The Farsa dos Fisicos has no such extraneous matter: it confines itself to the lovelorn priest and the contrast between the four doctors. The Comedia do Viuvo is not a farce and only a comedy by virtue of its happy ending. A merchant of Burgos laments the death of his wife and is comforted by a kindly priest and by a friend who wishes that his own wife were as the merchant's the simple mediaeval contrast common in Vicente.
Meanwhile Don Rosvel, Prince of Huxonia, has fallen in love with both the daughters of the merchant, whom he agrees to serve in all kinds of manual labour as Juan de las Brozas. His brother, Don Gilberto, arrives in search of him and a quaintly charming and technically skilful play ends with a double wedding the Crown Prince of Portugal, present at the acting of this play, had to decide for Don Rosvel which daughter he should marry.
The Auto da Fama is Vicente's second great hymn to the glory of Portugal. Portuguese Fame, in the person of a humble girl of Beira, is envied and wooed in vain by Castille, France and Italy—England and Holland were then scarcely in the running—and narrates in ringing verses the deeds of the Portuguese in the East, without, however, mentioning the great name of Albuquerque, a name which inspired many of the courtiers with more fear than affection. The Auto dos Quatro Tempos is a pastoral-religious play, the main theme being, as its title indicates, a contrast between the four seasons.
David appears as a shepherd and Jupiter also takes a considerable part in the conversation. Action there is none. Vicente's satirical vein found excellent occasion in the ancient theme of scrutinizing the past lives of men as Death reaps them, high and low, but his profoundly religious temperament raises the Barcas into an atmosphere of sublime if gloomy splendour, which is surpassed in the Auto da Alma , the most perfect and consistent of his religious plays—even the symbolical character of the latter part can hardly be called a defect.
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In the Comedia de Rubena the development of Vicente's art is perhaps more superficial than real. It is divided into three long scenes or acts and is thus more like a regular comedy than his other plays. The acts, however, are isolated, the action occupies fifteen years and occurs in Castille, Lisbon and Crete. English readers of the play must be struck by its resembla [Pg xlviii] nce to Pericles, Prince of Tyre. Written fifty-five years before Lawrence Twine's The Patterne of Painful Adventures and eighty-seven before George Wilkins and William Shakespeare produced their play , the Comedia de Rubena is in fact a link in a long chain beginning in a lost fifth century Greek romance concerning Apollonius of Tyre and continued after Gil Vicente's death in Timoneda's Tarsiana and in Pericles.
Vicente, however, in all probability did not derive his Cismena, cold and chaste predecessor of Marina, from the Gesta Romanorum or the Libro de Apolonio but from the version in John Gower's Confessio Amantis , of which a translation, as we know, was early available in Portugal.
After an exclusively Court piece, the Cortes de Jupiter , Vicente wrote the Farsa de Ines Pereira , in which there is more action and development of character than in his preceding, or indeed his subsequent, plays. He represents the aspirations and repentance of Ines, the 'very flighty daughter of a woman of low estate.
The mother gives them a house and retires to a small cottage. But the escudeiro married confirms the wisdom of the Sibyl Cassandra i. He keeps his wife shut up 'like a nun of Oudivellas. Presently, however, the escudeiro resolves to cross over to Africa to win his knighthood:. Ines, singing at her work, is declaring that if ever she have to choose another husband on ne m'y prendra plus when a letter arrives from her brother announcing that her husband, as he fled from battle towards Arzila, had been killed by a Moorish shepherd.
The faithful Pero Marques again presses his suit. He is accepted and is made to suffer the whims and infidelity of the emancipated Ines. The question of women's rights was a burning one in the sixteenth century. Vicente's versatility enabled him to laugh at his critics to the end of the chapter.
In Dom Duardos he gave them an elaborate and very successful dramatization of a Spanish romance of chivalry. The treatment has both unity and lyrical charm. It was so successful that the experiment was repeated in with the earlier romance of Amadis de Gaula [Pg xlix] , out of which Vicente wrought an equally skilful but less fascinating play .
