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Press, ; 2 vol. Prix :. L'entreprise en valait la peine. Je ne voudrais, en ces termes, qu'attirer l'attention sur ce grand ouvrage. Ce n'est pas un roman cependant. Introduction de J. Sa conscience lui importe avant tout. Ici aussi l'on se rapportera avec grand fruit aux tableaux des pp. Certes, tous les noms dont il nous parle ne sont pas ceux d'inconnus. Sorel, Segrais ou Mme de La Fayette pour la. Picard et de R. Tout d'abord pour son plan.

Il n'en est rien. Notre second reproche concerne la technique descriptive. Quelques confrontations nous permettent d'affirmer qu'elle est plus que discutable. Guibert ne signale pas. Quel est le format du volume? Les cahiers sont-ils complets? N'y a-t-il pas de cartons? Guibert ne nous l'apprend pas. En outre, si M. Nous dirons pour les lecteurs de M.

Nous passerons sur les innombrables coquilles. Que conclure? L'ouvrage se divise en trois grandes parties. Les erreurs sont innombrables, et trop nombreuses pour que nous n'en parlions pas. Si la Bibliographie d'A. Il reprend contact avec Rey p. La Religieuse ensuite. Castex et par M. Milner, y avait-il place pour un ouvrage comme celui que vient de publier M. Dietmar Rieger Jacques Cazotte. Heidelberg, Carl Winter, ; un vol. Ici, trois perspectives. L'ouvrage de M. Letessier Lamartine. Le temps de la contemplation : M. Hugo, tel que le voit M. Pour finir, M. De tous ces contes orientaux, celui d'Adoniram, auquel s'identifie Nerval, est sans conteste le plus significatif.

Si l'ouvrage de M. Guy Sagnes, aurait l'ennui comme source. Guy Sagnes. Est-ce parce que Les deux Greffiers sont de queB. II faut remercier M. La Corona d'Aroento. Serie Novecento. Prix : 3. Je comprends mal l'ordre choisi par M. De Palazzeschi il cite notamment les recueils Viaggio sentimentale et Cuor mio Ce ne sont pas les seules lacunes que je voudrais relever. Ces Farfalle auxquelles M. Farinelli s'attache ne sont souvent que du plagiat pur et simple.

Van Nuffel. Pour A. Clough sur les Asolani de et une tentative d'E. Bern,Francke Verlag, ; p. Of het woord de beide verschijnselen, die hier besproken zullen worden, ook het best typeert is een tweede 2. Constructies als ik leer hem Frans en hij mij Duits voorbeeld van Den Hertog , die in het Nederlands en o. Bakker 8 heeft dat soort verschijnselen grondig onderzocht en de eerste constatering bij het lezen van zijn werk is dat samentrekkingen in veel verschillende vormen in het Nederlands aangetroffen worden, vooral in gecultiveerde taal.


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Bakker heeft eerst nagegaan hoe samentrekkingen in het verleden en door sommige hedendaagse grammatici beschreven werden. Bakker toont op overtuigende wijze aan dat geen van beide verklaringen helemaal bevredigend is, maat dat een verklaring moet gezocht worden in een combinatie van twee eigenschappen, nl. Dit verband noemt hij in een eerste type syntactisch-contextueel.

Een van de voorbeelden die Bakker het uitvoerigst beschrijft is Daar komt nog bij dat rode bloemen op een hartstochtelijk temperament wijzen en witte op onschuld. Waarom dan toch syntactisch-contextueel? In loon- en prijsverhoging wordt de relatie die tussen loon- en vorming bestaat compositorisch- contextueel genoemd.

Elevatie komt niet alleen in samenstellingen, maar ook in afleidingen voor : eigenwijs- en koppigheid, be- en verwerken. Bij im- of expressionisme, nog meer bij substan- en adjectieven zal voor menigeen de grens overschreden zijn van wat men in het Nederands kan accepteren. Het bestaan van dit soort samentrekkingen, waarmee Charivarius de spot gedreven heeft rid- en runders, vo- en vlegels, met vul- en lippen, enz. Bakker, die in de eerste hoofdstukken met veel zorg begrippen gedefinieerd heeft als subject, predikaat, vaste groep, permutatiegroep, de elementen S, L, A, P, enz.

Het boek munt uit door zijn rijke inhoud 1 ,door de bijzonder precieze en genuanceerde. Een heel ander verschijnsel, een fonetisch verschijnsel — echter met interessante gevolgen op het grammatikaal en semantisch vlak — is het onderwerp van de korte studie van Van Haeringen G. Amsterdam, N. Prijs : fl. Het is een bekend feit dat de intervokalische d in tal van Nederlandse woorden in de uitspraak vervangen werd en wordt door eensemi-vokaal,; rooie, goeie- ofw ouwe ; de d kan zelfs helemaal gesyncopeerd worden, wat het verlies van een syllabe tot gevolg kan hebben.

Zo zijn niet alleen vormen ontstaan als la en vergaren maar ook doubletten als ijl en ijdel. Uitzonderingen zijn er nochtans wel, maar daarom zegt Van Haeringen met nadruk dat er geen strikte regels bestaan, wel tendenties. Bij elk der besproken voorbeelden heeft Van Haeringen met veel zorg nagegaan welke vorm in de spreektaal en in de schrijftaal gebruikelijk is en of daarbij verschillen in stijl en gebruikssfeer en invloeden van de schrifttaai op de spreektaal waarneembaar zijn.

Huisman over de Italiaanse plaatsnamen in Nederland : B. Hekket verdiept zich in A reconsideration of the etymologies of Daventry and Deventer, en laat de oorsprong van beide toponiemen teruggaan op een adj. Gvsseling put grotendeels uit zijn Corpus der Nederlandse teksten tot zo goed als persklaar , maar ook uit andere tekstedities en onuitgegeven handschriften, bij een overzicht van Het aanwijzend voornaamwoord gene bij toponiemen, gebruik dat thans uitgestorven is, maar voor de Middeleeuwen streek voor streek nagegaan wordt. Buitenhuis oppert bezwaren tegen de bijdragen in het vorige nummer van G.

Du- jardin en J. Goossens, in De representativiteit en interpretatie van naamkundige gegevens voor het onderzoek van de spreiding der familienamen, waarop een antwoord van G. Dujardin : Nog. Goossens : Over de representativiteit van telefoongidsen en karteringstechnieken bij het geografisch onderzoek van familienamen. Tot slot volgt de zeer uitvoerige, gebruikelijke tijdschriftenschouw.

