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To have Russia host the World Cup would be a disaster for western neocons as the month-long event would showcase the nation they despise more than any other, to the entire world. The football fans, visitors and sports journalists who would descend on Russia from all over the world, would see what a nice country it is. That would never do for those who want to keep Russia permanently in the sin bin. Be prepared: Everything possible will be used in the campaign to take the next World Cup away from Russia. Neil Clark is a journalist, writer, broadcaster and blogger.

His award winning blog can be found at www. He tweets on politics and world affairs NeilClark You may think lithium got too popular too fast. You may suspect electric vehicles are too much buzz and not enough real future. You may, in short, be a lithium skeptic, one of many. And yet, despite this skepticism, lithium demand is rising steadily and sharply, and indications that a shortage may be looming are very real.

Consider the number of battery gigafactories that are being built around the world. This, as the carmaker proudly notes, is more than the global total lithium ion battery production for Lithium is powering pretty much everything upon which our present depends on and our future is being built. Think the Internet of things, or smart houses, or smart cities, eventually. All these fascinating ideas are powered in some way by lithium. But the real and present coup has been launched by electric vehicles. Forecasts from market research firms seem to be unanimous: EVs are on the rise, EVs are hot, and EVs will be increasingly in demand as people all over the world are eagerly encouraged to cut their carbon footprint.

So, whether we like it or not, EVs are coming—and in force. Those who start tapping into new reserves will be extremely well-positioned for the future. Geological Survey , there is enough lithium in the world — This calculation takes into account only the current rate of lithium ion battery usage. It does not account for the entrance of EVs into the mainstream. It does not account for Tesla, not to mention the growing ranks of Tesla rivals.

In the U. Brine-based lithium production in the country is concentrated in one place only, at least for now, and this place is Nevada. This makes Clayton Valley ground zero for the U. If you put a mirror up to Clayton Valley, there is endless opportunity here. The real race here is to create the next U. Look everywhere, and then look again. The best way to secure a foothold in lithium right now is to think outside the box and look for those companies who see the bigger picture but are also smart enough to keep one foot in the proven lithium hunting grounds.

Despite new efforts to ramp up supply, it will take a while before supply corresponds to the demand. The lithium feeding frenzy has only just begun. If the West in general and the United States in particular, left the Arab and Muslim world alone and in peace, we would most likely never see all those terrorist attacks, which are rocking the world from Indonesia to France.

There would be no Mujahedeen and its mutation into al-Qaeda; in Afghanistan or elsewhere. And the super-conservative Wahhabi Islam, that outdated, freak Saudi mutant, would remain in the religious schools of the ultra-regressive Kingdom, instead of gaining ground all over Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Africa. But the West embarked on a brutal, Machiavellian path: it decided to destroy socialist Islam — that historically moderate, compassionate and progressive religion.

It smashed once secular Egypt; it overthrew the government in socialist Iran and then in near-Communist Indonesia, implanting in all these places horrifically degenerate and fully outdated religious concepts. It used extremists to destroy healthy patriotism and socialism. Islam has been used and abused, manipulated and virtually stripped of its essence. It has nothing to do with Islam. The greatest oppressors of the Muslim people, those in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Indonesia have all been closely allied to the West.

Yes, there really is such war, but the West is not the one who fights it. As this goes to print, the war against terrorism is being fought by Russia, Iran, China, Syria, Hezbollah and their allies! The West is still closely collaborating with the terrorists. It criticizes and antagonizes those who are actually fighting the extremist militant groups. Extremists have been unleashed, like Rottweiler fighting dogs, against almost all progressive governments in the Middle East, but also against China and Russia.

Extremist Muslims, extremist Christians, even extremist Buddhists! In turn, the politicians in the United States are regularly supported, financially, by the regimes including those of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, etc. The donations to the William J. The governments of Kuwait and Qatar are also on the list, as is Saudi businessman Nasser Al-Rashid, who has close ties to the Saudi royal family. Saudi Sheikh Mohammed H.

Al-Amoudi, reputed to be one of the richest men in the world, is among the donors as well. As recently as on August 20 th , , The New York Times wrote something similar, essentially reconfirming the validity of the earlier reports, while adding many more details and adjusting the figures:.

Through a foundation, so did the son-in-law of a former Ukrainian president whose government was widely criticized for corruption and the murder of journalists. For years the Bill, Hillary and Chelsea Clinton Foundation thrived largely on the generosity of foreign donors and individuals who gave hundreds of millions of dollars to the global charity.

