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This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Anderson, Stephen R. A-Morphous Morphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aronoff, Mark. Morphology by Itself. Stems and Inflectional Classes.

Cambridge, Mass. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 22 Google Scholar. Becker, Thomas. Analogie und morphologische Theorie. Studien zur theoretischen Linguistik 11 Google Scholar. Das Vokalsystem der deutschen Standardsprache. Frankfurt: Lang. Arbeiten zur Sprachanalyse 32 Google Scholar.

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Bergenholtz, Henning and Joachim Mugdan. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. In Peter Braun ed. Google Scholar. Bybee, Joan. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

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Rechtschreibung der deutschen Sprache. Duden 1 Google Scholar. Eschenlohr, Stefanie. Linguistische Arbeiten Google Scholar. Linguistische Berichte , — Fleischer, Wolfgang and Irmhild Barz. Wortbildung der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Gallmann, Peter. Kategoriell komplexe Wortformen. Haider, Hubert. Haspelmath, Martin. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 43— Now the repatriation of profits is virtually over, and the recent rise in bond yields and slump in stock prices could continue.

Following the global financial crisis, Chinese authorities injected huge fiscal and credit stimulus starting in late Chinese growth and, hence, world growth fell. Much the same has happened recently. In , Chinese authorities again used fiscal and credit measures to rev up flagging domestic growth. Virtually all nations participated in the growth acceleration. But again, rising property Chinese prices and debt burdens raised financial vulnerability well above dangerous thresholds. The Chinese authorities, as before, pulled back on the stimulus, and the domestic economy slowed.

The IMF has substantially reduced its projection of world trade growth, but even that lower forecast at 4 percent in is overly optimistic.

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With the Chinese growth slowdown to 6. The tariffs on Chinese goods imposed by the Trump administration and tough talk on further increases heighten the prospect of further trade deceleration. Adding to the global headwinds are rising interest rates as the U. Federal Reserve boosts its policy rate and the European Central Bank winds down its bond purchases.

Emerging markets are already dealing with the consequences of higher interest rates. In Argentina and Turkey, but also in India, depreciating currencies have increased the burden of repayment of dollar-denominated debts. The trivial revision for India, to 7. Slowing trade and rising rates will have their biggest impact on European nations. Now knowing Siegfried's weakness, the fake campaign is called off and Hagen then uses the cross as a target on a hunting trip, killing Siegfried with a javelin as he is drinking from a brook Chapter Kriemhild becomes aware of Hagen's deed when, in Hagen's presence, the corpse of Siegfried bleeds from the wound cruentation.

This perfidious murder is particularly dishonorable in medieval thought, as throwing a javelin is the manner in which one might slaughter a wild beast, not a knight. We see this in other literature of the period, such as with Parsifal's unwittingly dishonorable crime of combatting and slaying knights with a javelin transformed into a swan in Wagner's opera. Kriemhild swears to take revenge for the murder of her husband and the theft of her treasure.

Many years later, King Etzel of the Huns Attila the Hun proposes to Kriemhild, she journeys to the land of the Huns, and they are married. For the baptism of their son, she invites her brothers, the Burgundians , to a feast at Etzel's castle in Hungary. Hagen does not want to go, suspecting that it is a trick by Kriemhild in order to take revenge and kill them all, but is taunted until he does. As the Burgundians cross the Danube , this fate is confirmed by Nixes , who predict that all but one monk will die. Hagen tries to drown the monk in order to render the prophecy futile, but he survives.

The Burgundians arrive at Etzel's castle and are welcomed by Kriemhild "with lying smiles and graces. The tragedy unfolds as Kriemhild comes before Hagen, reproaching him for her husband Siegfried's death, and demands that he return her Nibelungenschatz. Not only did Hagen humiliate her right from arrival by openly carrying Balmung , Siegfried's sword stolen right away from his corpse.

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He also answers her boldly, admits he killed Siegfried and that he sank the Nibelungen treasure into the Rhine. The culprit, however, blames all these acts on Kriemhild's own behavior. King Etzel then welcomes his wife's brothers warmly.