Ampe, S. Hij is volkomen in zijn taak geslaagd en brengt ons in enkele schitterende hoofdstukken een grondige analyse van de structuur, de bronnen en de leer van de Tempel. Wat ons het meeste belang inboezemt, is natuurlijk het filologische aspect van de teksteditie, die volgt vanaf p. Bij het lezen van de verantwoording die afgelegd wordt over de wijze van uitgeven pp. Op dit ene puntje na, verheugen we ons over de gevolgde methode die vele waarborgen biedt voor de filologische bruikbaarheid van de tekst.

Toch zijn er in deze tekst talrijke woorden en die voor een niet-filoloog soms ook voor een filoloog! Wat we het meeste missen, is een woordenlijst! Nu weet ik best dat aan deze teksteditie geen taalkundige belangstelling ten gronde ligt. Maar men vraagt zich toch af, waarom een uitgever die bewijst op de hoogte te zijn van de filologische desiderata en daar rekening mee houdt zie Uitgavetechniek , die zijn tekst op een bruikbare manier tracht te brengen, die zich dus duidelijk bewust is van de taalkundige waarde van het geboden materiaal, direct het meest nuttige — een Glossarium — ongedaan laat.

Het hoeft geen betoog dat, speciaal voor de verwaarloosde 16e-eeuwse taal, zo'n woordenlijst bizonder welkom zou geweest zijn. Op die manier zouden we trouwens, van bevoegde zijde wat in dit opzicht niet het geval is met het Mnl. In het Nederlands van de schrijver komen enkele vlekjes voor, bv. Sassen, Zeventiende-eeuwse teksten Prijs : fl.

Dit is een uitstekend idee. Dit nu is precies de bedoeling van de samensteller : de moeilijkheden werden gegradeerd. Lastig is wel dat de verklaringen achteraan geordend werden, terwijl die toch gemakkelijk onderaan iedere bladzijde konden gegeven worden. Le premier de ceux-ci, W. Prix : 35s.

Tout cela est excellent. British Authors Series. Prix: 25s. On ne peut que sortir enrichi de sa lecture. Ontmoetingen, dl. Vier hoofdstukken, respectievelijk gewijd aan Dubliners, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses, en Finne- gans Wake, bieden een boeiende analytisch-interpreterende visie op het werk van Joyce en hieruit blijkt dat J. Duytschaever zich geen moeite heeft gespaard om recente studies in zijn eigen betoog constructief te verwerken. Prijs: DM In dit woordenboek is zoveel mogelijk gestreefd naar beknoptheid, gepaard gaande met volledigheid.

De beknoptheid werd bekomen door een streng wikken en wegen van de relevantie van sommige spelvarianten en door het weren "van overbodige synoniemen-opsommingen bij de vertaling. Dat dit lang niet gemakkelijk was, lezen we in de zeer gedetailleerde Inleiding pp. Deze zorgvuldige verantwoording van de uitgave-techniek is een model in het genre, en op zichzelf het lezen en overdenken meer dan waard.

Ze geeft een uitstekend idee van de scrupuleuze, hoog-wetenschappelijke werkwijze, die we op de voet volgen kunnen. Prix : 98 F. Het Gallo-Ro- meinse grondgebied werd weliswaar slechts gedeeltelijk daarbij betrokken. Deze lacune wordt nu met de belangrijke studie van M. Morlet gevuld. De ingehaalde oogst is overweldigend. Dat was dan ook te verwachten vooreen gebied waar het succes van de Germaanse onomastiek zo groot was dat in de 9 e eeuw bijna gans de inheemse bevolking namen van Germaanse oorsprong droeg.

Hiertoe heeft S. De Inleiding pp. De indeling gebeurt alfabetisch, met als lemma het eerste bestanddeel van de namen. Dit is des te meer jammer daar de gegeven index pp. Deze index had uitsluitend beperkt moeten blijven tot verwijzing voor varianten naar de grondvorm.

Aïe Aïe Aïe !

Het is onmogelijk bij een dergelijke rijkdom aan gegevens een exhaustieve commentaar te geven, net zo min als men een woordenboek grondig kan bespreken zonder het eerst lange tijd gebruikt te hebben. Meestal wordt niet geargumenteerd, een door anderen reeds gegeven interpretatie wordt zonder meer verworpen, vervangen of aanvaard.

Houdt men echter rekening met de omvang van dit werk, dan gaat men daar niet alleen spoedig in berusten maar zelfs begrijpen dat het soms moeilijk anders kon. Ieder zal allicht inzien dat een studie als deze, waarin men haast bij iedere naam voor een nieuw probleem komt te staan, niet vlekkeloos kan zijn. Om hiervan een voorbeeld te geven, kiezen we enkele plaatsen uit letter A :. Abb- : er bestaat een mogelijkheid dat deze naam ook van Keltische oorsprong zou kunnen zijn, o.

Hoewel niet bewezen, zou deze veronderstelling toch volledigheidshalve moeten vermeld worden. Ad- : slechts enkele van de gangbare interpretaties worden gegeven, er is blijkbaar een willekeurige keuze gedaan ; zo bv. Ta vernier- Vereecken, Gentse Naamkunde, p. Deze hypothese is beslist interessant. Bij Adar-, Adr-, is S. Ofwel ontbreekt hier een schakel in de redenering, ofwel spreekt Schrijfster zich op de twee bedoelde plaatsen tegen.

Table of contents

Agil- zou een eenvoudige uitbreiding van het ag- element zijn. Tavernier- Vereecken geeft echter o. Aig- doet S. Ook semantisch is dit beter aanvaardbaar. Dit, en de lange lijst kanttekeningen die nog zou kunnen volgen, doen weinig afbreuk aan onze waardering. Zelfs al zijn we het niet overal eens met de gegeven verklaringen, hoofdzaak is dat de Germanistiek hier een haast onuitputtelijke schat aan gegevens vindt, waaruit zonder de minste twijfel zeer interessante conclusies kunnen getrokken worden. Preis : DM 36 herangezogen hat, bestimmen gleich den eignen Boden dieser Arbeit.

Erstens gilt es den Begriff Vergebung. Im Geniedrama wird die Vergebung eingegliedert als Gegenmotiv zur Rache. Die Verfasserin hat nicht die Absicht eine Geschichte des Vergebungsmotivs herauszuarbeiten, sondern den Beweis zu liefern dass die Vergebung ein die Dramenstruktur bis ins Innerste bestimmendes Motiv darstellt. Weder im formalen noch im inhaltlichen Bereich kann ein eigentlicher Entwicklungsprozess vorausgesetzt werden. Eine Interpretation nach der Methode des vierfachen Schriftsinnes.

