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It provides the point framework underlying most major transport systems, and it closely examines current and emergent activity to improve both freight and passenger. It provides the point framework underlying most major transport systems, and it closely examines current and emergent activity to improve both freight and passenger transportation. Using the point framework as a guide, transportation professionals can analyze existing and proposed systems. The book also explains ITS concepts along the same point frame. Featuring an extensive explanation of common transportation systems, this work is designed for transportation professionals in general, and newcomers from the fields of electronics, computer science and civil engineering in particular.

We will send you an SMS containing a verification code. Please double check your mobile number and click on "Send Verification Code". Enter the code below and hit Verify. Free Shipping All orders of Cash on Delivery Pay for your order in cash at the moment the shipment is delivered to your doorstep. As can be seen from Figure 7 , the architecture also includes some levels relating to the e-business architecture: the resource level, the business level, the access level, and the client level.


  1. Table for One.
  2. Our Town, USA: The Money Tree.
  3. Introduction To Transportation Systems?
  4. SOA-Based Model for Value-Added ITS Services Delivery;

The business level includes new application modules that allow the adequate management of the RSU AA S, information storage, and service generation services orchestration. Finally, the client level provides the necessary interfaces for value-added ITS service consumption by end users. It should be noted that the client level has an external resource module that is important because it allows integration with other traffic information services, in which the NTCIP protocols or the emergent DATEX II approach could be applied.

The last of the architectural components is a navigation system that can be used by the ITS user to consume the value-added ITS services. Basically, its architecture is based on the component approach [ 35 ]. As can be seen from Figure 8 , the conceptual architecture for the navigation system includes the CALM proposal and the middleware approach, which are necessary for service delivery. However, our SOA module was designed to support the services environment that provides the service consumption.

In this section, a test scenario and a set of experiments designed to validate the proposed model are detailed. The scenario was based on the value-added ITS services that can be produced by a parking management system.


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  • Introduction to Transportation Systems by Joseph Sussman;
  • This scenario offered us a large variety of ITS technological elements that could be integrated under our approach. We focused on the associated valued-added services that facilitate the user's ITS task of finding a parking place at the end of a trip, along the way, and on the trip. This significant service was selected because it helps the ITS users solve problems associated with mobility and fuel savings and decrease travel time [ 36 ].

    In addition, it is suitable for evaluating our SOA-based model. The parking areas belonging to the campus of the University of Alicante UA were used as a test environment. According to the proposed architecture and the associated layers of the model, the ITS scenario for some of the experiments will be described. Emerging monitoring technologies based on wireless sensor networks WSN were used at this level because of their characteristics: ubiquity, low power consumption, small size, processing speed, and ability to cover large areas.

    In addition, WSN are ideal for supporting the proposed service. In this way, twelve nodes that constituted the wireless sensor network were used for our experiment. A crossbow solution, called MicaZ [ 37 ] in the field of WSN, was used for monitoring the parking lot. This solution incorporated several sensors; we used a photoresistor to detect the status of the parking places.

    Software that ran on each sensor node and was capable of detecting the status of the parking places was developed for our prototype. The TinyOS operating system and nesC programming language were used to implement it. The software operated on demand, which means that each node transmitted information on when the parking place was occupied or free and information for maintaining the network topology sporadic messages.

    Introduction to Transportation Systems

    Our first experiment was designed to evaluate the software and routing protocol we developed. Therefore, we analyzed its metric using the exponentially weighted moving average EWMA estimation algorithm [ 38 ]. This metric minimizes the total cost to transmit a packet from a node located in the parking place to the base station. The selected scenario to test this software was the parking for the Polytechnic School, whose capacity was 98 places Figure 9. The WSN was deployed there. In this scenario, it is worth noting that, at the moment of carrying out the deployment process for the WSN, most of the retransmissions generated among the nodes were necessary for determining the neighbors belonging to the WSN.

    In this way, different routing tables and an estimated pattern for link qualities among the nodes were constructed. This pattern was a key factor for finding the route that minimized the total number of transferences, which is reducing power consumption for each node. The scenario had twelve nodes: ten to determine the status of parking places, one for gathering the traffic associated with the sensor network the sniffer , and one for the base station, which was connected to the RSU. The topology used the minimum transmission metric to establish the organization and provide the information associated with the parking places.

    By evaluating the WSN, the dependence between transmission reliability and the power used by each node could be observed. Therefore, several different powers were set up, and the transmission ranges were observed Figure A power of 0. Finally, data packets containing the status of the parking space were obtained, which showed the effectiveness of the minimum transmission algorithm Table 3. From Table 3 , it can be concluded that the nodes most remote from WSN-RSU 7, 9 and 10 had more difficulty transmitting the information associated with the parking space, while those directly connected to the base station 19, 26, and 33 had a higher probability of success in transmitting information.

    Finally, data packets regarding the status of the parking space were obtained, showing the effectiveness of the algorithm of minimum transmission Table 3. From Table 3 it can be concluded that the most remote from nodes WSN-RSU 7, 9, and 10 had more difficulty transmitting the information associated with the parking space, while those directly connected to the base station 19, 26, and 33 had a higher probability of success in transmitting information. However, node which was connected directly to the WSN-RSU had low transmission quality, which influenced the cost of the proposed metric.

    The devices needed to facilitate deployment along the ITS infrastructure, being as small as possible, incorporate the management protocols of the current RSU such as SNMP , integrate the standard protocols for communication with the central traffic or otherwise have the capabilities necessary to implement them , and have network connectivity either wired or wireless that allowed remote access.