But Vicente had not given up writing farces and the sojourn of Ines Pereira's husband in town enables the author to introduce various Lisbon types in O Juiz da Beira. The Templo de Apolo , composed for a special Court occasion, shows no development, but in the Sumario we have a fuller religious play than he had hitherto written. It proves, like Dom Duardos , his power of concentration and his skill in seizing on and emphasizing essential points in a long action the period here covered is from Adam to Christ .
It is closely moulded on the Bible and contains, besides an exquisite vilancete Adorae montanhas , passages of noble poetry and soaring fervour—Eve's invocation to Adam:. Job's lament 'Man that is born of woman' i. If the courtiers were less favourably impressed they were mollified by the splendid display of the Nao de Amores with its much music, its Prince of Normandy and its miniature ship fully rigged.
Vicente was now fighting an uphill battle and in the Divisa da Cidade de Coimbra he attempted a task beyond the strength of a poet and more suitable for a sermon such as Frei Heitor Pinto preached on the same subject: the arms of the city of Coimbra. Even Vicente could not make this a living play; it is, rather, a museum of antiquities and ends with praises of Court families. It is pathetic to find the merry satirist reduced to admitting in the argument of this play that merely farcical farces are not very refined. Yet we would willingly give the whole play for another brief farce such as Quem tem farelos?
Fortunately he returned to the plain farce in Os Almocreves , the Auto da Feira and O Clerigo da Beira which, however, ends with a series of Court references with all his old wealth of satire, touches of comedy and vivid portraiture. He also returned to the pastoral play in the Serra da Estrella , while his exquisite lyrism flowers afresh in the Triunfo do Inverno , a tragicomedy which is really a medley of farces. It is not a great drama but it is a typical Vicentian piece, combining vividly sketched types with a splendid lyrical vein.
Winter, that banishes the swallows and swells the voice of ocean streams, first triumphs on hills and sea and then Spring comes in singing the lovely lyric Del rosal vengo in the Serra de Sintra. The play ends on a serious and mystic note, for Spring's flowers wither but those of the holy garden of God bloom without fading:. The Auto da Lusitania is divided into two parts, the first of which is complete in itself and gives a description of a Jewish household at Lisbon, while the second is a medley which contains the celebrated scene of Everyman and Noman: Everyman seeks money, worldly honour, praise, life, paradise, lies and flattery; Noman is for conscience, virtue, truth.
Vicente's piece consists, like some picture of El Greco, of a gloria , called, as Rueda's scenes, a passo , in which appear the Virgin and the Virtues Prudence, Poverty, Humility and Faith an [Pg li] d an earthly shepherd scene. It is thus a combination of farce and religious and pastoral play. In these last plays we see little or no advance: there is no attempt at unity or development of plot. We cannot deny that the creator of the penniless-splendid nobleman and the mincing courtier-priest and the author of such touches as the death of Ines' husband or the sudden ignominious flight of the judge possessed a true vein of comedy, but he remained to the end not technically a great dramatist but a wonderful lyric poet and a fascinating satirical observer of life.
In Spain his influence would seem to have been more widely felt, which is not surprising when we remember how many of his plays were Spanish in origin or language . We may be sure that Lope de Rueda was acquainted with his plays and that several of them were known to Cervantes—the servant Benita insisting on telling her simple stories to her afflicted mistress is Sancho Panza to the life:. Diz que era un escudero Lope de Vega was likewise certainly familiar with some of Vicente's plays.
Alma para Dios criada Y hecha a imagen de Dios, etc. Vicente was already half forgotten in Calderon's day. Happily, however, we are able to point to a certain influence of the great national poet of Portugal on some of the Portuguese poets of the twentieth century. The promised edition of his plays will increase this influence and render him secure from that neglect which during three centuries practically deprived Portugal and the world of one of the most charming and inspired of the world's poets. The references throughout are to the Hamburg 3 vol.
For the accurate text of this passage see C. He is born 'considerably before' Revista de Historia , t. He is nearly 80 in ib. His marriage is placed between and , preferably in the years ib. Nao de Amores , Viejo, vuestro mundo es ido , and II. Braamcamp Freire in Revista de Historia , t. Geral , vol. The 'second night of the birth' of the rubric may mean the night following that of the birth June , i.