But now, as Mrs. She also negotiated financial support for Ms. Clinton from Mr. Chagouri and other individuals, organizations and businesses originating from the Middle East. The accusations and evidence keep coming in, from different media outlets, both left wing and right wing. Trump, has deep ties to the government of Saudi Arabia—and to international Islamist investors through his own law firm.

Republicans or Democrats: it truly matters very little. Both parties spread terror all over the world. True, George W.

#9 anthropologismes by Afrikadaa - Issuu

And so it goes…. Libya has been destroyed; the Syrian civil war was launched from Washington, London and Paris. The US and Europe have kept selling arms to the Gulf, building new military bases while supporting the most appalling and bloodthirsty regimes. This toxic embrace has proved fatal to millions of people in these two parts of the world. Hopes for self-governance have been ruined.

Even if millions are dying, there is still an uninterrupted flow of raw materials to the West and Japan. Disobedience and rebellion against the global Western order could not be tolerated! It had to be crushed, even at the cost of new and deadly world war. Even the Republican Presidential candidate Donald Trump, in his rare moments of sanity, is clearly aware of the danger. He does not wish to confront Russia. He is obviously not willing to sacrifice tens of millions of human lives for some grotesque dreams of total world domination by a market fundamentalism backed by the white or Western supremacist dogmas.

Not surprisingly! Orwellian indeed, with a vengeance. The Clinton campaign has gone into overdrive. For as long as the general political trend of the West does not radically change, or for as long as the West is not stopped by outside forces, perpetual wars will continue. Monstrous genocides in Africa, the destruction of entire states and regions in the Middle East, all this could easily spread to other parts of the Planet. It is clear now that if provoked and confronted, countries like China, Russia and Iran would not hesitate to fight back.

They also may fight for others — for their tortured allies. They were manufactured in Washington, Riyadh, London, and Doha and most likely even in Tel Aviv , for several concrete purposes, all of them thoroughly foul. They are making sure to ruin the socialist nature of Islam, insisting exclusively on the implementation of outdated, medieval fundamentalist interpretations. She is also a well known writer and editor based in Saudi Arabia. Her organization IICWC had repeatedly argued that laws banning female circumcision should be revoked, as well as laws prohibiting child marriage and marital rape.

Saleha Abedin was a vice-dean shoulder-to-shoulder with her favorite aide — Huma. Was this just an insignificant episode? Like unleashing conservative Islam against socialist Muslim countries? This war is a war of aggression , started by Saudi Arabia in March , with crucial US blessing, participation, personnel, and ordnance. President Obama has authorized the provision of logistical and intelligence support to GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council]-led military operations. Yemen, with a population of 26 million people, was the poorest country in the region even before it was attacked.

For all that the Saudis frame their war on Yemen as a defense against a threat from Iran, there has never been any credible evidence of any credible threat to Saudi Arabia from any element of the miniscule Iranian presence in Yemen. Yemen is fighting a civil war, a new version of the same old civil war Yemenis have been fighting for decades, both before and after Yemen was two separate countries.

Presumably they knew it all full well and chose a war of aggression anyway, recklessly, perhaps even thoughtlessly, but criminally all the same. The Saudi goal was always get rid of a longstanding threat on its southwestern border, where the tribal land of the Houthis lay both in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. I was told, very early on in the war, Deputy Secretary of State Tony Blinken went to Riyadh to ask the—this is two weeks—yeah, it was two weeks into the war [mid-April ], when they had already been bombing away, using the U.

By , American hands were already bloody with the US drone assassination program that had killed not only innocent civilians, but American citizens, without a trace of due process of law. In effect, already enmeshed in its own nexus of war crimes in Yemen, the US green-lighted the Saudi-led war of aggression that would make American crimes pale by comparison. Terror bombing, an example of which is Saudi pilots flying American planes dropping American bombs on defenseless Yemeni civilian targets, is probably not the terrorism Secretary Kerry wants to discuss — ever — with the Saudis and their allies, never mind other weapons suppliers like France and the United Kingdom.

His discussion will focus on the ongoing conflict in Yemen and efforts to restore peace and stability…. The US is at war with Yemen, in support of the Saudi-led coalition that launched its undeclared war of aggression on March 26, The US president has never asked Congress for such authorization of a war of aggression against Yemen.