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    • At the resources level, an application that managed the data exchange through the serial port between the base node of the WSN and the RSU was developed. The first application was responsible for controlling the base node and its associated nodes. The second application supported the generation of monitoring services and stored the data collected by the sensor nodes. This application was quite complex, and its development required the integration of an embedded database DB into the device.

      The database selected was SQLite [ 34 ]. SQLite provided a compact library with low memory requirements, which was suitable for the embedded devices. The third application was associated with the activity controller and process controller and provided the information stored in the database when a request was performed. This section is described in greater detail in [ 39 ]. To implement this level, two applications of our architecture were designed. The second application was more general and complex and implemented the functionality of the value-added ITS services generation center.

      The device took, on average, 1. The parkingPlaceQuery service was just one of the twenty-five services that integrated our monitoring services platform. The remaining services were related to setup, including parking places, sensors associated with a parking place, service users and their preferences, reservation of a place, new sensor startup, and others.

      The Framework 3. Several ITS areas were included in this application, although only the implementation of car parking was used for the prototype. Two servers were used as the computational infrastructure. The first server had two purposes: to support the main application of the traffic information center and to support the storage system monitoring services such as the RSU AA S management system. The application environment that acted as the manager of the parking system is shown in Figure A MySQL database was used by the application to store monitoring systems information. This application allowed managing parking spaces and places areas, managing the monitoring system itself, and configuring the WSN the wireless transmission channel, power, number of nodes, node groups, node configuration, and node rebooting.

      For testing, four WSN management services were evaluated: a node reboot, a power shift, getting the settings from the WSN node, and general data dissemination through the WSN. The power settings service and reboot service responded with average times of and milliseconds.

      However, the services related to the dissemination of information through the WSN and to getting the sensor node configuration took an average of and milliseconds, respectively. This delay was due to the response being associated with a great deal of information about the WSN. Moreover, the integration of generic and open source tools, such as Google Maps , was one of the most important features incorporated into the system. This type of solutions allows ITS services that are adequately provided and that can be consumed by a large number of external clients regardless of the browser platform they use Figure Two applications were designed for final consumption of services.

      The first one was a desktop client application for mobile devices that provided information on free, busy, and not available parking places. The second application offered the same service, but the results were displayed on Google Maps. The first application Figure 18 was developed using the. This application consisted of a mobile client that queried the value-added ITS services published in the UDDI registry and consumed them to perform its activity.

      This application, called ITSParking , provided information on parking spaces and allowed users to enter their parking preferences according to their usual customs. This application was available for university users students, teachers, and administrators who had registered to use the service. The consumption associated with the parking services ranged between 7 and 10 seconds, considering the time it took to offer the RSU AA S monitoring services. The margin of 60 seconds initially proposed by our model was achieved.

      For this layer, various communication systems that supported the connectivity of all the elements involved were used. Figure 19 summarizes the proposed test scenario, including the systems and technologies used to develop the prototype. The figure arranges the system elements according to their communications, hardware, operating systems, applications, and services. Our approach achieved a loose coupling among each of the technologies and services present in the ITS scenario.

      Introduction to Transportation Systems : Joseph Sussman :

      In light of this, new value-added ITS services could be composed and offered to several ITS components where the navigation system was highlighted. As part of the process, we developed a RSU AA S, a new concept for the RSU device that permits showing both monitoring services and management services as web services. To validate the proposal, a valued-added service that facilitates the user's ITS task of finding a parking place at the end of a trip, along the way, and on the trip, was developed.

      To deploy this service, several ITS technological components were used: new emerging technology WSN , embedded computer systems, navigation devices, databases, and application servers. This SOA approach opens up a wide range of possibilities in the management of ITS service, such as automatic provision of resources and services ITS on demand based on environment information. Nowadays, we are working in this research line using the proposed model, services, and processes orchestration with BPMS and ontologies applied to traffic management.

      The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

      National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List ScientificWorldJournal v. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

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      Received Aug 31; Accepted Jan 9. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Integration is currently a key factor in intelligent transportation systems ITS , especially because of the ever increasing service demands originating from the ITS industry and ITS users. Introduction The steady increases in the population and advances in transportation systems have become the key factors in the growth of transportation.

      Related Work In the field of ITS, traditional software methodologies, such as common object request broker architecture CORBA , remote method invocation RMI , and distributed component object model DCOM , have been used to integrate ITS solutions center to center communications , but they are highly dependent on the programming language, which has provoked the creation of ad hoc systems as well [ 7 ]. Integration Methodology The fundamental aim of our proposal is to determine how information technologies IT should be integrated into ITS to achieve appropriate ITS value-added services delivery.

      Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 1 ITS services and technologies catalogue. Service Layer a Monitoring Level.

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      Figure 2. SOA-Based Model Proposal By incorporating the SOA paradigm into the technological decoupling proposal, it will be possible to obtain the loosely coupled ITS technologies belonging to each of the technological levels that have been proposed. Figure 3. Publication Process The fundamental aim of this process is service publication specifically, the monitoring services and management services generated by the monitoring level and value-added ITS services generated by the business level.

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      Consumption Process The fundamental aim of this process is to allow the consumption of the services either by the monitoring services, the management services, or the value-added ITS services. Figure 4. System Architecture Each of the elements of the ITS scenario is considered by the system general architecture. Figure 5. Figure 6.