Braamcamp Freire in Revista de Historia , vol. Obras , I. Vicente evidently sympathizes with the goldsmith to whom the fidalgo is in debt, and if the poet took the part of Diabo in the Auto da Feira the following passage gains in point if we see in it an allusion to the debts of courtiers to him as goldsmith:.
Manuel , vol. Miscellanea , v. Mendes dos Remedios , p. It contained moradores ibid. In the days of King Duarte the number was Municipal of Oporto, N. A certain Vasco Abul had given a girl at Alenquer a chain of gold for dancing a ballo vylam ou mourysco and could not get it back from the gentil bayladeyra. Braamcamp Freire in Rev. Enzina, Egloga I. In the Auto da Alma , probably written about this time, there are imitations of Gomez Manrique c.
We do not know if Vicente was present nor what he thought of this new thing. They must strike any reader of the two plays. Manuel III. Favebat plurimum literis , says Osorio, De rebus , , p. Although 'good wine needs no bush' the custom of hanging a branch above tavern doors still prevails. It is astonishing how slight errors in the rubrics of Vicente's plays have been permitted to survive, just as Psalm LI, of which Vicente perhaps at about this time wrote a remarkable paraphrase, still appears in all editions of his works as Ps.
Braga, Historia da Litteratura Portuguesa. Brito Rebello, Gil Vicente , p. Thomas, The Palmerin Romances London, , p. The Auto da Feira answers in some respects to Cardinal Aleandro's description of the Jubileu de Amores , and Rome the Church, not the city might conceivably have been crowned with a Cardinal's hat, but Aleandro's letter refutes this suggestion: uno principal che parlava Rome in the Auto da Feira I.
One can only say that the Auto da Feira may perhaps have been adapted for the occasion, with an altered title, Spanish being added, to suit the foreign audience. Martinho de Portugal, but then the date would have to be after Son perdices and Auto da Festa , p. The latter text is corrupt penitas for peitas , and cousas fritas has ousted the required rhyme juizes. Arguments as to date from such repetitions are not entirely groundless.
A play written in Latin, Hispaniola , was acted at the Portuguese Court before his death Gallardo, ap. Sousa Viterbo, A Litt. Comedia de Rubena II. He was 66, and he died at Evora in this year. His own knowledge of the Bible was extensive and he often follows it closely, e. Auto da Sibila Cassandra I. His quarrel with the monks was that they did not serve the State.
Fragoa de Amor II. A critic upbraided Wordsworth for saying that his heart danced with the daffodils—no doubt Southey's 'my bosom bounds' was more poetical—yet Shakespeare and Vicente had used the phrase before him. Some of the plays had been acted in more than one year, others had been composed years before they were acted, others had been printed separately. Hence the uncertainty of some of the rubric dates. Rey Dom Emanvel , Pt i. Novella sotto apparenza onesta di religione ogni vizio di gola, di lussuria e degli altri, como loro appetito desidera, sanza niuno mezzo usano; Novella hanno meno discrezione che gli animali irrazionali.
Thus he uses the personal infinitive and makes words rhyme which he must have known could not possibly rhyme in Spanish, e. Perhaps Vicente felt that he would have been too much of an abstract type, not a living person. Enzina addressing the Catholic Kings speaks of himself as muy flaca para navegar por el gran mar de vuestras alabanzas. Vicente similarly speaks of 'crowding more sail on his poor boat.
In an age of few books such phonetic spelling must have been common. It has been suggested that the vair grey of early French poetry was mistaken for vert green. Geral has a Pater noster grosado por Luys anrryquez , vol. Vuelta vuelta los Franceses from the romance Domingo era de Ramos, la Pasion quieren decir. In Vicente can already bracket the Spanish translation with the popular Carcel de Amor printed in , and indeed it ran to many editions.
Its full title was Historia de los honestos amores de Peregrino y Ginebra. The Sumario has 18 figures. The Auto da Feira has 22, but over half of these consist of a group of peasants from the hills.