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But outside a tense feast in the great hall, a fight breaks out between Huns and Burgundians, and soon there is general mayhem. When word of the fight arrives at the feast, Hagen decapitates the young son of Kriemhild and Etzel before their eyes. The Burgundians take control of the hall, which is besieged by Etzel's warriors. Kriemhild offers her brothers their lives if they hand over Hagen, but they refuse.

The battle lasts all day, until the queen orders the hall to be burned with the Burgundians inside. All of the Burgundians are killed except for Hagen and Gunther, who are bound and held prisoner by Dietrich of Bern. Kriemhild has the men brought before her and orders her brother Gunther to be killed.

Even after seeing Gunther's head, Hagen refuses to tell the queen what he has done with the Nibelungen treasure. Furious, Kriemhild herself cuts off Hagen's head. Old Hildebrand , the mentor of Dietrich of Bern, is infuriated by the shameful deaths of the Burgundian guests. He hews Kriemhild to pieces with his sword.

In a fifteenth-century manuscript, he is said to strike Kriemhild a single clean blow to the waist; she feels no pain, however, and declares that his sword is useless. Hildebrand then drops a ring and commands Kriemhild to pick it up. As she bends down, her body falls into pieces. Dietrich and Etzel and all the people of the court lament the deaths of so many heroes. The Nibelunglied , like other Middle High German heroic epics, is anonymous. The Nibelungenlied is conventionally dated to around Wolfram von Eschenbach references the cook Rumolt, usually taken as an invention of the Nibelungenlied -poet, in his Parzival c.

Additionally, the poem's rhyming technique most closely resembles that used between and The current theory of the creation of the poem emphasizes the poet's concentration on the region of Passau : the poem highlights the relatively unimportant figure of bishop Pilgrim of Passau, and the poet's geographical knowledge appears much more firm for this area than for elsewhere. These facts, combined with the dating, have led scholars to believe that Wolfger von Erla , bishop of Passau reigned — was the patron of the poem.

Wolfger is known to have patronized other literary figures, such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Thomasin von Zirclaere. Wolfger was, moreover, attempting to establish the sainthood of Pilgrim at the time of the poem's composition, giving an additional reason for his prominence.

Some debate exists as to whether the poem is an entirely new creation or whether there was a previous version. Whoever the poet may have been, he appears to have had a knowledge of German Minnesang and of chivalric romance. The poem's concentration on love minne and its depiction of Siegfried as engaging in love service for Kriemhild is in line with courtly romances of the time, with Heinrich von Veldeke 's Eneasroman perhaps providing concrete models.

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Another possible influence is Hartmann von Aue 's Iwein , [25] [26] [27] as well as Erec. The role given to Kriemhild in the second originally first stanza is suggestive of Helen of Troy , and the poem appears to have taken a number of elements from Vergil 's Aeneid. The language of the Nibelungenlied is characterized by its formulaic nature, a feature of oral poetry : this means that similar or identical words, epithets, phrases, even lines can be found in various positions throughout the poem.

These elements can be used flexibly for different purposes in the poem. The Nibelungenlied is written in four-line stanzas. Although no melody has survived for the text, melodies for similar stanzas in other German heroic poems have, so that it is certain that the text was meant to be sung. The fourth line adds an additional foot following the caesura, making it longer than the other three and marking the end of the stanza.

The final word before the caesura is typically female a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable , whereas the final word of a line is typical male a stressed syllable. The lines rhyme in pairs, and occasionally there are internal rhymes between the words at the end of the caesura, as in the first stanza see Synopsis.

An acute accent indicates the stressed beat of a metrical foot, and indicates the caesura:. Many stanzas of the poem are constructed in a much less regular manner. The Nibelungenlied -poet may have been inspired by this lyrical stanza. His use of the stanza would thus cite an oral story-telling tradition while at the same time creating some distance to it.

The nature of the stanza creates a structure whereby the narrative progresses in blocks: the first three lines carry the story forward, while the fourth introduces foreshadowing of the disaster at the end or comments on events. The fourth line is thus often the most formulaic of the stanza.

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Often, the same reaction is given to multiple figures in different stanzas, so that the impression of collective rather than individual reactions is created. The epic nevertheless maintains the causal and narrative connection between episodes through the commentary of the narrator, who frequently reminds the poem's audience of the coming catastrophe, while the manner in which the epic is told serves to delay the inevitable disaster.

The action becomes more and more intense as the epic nears its end.