Neither house of Congress has acted on any bill that directly addresses the war of aggression against Yemen. More than a year after the war started, two Democratic members of Congress joined by two Republicans introduced identical bills intended to respond to the war. They did not mention US participation in the war.

Both their bills were referred to committee. At the time there was a spotty ceasefire in Yemen while peace talks proceeded in Kuwait the talks were suspended in early August, leading to the Saudi escalation currently killing more civilians. Incredibly, this non-response response to war crimes in Yemen has gotten Rep. When he was on active duty he taught the law of war to other Air Force officers.

His interview rhetoric, like most of his public action, is soft-edged even though he knows perfectly well his country is committing war crimes. The indiscriminate civilian killings by Saudi Arabia look like war crimes to me. In this case, children as young as 8 were killed by Saudi Arabian air strikes. By assisting Saudi Arabia, the United States is aiding and abetting what appears to be war crimes in Yemen. The Administration must stop enabling this madness now. The latest arms deal suggested to Rep. The solution, according to the Times:.

When enough Americans recognize that, then they will have to do a lot more about it than stop selling tanks to the aggressors. Until then the US-sponsored atrocity of ethnic cleansing in a poverty-stricken country that threatens no one will continue unabated. William M. Boardman has over 40 years experience in theatre, radio, TV, print journalism, and non-fiction, including 20 years in the Vermont judiciary.

At this time, the military operations seem focused around Jarablus. Military sources told Turkish media 70 targets in the Jarablus area had been destroyed by artillery and rocket strikes, and 12 by air strikes. ISIS has mostly abandoned the small area between Jarabulus and the Turkish border, leaving only small units to resist the advancing Turkish-backed rebels.

Philosophy of Religion

For its part, the Syrian government has condemned the Turkish invasion. A troubling new dimension has also been added to the Syrian crisis as the Turks have now officially invaded a sovereign country in an already volatile region. Undoubtedly, we will be watching these events closely. Turbeville has published over articles on a wide variety of subjects including health, economics, government corruption, and civil liberties.

The record shows that Russia has not been present militarily in Iran since ; and this is the first time since the Islamic Revolution that Iran allowed another nation to use Iranian territory for a military operation. Bets could be made the Pentagon would, predictably, freak out like a bunch of pampered, irate teens. It is expensive and takes a long time to fly from bases in the European part of Russia. The issue of the cost of military combat activities is, at present, a priority. We must not go over the current Defense Ministry budget. All fine and dandy then. The Pentagon will keep crying foul.

Especially because if they open the way for a decisive victory in the battle for East Aleppo, the foreign-imposed Syrian civil war will be all but over. They make precise strikes, avoid casualties among civilians. A Moscow-Damascus agreement has now been ratified by Russia. That, in effect, turns the Russian air base at Khmeimim into a permanent military base in the eastern Mediterranean.

Beijing and Damascus, for their part, have just agreed on closer military ties on top of Chinese humanitarian aid. Syrian Arab Army personnel will eventually be trained by Chinese military instructors. Beijing is now directly involved in Syria for a key national security reason; hundreds of Uyghurs have joined Daesh or follow al-Qaeda goon Abu Muhammad al-Julani, the much-appreciated-in-the Beltway leader of the Army of Syrian Conquest — and may eventually return to Xinjiang to wage jihad.

All of the above points to the new look of what used to be a white elephant in the room; the Shanghai Cooperation Organization SCO now means serious business. For the first time NATO was not free anymore to roam around the world like an out-of-control Robocop. Even though only Russia and China were SCO members, and Iran an observer, the cooperation involved — at the request of a government fighting jihadis and still a target for regime change — already qualified as a major, new geopolitical fact on the ground. The record shows Hillary with a severe crush on Assad to be dispatched the Gaddafi way.

Oh really? Over Russia-Iran strategic cooperation? Over a progressively integrated SCO? Bring it on, Queen of War. In his paper, Inbar suggested that it would be a good idea to prolong the war in Syria, which has destroyed the country, killing hundreds of thousands of people and displacing more than half the population. Read Complete article on Salon. Turkish units began their assault on ISIS and Kurdish militia forces at 4 AM local time, backed by tanks and supported by intensive artillery bombardments and airstrikes, including air support from the US-led coalition.

The incursion marked the first time since last November, when Turkey shot down a Russian jet near the Turkish-Syrian border, that Turkish warplanes have struck inside Syria. The invasion comes only days after a series of mortar shells targeted the Turkish town of Karkamis from the Syrian side of the border. Turkish authorities evacuated thousands of inhabitants. There have also been a number of ISIS attacks in Turkey over the past two years, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of civilians.