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It is not the work of Vicente, who, although in his Spanish he used allen , would not have translated nas partes de alem into an African town: en Allen. Madrid, , p. O segundo as Comedias. O terceyro as Tragicomedias. No quarto as Farsas. Anno de M. Dante , Purg. Ruiz Cantar de Ciegos. De los bienes deste siglo No tiuemos nos pasada. Pousada com alimentos? E havei prazer C. B cue da vida vos desterra B.
Siprito B. Jeronimo, Ambrosio e Thomaz C , D. Tinha outra alma vencida B. Entra a Alma, con o Anjo C , D. Vexilla C. B omits 90 and Mesias B. Vso aveysuos B a limpar A [but cf. Esta toalha de que C. Veronica C. Braamcamp Freire. This play was omitted in B. Era de M. Princepes A. Cardial C. FINIS [v]. Habofee B. Pedreneyra B. Uos trazeis A. Trazeis C , D , E. Penonia A. Per omnia C.
B omits and prints twice. B omits mais. B omits Aa corpo A. Afonso B. Affonso B. Iam diz B Jan Diz C. Cauaua andando o bacelo A , B Cavando andava bacelo C. Cobelo C. Laus Deo. Castella B. Imperatriz , Imperador C. Arrenega tu A , B Arrenego eu C. Inda C. Desunt in B. Escrito A. D'infindo C. Desunt in C. Cea C. Aguias reaes. B Penados. Desunt hum se chama. Cantiga B. The Auto da Alma , produced probably in , which in some sense forms a Portuguese pendant to the Recuerde el alma of Jorge Manrique ? King Manuel was now in the full tide of prosperity.
The theme of the play, the contention of Angel and Devil for the possession of a human soul, was far from new. Its treatment, however, was original and the versification is clear-cut and well sustained throughout, while a deep sincerity and glowing fervour raise the whole play to the loftiest heights. The metre is mostly in verses of seven short lines abcaabc with an occasional slight variation.
There is a French version of the play, presumably in verse see Durendal , No. In his hands it might have become in French a thing of beauty and a joy for ever, as it is in the original Portuguese. As to the text, without emulating the pedantry of the critic who added a fourth season to Shelley's three, and thereby provoked a splendid outburst of wrath from Swinburne, we may assume that in passages where Vicente appears to have gone out of his way to avoid a required rhyme, this is merely a case of corruption repeated in successive editions.
Thus in the Auto Pastoril Portugues , where Catalina minha dama rhymes with toucada we may perhaps substitute fada for dama.
Serra da Estrella , l. So here verse must read tristeza , not tristura , to rhyme with crueza. On the other hand it is hardly necessary to alter 42 or 45 although here esmaltado is in the air or 46 so as to make them exactly fit the metre. Os Trabalhos de Jesus , ed. Qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc aevi quodcunque est! Newman, The Dream of Gerontius , l. O man, strange composite of heaven and earth, Majesty dwarfed to baseness, fragrant flower, etc.
We may, if we like, call the Auto da Alma as also the witch-scene in the Auto das Fadas a 16th century Faust , but really no parallel can be drawn between the two plays. The [Pg 74] ethereal beauty of Vicente's lyrical auto , carved in delicate ivory, is far less varied and human: it has scarcely a touch of the cynicism and not a touch of the coarseness of Goethe's splendid work cast in bronze.
IV , No. The Dream of Gerontius , l. Antonio Prestes, Auto dos Cantarinhos Obras , ed. The chapim was rather a high-heeled shoe than a slipper. The reference is to the Spanish city Valencia del Cid. Juan de la Cerda ap. In the Auto da Feira the Devil is similarly a bufarinheiro pedlar and mercante. Vicente in his plays often inculcates the need of something more than a formal religion.
Would Vicente have written thus cf. Lisbon, The Dream of Gerontius,. In the Auto da Cananea , a play in many ways resembling the Auto da Alma , the line Como andas desosegado recurs, addressed by Belzebu to Satanas. It is the 'incessant pacing to and fro' of The Dream of Gerontius l. In its beauty and intensity as a whole and in many details Cardinal Newman's The Dream of Gerontius is strikingly similar to the Auto da Alma. But in it the strife is o'er, the battle won, and the sanctified soul, rising refreshed from sleep with a feeling of 'an inexpressive lightness and sense of freedom,' passes serenely, accompanied by its guardian angel, above the 'sullen howl' of the demons in the middle region.