Bern, Francke Verlag, ; 1 vol. Diese Frau wird als typische Vertreterin des weiblichen Geschlechtes geschildert. Der moralische Schriftsinn gibt die Lehre, die der Leser des Romans ziehen soll. Der anagogische Sinn weist in die Zukunft. Er deutet auf letzte Dinge. Raison est en effet synonyme de vue claire de toutes choses. Dans un dernier chapitre, W. Jeffrey Sammons, Heinrich Heine.

Aime Casanova by Antoine Chainas - AbeBooks

The Elusive poet. Le livre de Horst Steinmetz, Lessing. Prix: A cette tendance, la D. L'article tout entier constitue un plaidoyer pour plus de rigueur, rigueur qui n'est d'ailleurs ici qu'une des conditions d'une attitude plus strictement scientifique. Storm und P.

Ausgabe in Verbindung mit der Theodor-Storm-Gesellschaft hrsg. Bernd Berlin, E. Schmidt, ; S. Preis : 25 DM. Brief Nr. Handbuch der deutschen Literaturgeschichte, Zweite Abteilung, Bibliographien, hrsg. Prix : 28 frs suisses , sera certainement un livre bienvenu. Cependant, on peut, comme toujours dans ce genre d'ouvrages, en contester le plan.

Somme toute, le plan du livre est clair et l'on trouve rapidement le paragraphe que l'on cherche. Pourquoi, M. Ce qui est dit, pp. Les questions ne manquent pas. Travaux du Centre. Prix I fr. Pour L. Bravo [Philologie, histoire, philosophie de l'histoire. Vercauteren Le Moyen Age, pp. Goriely Le Socialisme, pp. Owen, P. Leroux et L. LXXXI, pp. Prudent, M. Masai La notion de Renaissance. Causes et. Joris La notion de ville, pp. Il ne propose aucune solution personnelle de rechange. Tous ne partageront pas sa confiance dans les essais de typologie de H.

Stoob et de G. A ces questions, M. Ils ne se distinguent donc pas du milieu juif. Les collaborateurs du Centre national de recherches de logique rejoignent la constatation initiale faite par M. Est-ce un bien, est-ce un mal? Chacun jugera. Colin-Bourrelier, ;. Edited by Kimambo I. Nairobi, East African Publishing House, ; one vol.

Price : The focus is on the African inhabitants of Tanzania, and four of the ten authors are African. By design, detailed work on the coast and islands of Tanzania, and upon aspects of the colonial administrative structure, has been omitted. Isariah N. We look forward with eagerness to more detailed work by Kimambo on these themes. Edward A. Gwassa discusses the different types of African resistance to the German invaders, but his analysis has problems with the definition of terms and, unfortunately, it soon turns into a mere listing of specific events of resistance.

Iliffe provides an excellent basis for a wider study. Additional research is clearly needed on this important theme of Tanzanian history. As a whole, this volume serves a useful purpose, and along with B. Ogot and J. It is not, of course, a history of Tanzania, but rather a series of paper relating to the history of Tanzania by authors with widely differing perspectives and skills.

Since it is yet still too early for an extensive history of Tanzania — there are too many gaps in the knowledge of important sections of the country — this is not a serious criticism.

It is to be hoped that the Department of History in Dar es Salaam will continue to sponsor and publish such collections of papers, signalizing the steady progress made in understanding Tanzania's past, in the future. Celui de M. Aussi font- ils appel aux lecteurs pour leur signaler erreurs et omissions. XVI, , pp. Leuridant, se place aux pages du t. Nous lui devons un chaleureux merci. XL, , pp. Signalons quelques documents encore utilisables. Le compte de la massarderie de Mons de n'a pas disparu, mais se trouve aux Archives de la Ville de Mons.

Prix: 12 fr. Bloch et R. C'est une constatation. On s'en plaint. La Collection de Guizot, certes, mais elle date de ! Colgrave et R. Oxford Medieval Texts. Par les apports des philologues, de W. Par la traduction enfin, en tous points remarquables, de B. De nombreuses notes. Scholz, en collaboration avec B. Thomas d'Aquin semble avoir eu des doutes. Miller, The abbey and bishopric of Ely. The social history of an Ecclesiastical estate from the tenth century to the early fourteenth century Cambridge, University Press, reprint ; xn biz. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought.

Deze studie, wier belang ver het lokale kader overschrijdt, werd reeds frekwent als vergelijkingsmateriaal gebruikt voor analoge studies op het Vasteland. De kwaliteit ervan werd reeds n. We menen nochtans dat het spijtig is een werk onveranderd te herdrukken, zelfs al is er nog geen twintig jaar verstreken. Elk boek kan reeds dan een aanpassing gebruiken, en zelf voordeel halen uit wat ondertussen elders is onderzocht.

Op die manier zou de herdruk ook als een heruitgave kunnen doorgaan. Dit schijnt ons nu een gemiste kans toe. Auteur van de Miracula Sancti Benedicti, schreef hij rond ook de Vita Gauzlini abbatis, de levensbeschrijving van abt Gauzlinus, onder wiens abba- tiaat hij was binnengetreden. Gauzlinus was abt van Fleury van tot , en vanaf kumuleerde hij die waardigheid met het archiepiscopaat van Bourges.

Andreas heeft niet zozeer de rol van Gauzlinus in het algemeen dan wel die als abt in het daglicht willen stellen, en dan vooral de politiek die de prelaat voerde om geusurpeerde bezittingen weer in handen te krijgen, en de bouwpolitiek. Bautier en G. Labory, Parijs, G. Zoals de ganse reeks dit is het derde deel dat verschijnt is de latijnse tekst vergezeld van een Franse vertaling, die erg leesbaar is. Het geheel wordt afgerond door een kodikologische en historische inleiding waarin de afkomst van Gauzlinus wel meer moest bestudeerd zijn — indien mogelijk — daar hij ex liberiori totius Gallie stirpe geboren was en een indeks die alle kritiek weerstaat.

Hildeberti Cenomannensis episcopi Carmina minora. Brian Scott Leipzig, Teubner, ; xlii blz. Van het grote aantal handschriften treden er vijf bijzonder op de voorgrond, nl. DBTKZ, die samen de belangrijkste vertegenwoordigers van twee overleveringen vormen, nl. Deze vijf handschriften leveren de hier uitgegeven gedichten niet alle, noch in dezelfde volgorde over.

Als criterium voor de echtheid der gedichten wordt mijns inziens terecht met volledige resp. Problematisch blijven natuurlijk de buiten deze twee groepen overgeleverde gedichten, daar het dichterschap van Hildebert niet zulke markante elementen heeft, dat zijn auteurschap zich als het ware opdringt. De door Scott aangevoerde stylistische argumenten zijn stellig niet onjuist, maar al met al niet indrukwekkend genoeg om werkelijk als bewijs te gelden.