ISIS is the prime suspect in a deadly blast last Saturday at a wedding in the southeastern province of Gaziantep that left 54 people dead. Operation Euphrates Shield entails invading Syria and establishing a buffer zone, in blatant violation of Syrian sovereignty. The Turkish escalation will sharply increase tensions in an already unstable and explosive situation, with the United States, the major European powers, Iran, Russia and China all intervening to back competing factions in the Syrian war.

Once the invasion was underway it became clear that Washington was throwing its weight behind it. While the situation remains extremely fluid, it appears that the Obama administration, having undermined its relations with Turkey by tacitly backing the July 15 military coup against Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, is trying to rebuild its ties to Ankara at the expense of the Kurdish militias it has been supporting.

At a press conference with Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yildirim, Biden insisted that Syrian Kurdish forces had to bow to Turkish demands and return to the eastern bank of the Euphrates River if they wanted to continue receiving US support. Russian officials, who had sought to develop closer ties with the Turkish regime in the aftermath of the abortive coup, indicated their concern over the military escalation.

Both the Assad regime and the Syrian Kurdish militias denounced the invasion. Rather, it is substituting one form of terrorism for another. The Kurdish militias, which have once again been double-crossed by their US imperialist backers, are providing yet one more example of the bankruptcy of their bourgeois nationalist orientation and their reliance on imperialism. Speaking at a news conference in Ankara hours after the invasion, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that the aim of the operation was to clear ISIS from the southern border.

Yesterday, following the onset of the invasion, Foreign Minister Cavusoglu called on Syrian Kurdish forces to go back to the eastern side of the Euphrates. They do nothing to enhance the security of the North Korean people. The missile launch provoked immediate condemnations from Japan, South Korea and the United States as well as criticism from China.

The condemnations of North Korea by the US and its allies are utterly hypocritical. Unlike the case of Iran with which it actively sought a rapprochement, the Obama administration has made no attempt to end the tense standoff with North Korea through talks. In fact, Obama has maintained the confrontational stance of President Bush and shunned six-party negotiations sponsored by China, insisting that Pyongyang must dismantle its nuclear arsenal in advance of any discussions.

North Korea has an outdated fleet of about 70 submarines with Soviet-era technology that are unlikely to be able to fire a ballistic missile. The missile launch took place during the annual meeting of foreign ministers from Japan, China and South Korea in Tokyo. The Abe government will undoubtedly exploit the missile test as further justification for remilitarisation and its push to revise the Japanese constitution to end limitations on its ability to wage war in pursuit of its imperialist interests. China, however, confronts a deepening dilemma.

While criticising its formal ally, China also does not want to precipitate a political implosion in Pyongyang that could lead to the establishment of a pro-US regime on its border. The US, on the other hand, has a definite interest in maintaining the dangerous standoff on the Korean Peninsula to strengthen defence ties with its two allies and justify its preparations for war against China. A commentary yesterday in the state-owned Xinhua news agency was sharply critical of the US role in stoking up tensions on the Korean Peninsula.

However, China, like North Korea, is seeking to counter the US through a military arms race that can only end in a disaster for humanity. Its whipping up of Chinese nationalism, and in particular anti-Japanese xenophobia, only drives a wedge between the working class in the region and internationally—the only social force capable of putting an end to capitalism and the drive to war.

Extending over 69 pages, it details a series of measures to prepare the population for a war. How will the population be taken to safety if a radioactive cloud spreads? Where will the federal government hide if an attack is threatened? Where will cultural treasures be stored in the case of war? Whoever thought this meant only an expansion of military deployments abroad can now clearly see that the German government is preparing for wars that will transform Germany and Europe into a battlefield—and within the foreseeable future.

It recommends that a first aid kit, warm blankets, coal, wood, candles, torches, batteries, matches, charged batteries and cash reserves be kept at the ready. The document declares it necessary to consider the reintroduction of compulsory military service and the implementation of a secure method for the call-up and mobilization of military personnel.

On the contrary, the document makes explicit and repeated references to war and chemical and nuclear weapons attacks. Twenty-five years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a nuclear war on European soil is a real danger. NATO has systematically encircled and threatened Russia militarily. The Western alliance is openly preparing for war. German imperialism, which has already on two occasions plunged the world into the abyss, is playing a central role in this.