Amador Arraez, Dialogos , No. Gomez Manrique, Fechas para la Semana Santa ap. III , p. Juan del Enzina, Teatro , p. I , p. Gomez Manrique, Fechas Antolog. Y vamos, vamos al huerto Do veredes sepultado Vuestro fijo muy prouado De muy cruda muerte muerto. The expedition to capture from the Moors the important town of Azamor in N. Africa consisted of over ships Luis Anriquez in his poem in the Cancioneiro Geral says and a force of 18, soldiers, of which were provided by James, Duke of Braganza, who commanded the expedition. It set sail from Lisbon on the 17th of August, It was entirely successful and the news of the fall of Azamor caused great rejoicings both at Lisbon and Rome.
The play was evidently touched up afterwards, for it includes the sending of the elephant to Rome and the marriages of the princesses. It is barely possible that it was written after the victory, in which case the words na partida would be retrospective and the date given in the 1st edition was not a slip. Parts of the play suit better than One of the objects of the mission was to obtain a grant of the tithes ll.
The request was granted but King Manuel subsequently renounced them in return for , gold coins. The exhortations of l. The Pope in promised indulgences to all those who should contribute money for the African war and also granted King Manuel a portion of church property in Portugal cf. The King's aim is now to build a cathedral in Fez l.
There is no mention of Azamor. This was the first of the great patriotic outbursts cf. The youngest princes, Afonso, born in , and Henrique, born in , are not mentioned. They both became Cardinals and the latter King of Portugal, The princes are similarly addressed in the Cortes de Jupiter in If square the sky were found then it would not be round, and if the sun were blue then blue would be its hue. Os disparates de 'Joan de Lenzina' Ferreira, Ulys.
IV , 7 were well-known in Portugal. He calls them brothers but they answer in effect: 'Du gleich'st dem Geist den du begreif'st, nicht mir. Auto da Festa , ed. Conde de Sabugosa , p. Manuel , Pt 3, cap. According to Ulrich von Hutten the elephant 'fuit mirabile animal, habens longum rostrum in magna quantitate; et quando vidit Papam tunc geniculavit ei et dixit cum terribili voce bar, bar, bar ' apud Theophilo Braga, Gil Vicente e as Origens do Theatro Nacional , p.
It was however shipwrecked and drowned on the way. Her [Pg 77] marriage may have already been planned in , but more probably Vicente altered the passage when he was preparing the 1st edition of his works during the last months of his life. Gil Vicente more than once refers to her great beauty. Her portrait by Titian in the Madrid Prado fully bears out his praises and the expression on her face places this among the most fascinating portraits of women. The Empress is sitting by a window looking on to a beautiful country of woods and blue mountains, in her hand is a book; but one feels that she is thinking of neither book nor scenery but that her thoughts go back in saudade to the soft air and merry days of Lisbon.
It might indeed be a picture of Saudade. There is a slight flush on her pale oval face. Her almond-shaped eyes are grey-green, her nose delicately aquiline. In the eyes and in the general expression there is a look of undeniable sadness. Her dress of plum, cherry-pink, gold and brown gives a gorgeously mellow effect and the curtain at the back is plum-brown. If the colouring seems at first too rich this is due to the criminal gold frame which clashes with the dress and the chestnut-golden hair. In a dark frame the picture would be twice as beautiful.
The Empress' dress gleams with pearls and she has a jewel with pearls—set perhaps by Gil Vicente—in her hair, large pearl earrings and a necklace of large pearls. She died at Toledo at the age of 36 and lies in the grim Pantheon of the Kings in the Escorial crypt. Era colerico e apressado em seus negocios e muito animoso, com mostra e desejo de se achar em algun grande feito de guerra, mas nem o tempo nem o estudo do Regno deram pera isso lugar' Chron.
Manuel , II , xix. Osorio, De Rebvs Emmanvelis , p. II , p. Fernam Lopez, Chron.