Ik mis dan ook een extra argument, nl. Prijs : 16 fr. Hoewel het naar omvang en ook naar inhoud tot de zeer kleine werken van Hugo van St. Victor behoort, vormt het toch een welkome aanvulling van ons tekstenbezit van deze vruchtbare auteur. De zes geschriftjes, weinig bekend zijn : De meditatione, De verbo dei, De substantia dilectionis, Quid vere diligendum sit, De quinque septenis en De septem donis spiritus sancti. De overlevering van deze teksten is over het algemeen rijkelijk en de authenticiteit niet twijfelachtig. Victor een laatste, niet geringe dienst bewezen.

Braunstein Paris, S. Les voici dans l'ordre d'impression. Kuyer, Enige beschouwingen met betrekking tot het oudste stadsrecht van 's- Hertogenbosch pp. Cerutti, De schepenbank in de Brabantse stad en de overdracht en bezwaring van onroerende goederen pp. A l'aide de ces chartes au droit de Louvain, J.


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Cuvelier crut pouvoir reconstituer le droit louvaniste tel qu'il existait avant Dans un tout autre domaine, M. L'auteur constate par ailleurs l'intervention de certaines villes — comme. Il a pu ainsi comparer les textes normatifs et le fonctionnement effectif de l'appareil judiciaire. Despy interventions de MM. Gilissen et Godding. Cerutti manque en raison d'un incident technique pp. Van Werveke is aan zijn derde artikel over deze graaf van Vlaanderen toe.

Na in en respectievelijk de economische politiek en het beeld van hem te hebben geschetst komt hij ter voorbereiding van een vierde bijdrage — een notitie in het Nationaal biografisch woordenboek — op deze figuur terug als biografisch probleem. Welke middeleeuwse graaf stelt niet een dergelijk probleem? Elders kan men die vaak niet opsporen bij gebrek aan bronnen. Sedert Pirenne in de B. Maar, zoals altijd in de wetenschap, schept elke ontdekking nieuwe problemen. Daaraan heeft de Gentse hoogleraar ons weer met een helder betoog herinnerd : Filips van de Elzas als biografisch probleem, in Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie, Klasse der Letteren, dl.

Le grand. Harrison Thomson, Latin Bookhands of the later middle ages. D Graaf, ; 2 din. Prijs : gulden zijn alle 16de-eeuwse minderbroeders-auteurs uit de Zeventien Provincies en het Prinsbisdom Luik opgenomen. Het is ingedeeld in een biografisch en een bibliografisch gedeelte. In het eerste deel wordt er gehandeld over 76 auteurs. In deel twee wordt een nauwkeurige beschrijving van de 16de-eeuwse literaire produktie der minderbroeders in de Nederlanden gegeven en wel van allel6de-eeuwse drukken van minderbroeders uit de Nederlanden om het even waar uitgegeven sektie A en van alle 16de-eeuwse edities van minderbroeders in de Nederlanden gedrukt sektie B.

Ook worden de vindplaatsen van de bewaarde exemplaren aangeduid met signatuur. In totaal worden boeken beschreven. De auteur duidde ook aan volgens welk exemplaar de beschrijving werd gemaakt. Deze beschrijvingen zijn duidelijk en geven een goed beeld van de inhoud van de druk. Het boek is verder nog voorzien van vier regis-. Veruit het grootste gedeelte van de beschreven publicaties is van religieuze aard. Het humanisme heeft blijkbaar geen grote invloed uitgeoefend, althans te oordelen naar deze bibliografie.

Als uitzonderingen kan men vermelden Johannes Pellens, Martinus van de Goude met een Compendium latini ideomatis Martinianum met een aanbeveling van Clichthovius ; Adam Sasbout, die de Ilias vertaalde in het latijn ; Johannes Mahu- sius, en Frans Tittelmans tegenstander van Erasmus. Het grootste aantal drukken staat op naam van Tittelmans 20 werken, nrs. Slechts uitzonderlijk vermeldt de auteur of er van bepaalde schrijvers ook werken in handschriften bewaard zijn. Graag hadden we gezien dat dit aspekt wat meer uitgewerkt was, vooral omdat uit de titel niet blijkt dat het alleen om drukken handelt.

Ook hadden we gewild dat hij, zoals NK. Zo zou men op zoek kunnen gaan naar deze werken, eerder dan het zoeken van nog een exemplaar van een reeds gekende editie. Ook vinden we het werk vrij duur. We menen dat dergelijke naslagwerken niet alleen door bibliotheken, maar ook door navorsers moeten kunnen aangekocht worden. Zou het daarom niet beter geweest zijn deel I gewoon weg te laten en hiervoor te verwijzen naar de Voorstudies in Franciscana?

Pater De Troeyer en de andere leden van het Instituut voor Franciscaanse Geschiedenis verdienen alle lof voor dit naslagwerk en we hopen dat zo vlug mogelijk de andere delen zullen verschijnen en dat de andere kloosterorden dit voorbeeld mogen volgen. The scene has often been described, for it clearly caught the imagination of both its contemporaries and of later generations ; but we have had no critical modern account of it. It is this which Dr.

The sources for this event are very rich and Miss Russell has evidently read them all, published and unpublished. She has been indefatigable in tracking down the careers of all the major and some of the minor participants, both English and French. Her learning about Renaissance musical instruments is no less astonishing than her expertise.

The real problem arises in the author's interpretation of the events she describes.

The May 1968 Events in France

What, in fact, was their meaning? Russell's answer, if perhaps a trifle hesitant, is perfectly clear : "It would probably be fair to suggest", she writes, "that the intention of this 'memorable meeting' was to deceive. It was to embody and set forth, in most sumptuous and dramatic guise, an Anglo-French understanding which hardly existed". Now this is an astonishing conclusion. First, and most superficially, it is difficult to see who was, or even who was to be, deceived.

Certainly not the emperor Charles V. In their own negotiations with the English, which followed on the Anglo-French meeting, they simply ignored the tenuous English commitments to France. It seems even less likely that the English and French could have thought of deceiving each other. They knew, after all, what they were negotiating about and how far they got. The inescapable conclusions is, alas, that if anyone was deceived it was the author of this book. Miss Russell's fundamental deception lies in her inability to take the historical personages she writes about seriously.

She finds it impossible to believe that the English and French governments should have spent such enormous sums on "mere" festivities, a kind of glorified and extended sports and speech day, without some ulterior, and therefore presumably "true", motive. But this is to see Renaissance aristocratic and court society in terms of a much later puritan and utilitarian ethic. The ethos of the European aristocracy was essentially a military one. This ethos was, of course, in direct contradiction to the teachings of the Christian Church and, to the more perceptive, its destructiveness of other prized values was very obvious.