Together with Washington, Berlin played the leading role in the coup that overthrew the elected Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych in early and replaced him with a regime led by pro-Western oligarch Petro Poroshenko and based directly on fascist groups and militias. Operation Anaconda, which included 31, soldiers, 3, vehicles, aircraft and 12 ships, simulated a war with Russia. A month later, the NATO summit in Warsaw agreed to station several battalions and create a missile defence system in Romania and the Baltic states.

The military situation is now so tense that an incident, intended or not, could trigger an uncontrollable chain reaction. Factions within the US ruling elite pushing for a military confrontation with Russia are gaining strength. The agitation against Russia is assuming hysterical dimensions in Germany. Even Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier, who prepared the way for the return of German militarism and played a leading role in the Ukraine coup, is too soft for most of the media. The confrontation with Russia is not the only source of conflict threatening war.

In the Syrian war, where the front lines are increasingly difficult to identify, the US and its allies are preparing a military escalation that could expand into a confrontation with Russia, a nuclear power. Germany is also on the front lines here. The same applies to the imperialist wars in other parts of the Middle East and Africa. With the crisis of the European Union, national antagonisms are breaking out once again in Europe.

On the contrary, both opposition parties in the Bundestag, the Left Party and the Greens, are inciting it further. The PSG has placed the struggle against war at the heart of its election campaign in the Berlin state elections and clearly identified the cause of the war danger—the global crisis of capitalism. Ne paniquez pas. Le burkini! Il existe six de ces textes. Nous y voici. Eugene Victor Debs , Petit Robert. Les bailleurs de fonds milliardaires se font rares en ces temps difficiles.

Traduction par Daniel pour Mondialisation. Turkey shelled Syrian Kurdish forces in the region this week, determined not to let them fill the vacuum if Daesh leaves. The concern in Ankara is that the Kurds could create an autonomous area close to the border which might foster Kurdish separatism within Turkey itself.

The Turkish town of Karkamis — just across the border from Jarablus — was evacuated as a precaution following earlier Daesh mortar attacks. Moscow and Ankara only mended ties in June after punitive Russian sanctions. In , the Kremlin denounced the proliferation of foreign associations in Russia, some of which would have participated in a secret plan, orchestrated by the National Endowment for Democracy NED , to destabilise the country. It claims that the US Congress can subsidize NED and that NED can, in turn and wholly independently, help directly or indirectly, associations, political parties or trade unions, working in this sense anywhere in the world.

The crux of the matter lies here: NED and the network of NGOs that it finances: are they initiatives of civil society unjustly repressed by the Kremlin or covers of the US Secret Services caught red-handed in interference? In order to respond to this question, we are going to return to the origins and function of NED. They considered themselves the missionaries of a political model. The US, as a people, subscribes to the ideology of their founding fathers.

They think of themselves as a colony that has come from Europe to establish a city obeying God. The US would be a model nation, shining on top of a hill, illuminating the entire world. And all other people in the world would hope to emulate this model to reach their well-being. While Saint Mathew envisaged propagating faith exclusively through the example of a righteous life, the founding fathers of the United States thought of illumination and propagating their faith in terms of regime change. In their eyes, it is all the more legitimate to topple a government that has the ambition to take the form of a model which is different from theirs and thus evil.

In the same way, they are persuaded that due to the messianic mission that has been thrust upon them, they have arrived to impose democracy by force in the countries that they have occupied. For example, at school they learn that GIs brought democracy to Germany. They do not know that history indicates quite the opposite: their government helped Hitler to topple the Republic of Weimar and set up a military regime to fight the Soviets.

From this point of view, the United States is not a democracy but a hybrid system where executive power is returned to the oligarchy, while the people limit its arbitrary exercise through legislative and judicial powers that can check it. Indeed, while the people elect Congress and some judges, it is the states of the federation that elect executive power and the latter appoints the high judges.

Although citizens have been called to determine their choice of president, their vote on this matter only operates as a ratification, as the Supreme Court pointed out in , in Gore v. The US Constitution does not recognize that the people are sovereign, because power is divided between them and a federation of states, in other words, between the leaders of the community. But it is difficult to see how it could export something it does not possess and does not wish to have at home. For the last thirty years, this contradiction has been supported by NED and given specific form through destabilizing a number of States.