When Afonso de Albuquerque began his glorious career there were in India but a few hundred Portuguese fighting men, and most of these badly armed. The whole population of Portugal during this time of fighting and discovery in N. Pedro Ferrus: Que por todo el mundo suena ap. VII , p. Zote occurs twice in the Auto Pastoril Portugues : muito gamenho cf. This is one of the most famous of those lively farces with which Gil Vicente for a quarter of a century delighted the Portuguese Court and which still hold the reader by their vividness and charm.
Its fame rests on the portraiture of the poverty-stricken but magnificent nobleman who has been a favourite object of satire with writers in the Peninsula since the time of Martial, and who in a poem of the Cancioneiro Geral is described in almost the identical words of Vicente's prefatory note:.
An alternative title of the play is Auto do Fidalgo Pobre , but the extremely natural presentment of the two carriers in the second part justifies the more popular name.
But Gil Vicente was not to be silenced by the introduction of the new poetry from Italy and to these two years, and , belong no less than seven or perhaps eight of his plays. Yet what a difference in his own position and in the state of the nation since his first farce— Quem tem farelos? There was plague and famine in the land. The discovery of a direct route to the East and its apparently inexhaustible wealth had not brought prosperity to the Portuguese provinces. There the chief effect had been to make men discontented with their lot and to lure away even the humblest workers to seek their fortune and often to find death or a far less independent poverty:.
The result was that the old rustic jollity which Vicente had known so well in his youth was dying out, and the very songs of the peasants took a plaintive air:. Se olhardes as cantigas [Pg 79] do prazer acostumado todas tem som lamentado, carregado de fadigas, longe do tempo passado. Cancioneiro da Vaticana , No.
VIII , p. Antonio Prestes, Autos ed. IV , p. They occur in Garcia de Resende's poem on her death. See C. They play a large part in Portuguese comedy. Both words are of Arabic origin. He mentions it again in the Cortes de Jupiter and in the Templo de Apolo. Alvaro Barreto in Cancioneiro Geral , vol. The Canc. Like the English as described by a German in the 18th century they were 'lovers of show, liking to be followed wherever they go by whole troops of servants' A Journey into England , by Paul Hentzer.
Horace Walpole, Clenardus in his celebrated letter from Evora says that a Portuguese is followed by more servants in the streets than he spends sixpences in his house. He mentions specifically the number eight. A for e is still common in Galicia: e. Basque barri new , for Fr. Basque berri.
See A. Braamcamp Freire in Revista de Historia , No. Gomez Manrique has bestiones in this sense. So Mello in his Apologos Dialogaes speaks of the treasure of moiras encantadas which all turns to coal. The growing depopulation of the provinces was becoming painfully evident to those who cared for Portugal. III , 7: temos muita costura esta noite; muita costura e tarefa ; Antonio Vieira, Cartas : tambem aqui teremos costura 1 de agosto de A modern Galician cantiga says that. The derivation of chulo is uncertain v. While Dozy derives it from Arabic xul , A.
Koster suggests the same origin as that of Fr. Philologie , Bd. The Valencian form for July Choliol may strengthen this view. A town of about inh. It was nearly taken by the Royalists in The nearer they were to the plough the more disdainful were they likely to be to a mere goldsmith and poet. A molher do almocreve Passa vida regalada Sem se importar se o marido Fica morto na estrada. II , :. There are two small villages in Portugal called Folgosa, but reference here is no doubt to an inn or small group of houses. Couto Dec. So ingresia , germania , etc.
Macias, o Namorado , the prince of lovers. For the form Mancias cf. Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Aulegrafia , f. Jorge Ferreira, Eufrosina. E wrongly gives the words alma minha to the next quotation. Auto da India : Quem vos anojou, meu bem, Bem anojado me tem. Auto das Fadas : Son los suspiros que damos In hac vita lachrymarum.
There is no action in the play, and King Manuel would perhaps have yawned at these shepherds' quarrels, relieved not at all by the parvo's wit or the hermit's grossness and only occasionally by a touch of lyric poetry; but perhaps these simple scenes were welcome to the growing artificiality of the Court. For us the beautiful cossante Um amigo que eu havia stands out like a single orange gleaming from a dark-foliaged tree. The interest lies in the customs of the shepherds and their snatches of song and in the intimate knowledge of the Serra da Estrella shown by the author.