Out of these contradictions there developed, in the later middle ages, the ideals and tenets of chivalry. Works by Picasso came up at public auction, sometimes fetching huge prices, and con- trary to what is often reported, paintings by Picasso frequently appeared in exhibitions in wartime Paris. Moreover, Picasso's name fre- quently appeared in the art press, most often as a target for reactionary diatribes by collaborationist critics but occasionally in more positive invoca- tions of his work as a standard of achievement.

In his private life, Picasso also was far from reclusive. Sabartes and Brassai provide vivid accounts of the many visitors to Picasso's studio. He dined with friends almost every day at his favorite restaurants, Le Catalan in the same street as his studio and the nearby Le Savoyard. He was visited frequently by expatriate Spaniards, and his circle of friends and acquaintances included many of the most prominent writers, poets, and cultural figures of the day, some of them active to varying degrees in the Resistance movement, and some of them, like Jean Cocteau, collaborators.

The cast of partic- ipants for the reading of Picasso's play Le De'sir attrape par la queue in March , and the audi- ence that turned out to listen, is a who's who of the Parisian art and literary worlds. With the help of friends he was able to accomplish some unlikely Occupation-era feats, such as the casting into bronze of several large sculptures at a time when bronze was not only in short supply but also was confiscated by the Germans as metal to support their war industry.

He felt direct, personal dangers posed by the Occupation. He was summoned, for example, to reveal to German officials the contents of his bank vault. Francoise Gilot and Andre-Louis Dubois reported that they witnessed some of these visits, when searches were made of the studio and works damaged.

Gilot tells of repeated German harass- ment under the pretext of searches for the sculptor Jacques Lipchitz. And while Picasso himself was not always reliable about such details, he told one interviewer just after the liberation of Paris that the last German visitation had been only weeks before. And Picasso's former friend Maurice de Vlaminck, in his famous article vilifying Picasso in the 6 June 1! Such attacks, however, may have made him uneasy over the safety of his mistress Dora Maar, who is said to have been half Jewish. In the politically complex position that Picasso occupied in wartime Paris, might such pressures have caused him to exercise what influence he had for self protection?

There is little doubt that, on certain occasions, one authority or another stepped forward to assist him. The threatened seizure of his property by the Spanish government passed with- out any known explanation. In the case of the even more consequential summons by the STO, we again have no record of how Picasso was able to avoid complying, although possibly his age - in he was over the sixty-year-limit placed on workers — had much to do with it. Picasso's friend Maurice Toesca, who worked in the office of the prefecture, assisted with the renewal of his identity papers when Picasso wanted to avoid alerting the Germans and the Spanish embass b following normal procedures, but loesca was powerless at higher bureaucratic levels.

And Picasso also was on speaking terms with the two German officers Ernst Jiinger and Gerhard Heller, both cultured men who paid unwelcome but unavoidable visits to Picasso's studio. Picasso always "kept his dignity," as Zervos later put it. The perception of compromise, however, fueled rumors of collaboration, lending a note of credibility to the old notion that Picasso's good friends in the Communist Party such as Aragon and Eluard later recruited him as a member and pushed him into the epuration proceedings parti to erase any possible confusion over his wartime con tacts.

Picasso was a survivor. To survive was to work, which to him was all important, and this sheer determina- tion took on for fellow artists and friends in Pans an inspiring heroic value, a symbolism that spread alter the Liberation to a much broader realm. NASII have ended up doubting our chances of survival," adding that his example warranted the thanks of all the intellectuals and artists of France. To correct inflated reports of Picasso's involvement with the Resistance, Zervos wrote to Alfred Barr: Everything that has been recounted is bad journal- ism and for the most part false. The anecdotes are false.

The participation of Picasso in the Resistance is false. Picasso simply preserved his dignity during the Occupation, as millions of people here did. But he never got involved in the Resistance. Consider that his work in itself is the greatest form of resistance, not only against an enemy but against millions of pre- tentious imbeciles. Do not let yourself be influ- enced by nonexistent heroics. There were heroes in France, but they either paid with their lives or ask that there be silence for their actions? Picasso's international renown was suddenly greater than ever, but based on publicity rather than art.

His new work, which had not been widely seen, held surprises even for his supporters, and strong political factors also came into play. Fighting had barely subsided in the streets of Paris when Picasso returned to his studio in the rue des Grands-Augustins from Marie-Therese's apartment on the Right Bank, where he had spent the last days of the conflict. While there, he produced his personal celebration of the street fighting and Liberation, an interpretive copy of Poussin's Triumph of Pan figs.

A likely subtext eventually accompa- nying the plan was a capitalization on Picasso's prestige to further the cause of the Communist Party. Although Picasso had not yet committed himself to membership, at least not publicly, it is more than coincidental that his enlistment and its announcement took place with much fanfare on October 4 and 5, timed to precede the opening of the Salon d'Automne by just one day. The story is now well known of the anti-Picasso manifestation staged in the Salon galleries by a gang of mostly student- aged visitors, spurred by a combination of reac- tionary objections to Picasso's aesthetics and politics, in which numerous paintings were actually taken down from the walls.

Political views aside, Picasso's wartime art would have come as a shock to many Parisians who were not overly familiar with his work in general, let alone the tormented vision of recent years, made even more aggressive by comparison with the pallid niceties seen throughout most of the rest of the Salon. In a rapid countermanifestation, other young people agreed to stand guard in the galleries. Letters of praise for Picasso from Le Front national des etudiants and Comite national des ecrivains appeared in the media, and various critics chimed in with support for Picasso and his political stance.

Stories about Picasso at the Salon d'Automne, such as that by G. Archambault that appeared in the New York Times Magazine on '29 October, often carried illus- trations of recent production. The storm of controversy that this latter show provoked in London, where protagonists were far removed from the political agendas surrounding Picasso in Paris, illustrates just how troubling the grim, raw nature of Picasso's wartime work could be.

In one characteristic attack on the exhibition, the critic Michael Ayrton wrote: His pictures are now uniformly dung-coloured. Picasso has in fact ceased to practice oil painting as a craft, and any other medium would have done as well for these pictures. He is now engaged upon the intellectual activity of flogging his own cliches to death with one dirty brush. Other critics rushed to Picasso's defense. All is calamity, beyond control or under- standing. His aim above all is to convey the mighty righteous anger of one who.

In what may have been his first work after this readjustment to life in Paris, he painted on 25 January a small gouache on board of a reclining nude fig. The theme of the reclining nude weaves through Picasso's wartime art with several permutations and interpretive twists. As in L'Aubade, the nude is sometimes accompanied by a musician. At other times, as with the Reclining Nude of , she is asleep, and sometimes the sleeper is accompanied by a companion, male or female, who watches and waits.

