his numerous debts. His first collection Flappers and Philosophers appeared in book form in William Faulkner wrote over one hundred short stories.
Go Down, Moses , a collection of seven stories, appeared in Ernest Hemingway's concise writing style was perfectly fit for shorter fiction. Dorothy Parker 's bittersweet story "Big Blonde" debuted in A popular science fiction story is " Nightfall " by Isaac Asimov. Katherine Mansfield from New Zealand wrote many short stories between and her death in In Uruguay , Horacio Quiroga became one of the most influentials short story writers in the spanish language, with a clear influence from Edgar Allan Poe , he had a great skill using the supernatural and the bizarre to show the struggle of man and animal to survive.
He also excelled in portraying mental illness and hallucinatory states. In the latter wrote " A Hunger Artist ", about a man who fasts for several days. In India, the master of the short story in the Urdu language, Saadat Hasan Manto is revered for his exceptional depth, irony and sardonic humour. The author of some short stories, radio plays, essays, reminiscences and a novel, Manto is widely admired for his analyses of violence, bigotry, prejudice and the relationships between reason and unreason.
Combining realism with surrealism and irony, Manto's works such as the celebrated short story Toba Tek Singh are aesthetic masterpieces which continue to give profound insight into the nature of human loss, violence and devastation.
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Another famous Urdu writer is Ismat Chughtai whose short story "Lihaaf" The Quilt on a lesbian relationship between an upper-class Muslim woman and her maid servant created great controversy following its publication in Also, novelist Graciliano Ramos and poet Carlos Drummond de Andrade have significant short story works. The New Yorker continued to publish the works of the form's leading mid-century practitioners, including Shirley Jackson , whose story, " The Lottery ", published in , elicited the strongest response in the magazine's history to that time.
Cheever is best known for " The Swimmer " which beautifully blends realism and surrealism. Cultural and social identity played a considerable role in much of the short fiction of the s. Wallace Stegner 's short stories are primarily set in the American West. Stephen King published many short stories in men's magazines in the s and after. King's interest is found in the supernatural and macabre. The s saw the rise of the postmodern short story in the works of Donald Barthelme and John Barth.
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Traditionalists including John Updike and Joyce Carol Oates maintained significant influence on the form. Minimalism gained widespread influence in the s, most notably in the work of Raymond Carver and Ann Beattie. In the year Alice Munro became the first writer of only short stories to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Roald Dahl was the master of the twist-in-the-tale. Short story collections like Lamb to the Slaughter and Kiss Kiss illustrate his dark humour. The role of the bi-monthly magazine Desh first published in is imperative in the development of Bengali short story.
Two of the most popular detective story writers of Bengali literature are Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay the creator of Byomkesh Bakshi and Satyajit Ray the creator of Feluda. In Italy, Italo Calvino published the short story collection Marcovaldo , about a poor man in a city, in Detective literature was led by Rubem Fonseca. Manuel da Silva Ramos is one of the most well-known names of postmodernism in the country. Mozambican Mia Couto is a widely known writer of post modern prose, and he is read even in non-Portuguese speaking countries.
The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges is one of the most famous writers of short stories in the Spanish language. The Uruguayan writer Juan Carlos Onetti is known as one of the most important magical realist writer from Latin America. In Colombia , the Nobel prize laureate author Gabriel Garcia Marquez is the main novelist and short story writer, known by his magical realist stories and his defense of the Communist Party in his country.
The Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa , also a Nobel prize winner, has significant short story works. The Egyptian Nobel Prize -winner Naguib Mafouz is the most well-known author from his country, but has only a few short stories. Multi-awarded Philippine writer Peter Solis Nery is one of the most famous writers of short stories in Hiligaynon language.