Manuel , f. This line occurs in the Templo de Apolo. The Auto da Festa text has nego se meu embaleco. So romendo for remendo and v. Nuno Pereira in the Cancioneiro Geral ed. Vicente appears to have coined the word from grave and arisca. Monsarraz is of about the same size, in the district of Evora. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Aulegrafia , f.
Aulegrafia , f. Felipa considers that to marry a shepherd would be beneath her and her heart leaps up when she beholds a courtier in velvet slippers. He appears in Vicente as early as Auto dos Reis Magos. The most interesting alteration in the heavily censored edition of the Serra da Estrella is not the excision of over a hundred lines about the evil-minded hermit but the substitution in l. Regalist Vicente would never have allowed himself to say that 'a king sometimes acts awry.
Sea, Sintra, etc. The three other Gouveas in Portugal are smaller villages. For its ancient reputation for dancing cf. O Juiz da Beira :. This was so obvious that it was omitted in the writing of the play. Here, however, it is danced to the sound of the organ and the words of a Court song in which, nevertheless, the repetition of the rustic dance-cossantes is preserved. Farsa de Ines Pereira : Eu vos trago um bom marido Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza , p. Geschichte der portugiesischen Poesie , p.
Memoria sobre o theatro portuguez , p. Memoirs of Camoens , vol. Simonde de Sismondi. Baretto Feio and J. Gomes Monteiro. Ensaio sobre a vida e obras de G. Obras , ed. Origens do theatro moderno. Opusculos , vol. Reprinted from O Panorama , Introduction to the Literature of Europe Paris, , vol.
Epitaphios antigos in O Panorama , vol. The Autos of G. LXXIX , p. Wilhelm Volk]. Darstellung der spanischen Literatur im Mittelalter , vol. Prutz, Historisches Taschenbuch , Geschichte der dramatischen Literatur und Kunst in Spanien , vol. Ensaio , vol. Vidal in Gazeta de Portugal. Soteiro dos Reis. Curso , vol. Pinheiro Chagas. Novos Ensaios Criticos , p. Vida de G. Porto, Os Musicos Portuguezes , vol. Braga, Bernardim Ribeiro e os bucolistas , p.
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Manual da hist. Curso , p. Castello Branco. Brito Rebello. Ourives e Poeta in O Positivismo , vol. History of Spanish Literature , 5th ed. Les 'Autos' de G. V , p. Os Autos de G. Ensayo , tom. IV , col. A Dansa Macabra Nota preliminar a tres autos de G. Lisboa, Geschichte des Spanischen Nationaldramas , vol. Garcia Peres. Leite de Vasconcellos. Nota sobre a linguagem de G. Aus Portugal und Brasilien Notes, p. Grundriss der rom. Marinha Grande, [Review by C. XVII , p. Mocidade de G. O Poeta.
FOUR PLAYS OF GIL VICENTE
Natal e G. XIX , p. XVI July Eschola de G. Obras , vol. III VI , p. Lusismos no castellano de G. XXV , p. Malheiro Dias. Evora, Ementas Historicas. London and Dorking, Um auto de G. Processo de Vasco Abul in Embrechados , p. CXIX , p. Braamcamp Freire]. Mendes dos Remedios in Obras de G. I , Prefacio , p. Estudos sobre o romanceiro peninsular , p. As cantigas parallelisticas de G. XII , p. Vaz de Carvalho in No meu cantinho Estudo sobre o 'Auto Pastoril Castelhano' de G.
O Auto da Festa de G. Lopes Vieira. A Campanha Vicentina. A Reforma protestante e as irreverencias de G. Novas notas. Coimbra, Cejador y Frauca. Caracteristicas da litt. Sobre um verso de G. Autos de G. A proposito de G. X , p. The 'Auto da Barca do Inferno of G. XIII , p. Portalegre, Classica , p. Notas Vicentinas II in Rev. Notas Vicentinas III , ib. See Ribeiro A. Martinho , xv ; Sermon, xviii , xix ; Quem tem farelos? Plato , Sophistes. New York B cue da vida vos desterra B Siprito B Tinha outra alma vencida B Mesias B Habofee B Pedreneyra B Afonso B Affonso B Castella B 7.