Another variation is the combination of the nude with a figure who is washing, a theme with its own extended life in the wartime oeuvre. These nudes vary considerably in stylistic han- dling and formal associations. L'Aubade, however, also relates to Ingres's Odalisque with a Slave from fig. Oil on canvas, 51 x 76 f i in. Berggruen Collection, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. The modeling of the nude in L'Aubade is highly planar, resembling the buildup of form in Picasso's later metal cutouts. In the Reclining Nude, by contrast, the modeling has a painterly, solidly three-dimensional quality that contributes much to the figure's powerful presence.

These works have in common a somber air of loneliness. The architectural surroundings are always bleak and confining. Picasso's palette is usually stripped down to a sensually deprived range of browns, grays, and ochers, and his dim illumination casts a nighttime, wintry chill over the pictures. Picasso told Heller and others that he pre- ferred to work at night, and that for the paintings to be understood, they should be seen at night. Sh No work better exemplifies the mood of bleak subsistence that this cold nighttime light can express than the great Still Life with Blood Sausage traditionally dated 10 May cat.

But this is more than just a simple wartime meal. The centralization of the table under an overhead light gives the composition a definite altarlike quality, with a suggestion of traditional formulas for divine light from above, as seen in so many seventeenth- century religious paintings.

The dramatic juxtaposi- tion of the truncated, intestinelike sausage with a large knife strongly invokes a sacrificial slaving, perhaps a reference to Christ's death on the cross. The bottle might contain sacramental wine or, alternatively, the vinegar that was fed to Christ in a sponge as he hung dying.

Out of the open drawer, which can be read in this context as in the shape of a coffin or tomb, arises a batch of knives and forks, referred to by Picasso at one point as souls in Purgatory and positioned to resemble small figures gesticulating upward in Last Judgment scenes. Brigitte Baer in her essay in this book provides an alternative reading of the picture as sell portrait In either case, it extends far beyond straightforward reportage into realms of personal revelation involving the artist's psychic file or thoughts of despair and salvation.

Throughout the wartime period the still life remained a key vehicle of expression for Picasso. Sometimes the works are small, not particularly ambitious exercises that might have afforded him a [ear taguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with a S - I tO Oil on canvas mounted on panel in sight A well-known series of paintings of tomato plants from August provides an unusually upbeat note through the abundant patterning of green vines dotted with balls of red, and also reveals a domestic side of Picasso's life, in that tomato plants were commonly grown in window boxes in wartime Paris for a supply of food.

Numerous works e. The one from 14 March cat. The lightened palette of the painting, however, particularly the stripe of yellow sunlight that grazes the skull, con- trasts with the morosity of many earlier works and may indicate the distinctly different emotional temperature that early in anticipated the end of the war.

The one theme from these years that outweighs in importance and repetition even Picasso's still lifes is that of the Seated Woman. This motif defines more than any other the inten- sity of work from the war years. Beginning, as we have seen, in the Royan period and continuing throughout his time in occupied Paris, Picasso returned to the compositional idea of the Seated Woman again and again, wringing from it varied expressive effects and psychological nuances. From his "portraits" of others, an extensive self-portrait of the artist emerged.

Attempts are often made to label these works with specific identifications, and Dora Maar is the person generally named see figs. The most often are, in fact, paintings of "woman" in general. Picasso's smaller bustlength representa- tions also fit into this category. The most common motif, however, is a halflength figure seated in a chair, reminiscent in format of so many portraits of seated popes and cardinals from past centuries. Although amply represented in Picasso's earlier work, the motif took on special meaning for the artist during the war, seemingly because it was a reliable template of psychological investigation.

That Picasso told Andre Malraux, "When I paint a woman in an armchair, the armchair implies old age or death, right? Indeed, the range of emotion portrayed in these expressive women runs from humor and joy to utter abjection. In the former category is the sparkling Woman Seated in an Armchair of 12 October cat. Even though painted during the darkest hours of the war, this work, through its brightly colored patterns, seems to ringingly affirm life.

The sparkling stars in the wall- paper strike a note echoed throughout the rest of the densely packed, painterly surface. The only ominous element is the nail-like eyebrows that seem literally to pin one eye and one side of the face to the background. The Portrait of Dora Maar horn 9 October , supposedly painted over a drawing by Cocteau and well known for the striped blouse that Picasso "made up,"'" shows the extreme range of modes that applies in these paintings. Modeled with a degree of natural ism Picasso generally reserved during these years for women particularly dear to him such as his daughter Maya and Nusch Eluard, Dora stares outward with a wide-eyed look of resignation.

Chainas Antoine

Woman with a Cigarette Holder Dora Mam. Musee Picasso, Paris, Picasso Archives. Proboscis like noses resemble the long and slender snout of Picasso's Afghan hound Kazbek. Teeth are bared in open mouths, read to pierce. NASH 33 gripped by dark, angular hats and rigid blocks of hair. Bust of a Woman appeared just three days after the brightly painted Woman Seated in an Armchair from Diisseldorf but represents a drastic shift of emotion from the gay and playful to dark terror.

One of the most famous of these seated figures, the Woman with an Artichoke horn see fig. On the one hand, she has all the regal bearing of Ingres's Mme Moitessier or his Napoleon seated on his throne with raised scepter. The overall, inescapable impression of the image, however, is threatening power. The monumental scale of the figure is daunting. The sharp fingers on one hand are like claws or an armored glove, and the arti- choke has more the look of a club or a German hand grenade. Picasso's palette of dark greens, grays, and browns reinforces the lugubrious mood.

The force behind all these works is the twisting, distorting, deconstructing experience of war. Out of the depths of despair, however, Picasso was able to extract reasons for hope. Beginning with the monumental Man with a Lamb of spring cat. Two recent developments in the Allied counteroffensive against Germany — the invasion of North Africa in October and the surrender of the German Sixth Army in Russia after the Battle of Stalingrad - signaled a decisive change in the fortunes of war.

Such events were reported to the French population not by Vichy newspapers but by clandestine papers and the BBC, and Picasso would have been aware of them. Picasso made his first known studies for the Man with a Lamb on 15 July , conflating two figures in the classical scene of tribute-bearing in his print Paris, 14 July cat. Museum Ludwig, Ludwig Collection, Cologne. Although Picasso cautioned about the final sculpture that "there's nothing religious about it at all. The fixed expression on the man's face and his tight grip, with huge hands, on the braying, strain- ing lamb suggest the latter.

