Even when a new theme seems to arrive, it will gradually be revealed as a subtle variant of one already heard. The piano has a more animated second subject, but the gently-rocking cello figure from the opening dominates this movement, and Franck reminds the performers constantly to play molto dolce, sempre dolce, dolcissimo.
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The mood changes completely at the fiery second movement, marked passionato, and some critics have gone so far as to claim that this Allegro is the true first movement and that the opening Allegretto should be regarded as an introduction to this movement. In any case, this movement contrasts its blazing opening with more lyric episodes, and listeners will detect the original theme-shape flowing through some of these. The Recitativo—Fantasia is the most original movement in the sonata.
The cello makes its entrance with an improvisation-like passage this is the fantasia of the title , and the entire movement is quite free in both structure and expression: moments of whimsy alternate with passionate outbursts. After the expressive freedom of the third movement, the finale restores order with pristine clarity: it is a canon in octaves, with one voice following the other at the interval of a measure.
As this movement proceeds it recalls thematic material from earlier movements. Gradually, the music takes on unexpected power and drives to a massive perhaps too massive coda and a thunderous close. After the first Allegretto of the sonata, the performers could scarcely read the music. Now the official regulations forbade any light whatever in rooms which contained paintings.
Even the striking of a match would have been matter for offense. The public was about to be asked to leave, but the audience, already full of enthusiasm, refused to budge. Music, wondrous and alone, held sovereign sway in the darkness of night. This was a particularly productive period for Schnittke.
In he completed the moving and impressive Piano Quintet and the following year he composed the two works that suddenly established his name in the West: the Concerto Grosso No.
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Schnittke had always been regarded as a part of what little avant-garde the Soviet Union had, and the Cello Sonata No. The Cello Sonata No. The opening Largo is quite brief. Cello and piano seem to inhabit different worlds here, so dissimilar is their music.
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The cello sings a brooding and melancholy meditation into which the piano makes the briefest of intrusions. But those intrusions bring whiffs of order into this bleak world, tiny glimpses of consonance and clarity amid the darkness. By complete contrast, the Presto is a phantasmagoric rush, a perpetual-motion movement that is broken by abrasive, assaultive episodes. The cello opens with seemingly-endless ostinato-figures, and into this rush the piano explodes like a series of pistol shots; along the way the music is driven by almost mindless little tunes full of manic energy.
Yet there are some wonderful sounds in this percussive movement, and it drives to a sonorous climax. Longer than the first two movements combined, the concluding Largo incorporates some of the spirit and the music of both those movements. This predominance of the harpsichord towards the end of the movement somewhat parallels the cadenzas that Bach sometimes added to his harpsichord concertos, most strikingly in the first movement of the fifth Brandenburg Concerto.
The opening movements of the first and second sonatas pay lip-service to the expansive melodic gestures of the traditional trio sonata, yet the pastoral atmosphere of the first sonata is integrated with an often intense contrapuntal dialogue at times between all three voices , and chromatic gestures.
Viola da Gamba Sonata In G Minor (2nd Movement) (Piano Solo)
The second sonata opens with a short-breathed, almost galant melody, accompanied by a bass which is obviously of the 'modern' Alberti kind; yet it soon emerges that the gamba and harpsichord work together in close imitation—for a time in strict canon—musical devices which many would have considered far too 'serious' for the subject matter in hand.
While the second movement of the first sonata is in the conventional fugal style, Bach gives it a galant motivic flavour; in other words, an ancient form is combined with relatively modern material.
This is even more noticeable in the second movement of the second sonata, which is unexpectedly cast in binary form i. The most striking work is the third sonata, which comprises three movements rather than four. Not only is this more typical of the Vivaldian concerto than the trio-sonata, but the style of the music, particularly in the first movement, resembles that of the concerto idiom. Indeed these considerations have led several scholars to conjecture that this is the transcription of an original concerto movement. Yet, as a piece in the more 'private' sonata genre, it is doubly effective, pointing to worlds and concepts outside its own confines.
The bold gestures, especially where gamba and harpsichord come together in unison, belie the traditionally introverted natures of both instruments and evoke a tutti string section. The central movement contains an astonishing variety of note values and motives, all within the slow triple metre, while the finale provides the most virtuosic display, interspersed with a more lyrical episode. The two modes—virtuosity and lyricism—are not pitted against one another, as they might have been by a later eighteenth-century composer, rather they are both integrated into the unstoppable world of the piece.
Although legend has it that Bach composed his 'Well-Tempered Clavier' Book I during a time of discontent and boredom, without access to an instrument, it seems certain that the pieces were drawn together from a variety of earlier sources and that the process of compilation and composition was relatively protracted reaching roughly the present form in , just before he moved to Leipzig. Certainly the notion of writing a collection of pieces in every possible key to most composers, many of these were only theoretical possibilities must have required some thought.
Bach also definitively established the practice of pairing a prelude with an independent fugue, something that had heretofore only been a particular variant of the usual pattern of writing a piece with alternating free and fugal sections. Bach clearly shared the encyclopaedic tendencies of his age in his desire not only to cover every possible tonality but also to give an exhaustive collection of the styles, techniques and moods that are possible within his chosen medium.
The preludes are often based on relatively simple ideas: arpeggiation in the G major which is spun into a brilliant two-part invention; chordal alternation in the G minor which creates the most tempestuous mood in the group; and a continuous pattern of similar motives in the D major which produces a piece of easy nonchalance. Bach always manages to develop the material in subtle ways giving the whole a sense of direction that seems to bring us inevitably to the conclusion. Schumann was, to some extent, right in describing these works as 'character pieces'.
Even the fugues, sometimes mistaken for dry 'academic' forms, are based on very characterful subjects: a grand regal theme in D major, a slightly severe one in G minor with its emotive intervals and rhetorical rest and a carefree, dancelike one in G major. The latter fugue becomes increasingly dramatic with a touch of the minor mode towards the end. One particularly interesting feature is the way Bach uses or doesn't use difficult contrapuntal devices: the D major fugue presents an impressive, almost authoritarian effect, but it is relatively simple in terms of fugal construction, without even a regular countersubject; on the other hand, the G major fugue, for all its relatively facile air, conceals a quite complex compositional technique including a complete inversion i.
Jahrhunderts stammt. Jahrhunderts, doch nicht im moderneren Sonatengenre.
Letztere Fuge wird zunehmend dramatischer, mit einem Hauch von Moll dem Ende entgegen. Ein besonders interessanteres Merkmal ist die Art und Weise, wie Bach schwierige kontrapunktische Techniken einsetzt bzw. Spiegelbild des Themas.
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