Desunt in B B Cantiga B Era do Senhor de M. This play was written for the very devout Queen Lianor and played before the very powerful and noble King Manuel, her brother, by his command, in the city of Lisbon at the Ribeira palace on the night of Good Friday in the year As it was very necessary that there should be inns upon the roads for the repose and refreshment of weary wayfarers, so it was fitting that in this transitory life there should be an innkeeper for the refreshment and rest of the souls that go journeying to the everlasting abode of God.
This innkeeper of souls is the Holy Mother Church, the table is the altar, the fare the emblems of the Passion. And this allegory is the theme of the following play. A table laid, with a chair. Porque a humana transitoria natureza vay cansada [Pg 2] em varias calmas nesta carreyra da gloria meritoria foi necessario pensada [v] pera as almas. St Aug. Friends, 'twas of necessity 1 That upon the gloomy way Of this our life Some sure refuge there should be From the enemy And dread dangers that alway Therein are rife.
Since man's spirit migratory 2 In the journey to its goal Is oft oppressed, Weary in this transitory Path to glory, An inn was needed for the soul To stay and rest. Human soul, by God created 7 Out of nothingness yet wrought As of great price, From corruption separated, Sublimated, To glorious perfection brought By skilled device; Plant that in this valley growest 8 Flowers celestial for to give Of fairest scent, Hence to that high hill thou goest Where thou knowest Even than roses graces thrive More excellent. Plant wayfaring, since thy spirit, 9 Scarce staying, to its first origin Must still begone, Thy true country is to inherit By thy merit That glory that thou mayest win: O hasten on.
Soul that art thus trebly blest 10 By such angels' love attended, Sink not asleep, Nor one instant pause nor rest, Thou journeyest On a way that soon is ended If watch thou keep. Anjo que soes minha guarda Olhay por minha fraqueza terreal: de toda a parte aja resguarda que nam arda a minha preciosa riqueza principal. Guardian angel, o'er me still 11 Keep thy ward that am so frail And of the earth, On all sides thy watch fulfil That nothing kill My true wealth nor e'er prevail O'er its high worth.
Ever encompass me and shield, 12 For this conflict with great fear Fills all my sense, Noble protector in this field, Lest I should yield, Let thy gleaming sword be near For my defence. Still uphold me and sustain 13 For I fear lest I may stumble, Fail and fall. Therefore came I, nor in vain, Yet amain Must thou help me too, and humble Resist all: Even all the world's debate 14 Of riches and of vanity, Seek thou for grace, Since pomp and honour, high estate Vainly elate, Are but a stumbling-block to thee, No resting-place.
Power uncontrolled is thine, 15 And an independent will Unbound by fate: Even so in His might divine Did God design That thou in glory mightst fulfil Thy heavenly state. He gave thee understanding pure, 16 Imparted to thee memory, Free will is thine, That so thou mayest e'er endure With purpose sure, Knowing that He has fashioned thee To be divine. Let us go forth upon our way. But unto Satan pay no heed Who lurks for thee. And still the goal seek thou to win 19 Carefully at thy journey's end. And be it clear That the spirit e'er at watch within Against all sin Upon salvation's path may wend Without a fear.
In snares of Hell that shall waylay, 20 Dark and awful wiles among, Thee to molest, As thou advancest on thy way Fall not nor stray, But let thy beauty join the throng Of spirits blest. Nam cureis de vos matar que ainda estais em idade de crecer. Whither so swift thy flight, 21 Delicate dove most white? Who thus deceives thee? And weary still doth goad Along this road, Yea and of human sense, Even, bereaves thee?
Seek not to hasten hence 22 Since thou hast life and youth For further growth. There is a time for haste, A time for leisure: Live at thy will and rest, Taking thy pleasure. Nuove risorse per la geografia del turismo rurale. Staged authenticity and heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 30 3 , Authenticity and Commoditisation in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 15 3 , Geografia economica , Torino: Utet. Performing the Tourist Product. In Rojek, C. London: Routledge. Tourism Dance Performances: Authenticity and Creativity. Annals of Tourism Research 23 4 , Negotiating landscape in rural tourism.
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