Picasso's "human feel- ing," however, may come not so much from the man's care of the lamb as from the transcending notion of dedication, as in the ancient story of Abraham and Isaac, and the willingness to make a sacrifice for the greater common good. This mes- sage in would have been powerful and hope- ful, and it is little wonder that Picasso kept the Man with a Lamb in the center of his studio for the rest of the war and often posed with it, as a centerpiece of his wartime art, with postwar visitors see fig.

Another optimistic signal is found in the large painting entitled First Steps from 21 May cat. A wobbly but determined child is being helped to take its first steps by a protective mother. Easy sentiment was not a common ingredient in Picasso's wartime work, and here, the strongly architectural quality of his composition, with the mother forming a compact arch over the angular structure of the child, overrides the sweetness of theme. In essence, Picasso stresses not only the innocence of youth but also the hopeful future of a younger generation as it thrives and carries forward.

Even the architectural studies Picasso made of familiar sites and monuments in the immediate environs of Paris strike a sanguine note. These date from mid- onward. Although generally dark and claustrophobically patterned, they concentrate on well-known structures - bridges, Notre Dame, the Vert-Galant - and seem to celebrate the beauty and lasting humanistic quality of this built environment.

His variation on Poussin's Triumph of Pan figs. It is a bacchanalia of the spirit. After the painful distortions found in his earlier Seated Women, Picasso's figures are whole again, albeit stretched and twisted in rubbery configurations that now are emblems of glee rather than debilita- tion. Cognizant of the healing role that art could play after so devastating a societal disaster, and the need for a restoration of order, Picasso spoke of the importance at this time of an art of discipline.

Indeed, some of his darkest and most troubling pictures followed VE Day, during the difficult period of European reconstruction. Nevertheless, hostilities were near an end by the close of Early in , Picasso began work on a painting that stands as a counterpart to the Guernica of , commemorating the conclusion of the war years just as that earlier masterpiece had marked their beginning. His Chamel House cat. In one combined, powerful statement, Picasso exhibited both paintings at the Communist-organized exhibition Art et resistance in February , where they spoke propagandisti- cally of mourning, retribution, and the harsh treatment Spanish Republicans had received at the hands of the French government.

As with the earlier work, Picasso restricted himself to a highly restrained palette of grays, black, and white, applied within a linear structure of segmented details that adds a staccato rhythm to the light-dark contrasts. This black-and- white construction may express in part Picasso's debt to the graphic art of Goya, where he had found a similar image of mass carnage,""' or may also reflect the influence of black-and-white films or photography. Dora Maar claimed that the idea for the painting came from a feature film they had seen together.

Reports of the camps and other charniers had begun to spread even before the end of , sometimes with the inclusion of photographs of victims. Part of Picasso's success in producing so strong a brooding effect in this picture is owed to a factor that in the past has been considered a fault, the canvas's non-finito condition. Picasso worked on the composition intermittently over a long period of time, and Zervos photographed several different states. Obviously Picasso considered it "finished" enough to sign it and release it for exhibition and sale. National Gallery, London.

At any rate, it consum- mates in highly moving form the humanistic mes- sage of concern for the human race that animates so much of Picasso's wartime work. William Rubin has called it a requiem. Both the Charnel House and Monument to the Spanish Who Died for France satisfy Picasso's pre- scription for an art that could serve as a forceful "instrument ol war against the enemy.

Picasso spoke frequent! For me it is a vessel in the metaphorical sense, just likt Christ's use of parables. For it is only when the widest commonplace is infused with the intensest passion that a great work of art, transcending all schools and categories, is born; and being bom, lives immortally. Like Van Gogh's potatoes and boots, expressive symbols that Picasso openly admired, his quotid ian, nondescript subjects speak loudly. His blood sausages, artichokes, and leeks, sheep skulls intended ultimately for the dog's dinner, casseroles and candles, and anonymous Lonely women may not actually scream the truth of the war, but they hit their marks of meaning with uncorrupted.

Its journalistic title might well have been updated by Picasso to the Twenty- Sixth of April, m order to pinpoint the historical reality of the Nazi saturation bombing of helpless civilians as they went about their business at the end of a Monday market day in the ancient Basque capital. Expanding upon many of the gruesome vignettes Goya recorded in a series of etchings, the" Disasters of War, the Third of May shrilly proclaims an era dominated bv the anti-Christ The central.

Among those about to die is another figure who would outrage Catholic pieties, a tonsured monk who, kneeling, clutches his hands in a prayer that will go unheeded. The malevolent night sky offers no source of light and, below it, the unidentified monastery with a church tower which recalls the sacred buildings that dominated the silhouette of Fuendetodos, Goya's birthplace looks like an archaeological relic from a civiliza- tion forever extinguished by the human slaughter in the foreground. Replacing the natural light of the sky, a lantern used by the Napoleonic troops targets the captured guerrillas and permits a glimpse of the carnage with photoflash clarity.

The widening beam of light from the yellow and -white lantern, whose colors are echoed in the vellow- and-white clothing of the central victim, almost becomes a surrogate agent of death. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Christ on the Mount of Olives, which Goya in fact would paint in a legible Christian guise some five years later in , giving it to the fathers at the Escuelas Pias in Madrid, is one such theme echoed by the Third of May as well as by the first plate, Sad Forebodings of Things to Come, of the Disasters of War, whose most shocking scenes of torture, dismemberment, and corpse-bearing can be viewed as new, godless mutations of standard Christian iconography.

As a young artist, Goya, like the young Picasso, depicted a familiar religious repertory, including the Burial and the Lamentation of Christ fig. Francisco de Goya, Burial of Christ, ca. Museo Lazaro Galdiano, Madrid. Unhappy Mother, fig. And the most barbaric mutilations depicted no. Of the countless ways to interpret Guernica and its progeny, Goya's bitter inversions of Catholic imagery and morality offer some major points of departure.

But following as well a tradition of anti-Catholic parody particularly vital in the most pious Catholic nations, Picasso, from his childhood on, would often make irreverent jokes on these conventional pieties. Already in WJ. UM 43 FIG. Oil on canvas, 96 x 92 in. Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. Before leav- ing for the Art Institute of Chicago in , it had made its way to Paris in , where, for two years, it resided at the mecca of modern art, the Galerie Durand-Ruel, frequented by Picasso and every other aspiring artist. Among other things, he thereby fused the fin-de-siecle concept of woman as virgin or femme fatale, 12 and recalled as well the old quip about the male Spaniard's typical Sunday: mass in the morning, bullfight in the after- noon, and brothel in the evening.

Such a double-entendre may still be understood in the context of the popular humor of Catholic countries that turns nuns into whores and priests into money-grabbing drunkards. But thirty years later, in Guernica, Picasso's heretical use of Catholic iconography took on a new and tragic pervasiveness whose sense of total malevolence matched not only its prototypes in Goya, but also the historical events on the eve of World War II.

Christian faith has become futile, challenged already at the top of the painting in the sinister source of artificial light that offers the work's only reference to a uniquely twentieth-century reality. Muscc 1'icasso, Pans. Bui this violation of cosmic nal oral order extends to the supernatural ordei. Nothing is more Familiar as a light source in Catholic art than the heavenly radiance that, often emanating from a dove, the symbol of the lloh Spirit, glows from the central heights ol altarpieces that depict a wide range of Christian narratives.

To choose only three of main old master Spanish example's from the Prado, an early foundation for Picasso's infinite storehouse of images, El Greco's Pentecost ca. L fig. Juan Bautista Maino's Adoration of the Magi Kill , and Diego Velazquez's Coronation of the Virgin by the Trinity all turn our terrestrial eyes upward to a celestial sun and bird. In Guernica, that sun and bird have been destroyed. UM 45 havoc below as well as the photographic means of recording and disseminating it through the press, much as the light from the groundborne lantern in Goya's Third of May seems both the agent of death and the objective way of disclosing these unspeak- able facts for posterity.

As for the bird, it falls in the throes of death not only from its natural element, the sky, but also from its supernatural Catholic symbol of a radiant blaze of light. It may also be a bleak inversion of the message of the colomba, the dove in the upper left-hand corner of a manuscript page illustrating the Deluge in the Spanish Romanesque Apocalypse of Saint Sever fig. Picasso knew well these visionary images from medieval Spain and, as often pointed out, used their flat styl- izations and colors, as did Mho, for inspiration, not only in his Crucifixion of but in the treatment of Guernica's fallen warrior.

Guernica's bird, too, is marked for sacrifice, its open beak rhyming with the screaming mouth of the mother at the left, just before the moment it lands on a tabletop. There is something strangely sacramental about this feath- ered offering, as if the birds were placed on an altar. Oil on canvas, x 50 in. Illuminated manuscript. Bibliotheque Nationale, 1'aiis. But Guernica's bird, falling from the sky or from its Catholic place ment as the Holy Spirit within a reigning, golden luminosity, announces new dimensions of cosmic upheaval. It is telling that, during the years of the Napo- leonic invasion of Spain, from 1H0S to IS 11, Goya himself painted a series of grisly animal still lifes that included paintings of dead birds - chickens, turkeys, ducks, woodcocks fig.

Already in , Picasso painted a ferocious black dog menacing a bound and helpless rooster in an image so close to violent death that it can hardly be called a "still life. It is an animal sacrifice made still more demonic in a drawing of the same year that depicts a frenzied woman plunging a knife into the throat of a trussed goat, as the blood drips into a bowl on the floor cat. Guernica's evil inversions of both natural and supernatural law and order reach a sacrilegious extreme at the lower left of the painting, where the dead child is held by the screaming mother, whose open mouth, like the bird's, is directed to a now extinct heaven.

Here, Picasso creates a heartrend- ing parody of one of the most familiar of all Catholic images of suffering and redemption, the Pieta. Predictably, this, too, has a specifically Span ish inflection, not only in its extremities of physical and psychological pain, but more particularly in its FIG I. The tongue of Guernica s griev- ing mother is shaped like sharp, pointed metal, a metaphor for a sword like the one that pierces the flank of the neighboring horse and an allusion to the piercing metal that intensifies so many Spanish depictions of the Virgin, who, as in Gregorio Fernandez's Virgin of Sorrows, plunges a sword into her own heart, her radiant halo a painful crown of metallic thorns fig.

This excruciating image of metal cutting into flesh can be found not only in many of the prelimi- nary studies for Guernica, but also in the series of weeping women that followed it. And in this drawing, the screaming mother's hair is exactly that, a tumble of real human hair fixed to the paper, a startling new form of collage as well as a survival of the Spanish tradi- tion of including common realities — clothing, blood, hair — in sculptural depictions of Christian themes, whether in the most exalted shrines or in the pasos, the popular, lifesize processional figures wheeled through the streets during Holy Week.

And in the same spirit of mixing tangible facts and pictorial fictions, Picasso, during the evolution of Guernica, added patches of patterned wallpaper as dresses for three of the painting's four women, as well as affixing, according to an unforgettable account by Roland Penrose, a strip of toilet paper to the kneeling woman's exposed buttocks. Of surprising relevance here is the Gregorio Fernandez, Virgin oj Sorrows, 17th century.

Mixed media. By covering the pagan head with a plaster-dipped cloth, adorning it with a metal halo and a garland of flowers, as well as adding fake tears and painted eyebrows to the face, he trans- formed the sculpture into a Spanish religious icon. When, in , Rosamond Bernier went to Barce- lona to gather material on early Picasso for the magazine L'Oeil, she visited the Picasso family's apartment and photographed many of its contents, including the corner shelf upon which this conver- sion of an antique deity to Catholicism still resided like a holy image.

On seeing the photo, Picasso commented that he had always loved this odd work, that it was a "collage avant la lettre. More specifically, many of them appear to have as the physical source of pain long, pointed darning-needle shapes that, replacing their original function as symbols of female handi- work, actually pierce the tear ducts, releasing at times the kind of comma-shaped tears frequently represented in Spanish polychrome sculpture by bits of shaped glass. And as often happened with Picasso, these implicit allusions to old-master art would become ever more explicit in his later work.

Introduction: Reaching for the narcissus: This collection provides insight into the way Byronic boys, toys, and the plight of classic horror texts were received, interpreted Persephone -- Unearthing the child underworld: and discussed by the first generations to the history of Persephone and developmental experience them, ideas that continue to define psychology -- Toying with Persephone: Herr the way modern society views horror.

Each Drosselmeier and Marie in E. The book also includes an overview of underworld queens in J. Hermann, Savoir Lettres , , pages. Kind zuvor gewesen ist Histoire du genre : aux sources world leaders in Gothic Studies, offering du gothique dynamic new readings on popular Gothic Scott contre Hoffmann : le combat du gothique cultural productions from the last decade.

Les monstres invisibles de Chuck Palahniuk. Les trucs habituels sur les vampires Farnham, Ashgate, , viii, pages. Rowlings , pages. Gog and Magog: Guardians of the city J. Studies , , pages. Literature, New York, Berlin, et al. Tolkien, and J. Rowling, this genre, ROAS, David, Tras los limites de lo real : like all gothic arts, has served as an alternative une definicion de lo fantastico, Madrid, cultural perspective to that of scientific Paginas de espuma, , pages.


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