On this consensual basis of the struggle against tyranny, a commission of bipartisan reflection sponsored the establishment of NED at Washington. This was established by Congress in November and immediately financed. The Foundation subsidizes four independent structures that redistribute money abroad, making it available to associations, trade unions and members of the ruling class, and parties on the right and left.

They are:. Presented in this manner, NED and its four tentacles appear to be anchored in civil society, reflecting social diversity and political pluralism. Funded by the US people, through Congress, they would have worked to a universal ideal. They would be completely independent of the Presidential Administration. And their transparent action could not be a mask for secret operations serving undeclared national interests. This means it is not responding to grandiloquent presidential ambitions but precedes them.

This strange concept is in keeping with the US model: an economic and financial oligarchy imposes its political choices through the markets and a federal state, while parliamentarians and judges elected by the people protect individuals from arbitrary government. This was set up at the end of the Second World War even though it changed its name in when its subordination to the CIA was unmasked. Furthermore, although NED is an association under US law, it is not a tool of the CIA alone, but an instrument shared with British services which is why Reagan announced its creation in London and the Australian services.

This key point is often glossed over without comment. NED and its tentacles are organs of an Anglo-Saxon military pact linking London, Washington and Canberra; the same goes for Echelon, the electronic interception network. To conceal this reality, NED has stimulated among its allies the creation of similar organizations that work with it. The functioning of this public body is modelled on NED: its administration is entrusted to political parties eight delegates: three for the Conservative Party; three for the Labour Party; and one for the Liberal Party and one for the other parties represented in Parliament.

WFD has done a lot of work in Eastern Europe. This office is EuropAid, led by a high official as powerful as he is unknown: the Dutchman, Jacobus Richelle. When US parliamentarians voted for the establishment of NED on 22 November , they did not know that it already existed in secret pursuant to a Presidential Directive dated 14 January. One of these is tasked with leading NED. Henry Kissinger, administrator of the NED.

To maintain appearances, it has been agreed that, as a general rule, CIA agents and former agents could not be appointed to the board of directors. Things are nonetheless no more transparent. Such are the examples of Henry Kissinger, Franck Carlucci, Zbigniew Brzezinski, or even Paul Wolfowitz; personalities that will not remain in history as idealists of democracy, but as cynical strategists of violence. Furthermore, the Foundation receives money indirectly money the CIA, after it has been laundered by private intermediaries such as the Smith Richardson Foundation, the John M.

Today, such an estimation is impossible. Nonetheless, certain elements we know give us an idea of its importance. During the last five years, the United States has spent more than one billion dollars on associations and parties in Libya, a small state of 4 million inhabitants. Furthermore, the equivalent programme of the European Union that is entirely public and provides for the integration of US actions, is 7 billion euro per year.

In essence, it is not an independent organization for legal actions previously entrusted to the CIA, but it is a window through which the NSC gives the orders to carry out legal elements of illegal operations. They have simply displaced the Trotsky vulgate by applying it to the cultural battle analysed by Antonio Gramsci: power is exercised psychologically rather than by force.


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To govern the masses, the elite has to first inculcate an ideology that programmes their acceptance of the power that dominates it. It has replaced the previous organizations that served during the Cold War to organize non-communist trade unions in the world, from Vietnam to Angola, by-passing France and Chile. The fact trade unions were chosen to cover this CIA programme is a rare perversity.

The latter will acknowledge financing its activities thanks to the CIA. This subsidiary was led by Irving Brown, a flamboyant personality, from until his death in Some authors swear that Brown was the son of a white Russian, a companion of Alexander Kerensky. What we know for sure, is that he was an OSS agent, i. However, he refused to lead it, preferring to focus on his area of expertise, trade unions. He was based at Rome, then Paris and never at Washington. So he had a significant impact on Italian and French public life.

One could have thought that things would have changed after this great outpouring. Nothing of the sort occurs. CIPE focuses on the dissemination of liberal capitalist ideology and the struggle against corruption. On the contrary, the heads of Davos would have much difficulty explaining why certain political leaders have chosen their Economic Forum as the locus for acts of the highest importance if there were not operations planned by the US NSC.

For example:. The connection between Washington and the Forum is notoriously through Susan K. Hershman, an officer of US military intelligence. Transparency International is first and foremost a cover for economic intelligence activities by the CIA. It is also a media tool to compel states to change their legislation to guarantee open markets.

The latter had put in place a Committee of individuals that have contributed to creating the impression that it is an association born of civil society. The goal was evidently to sabotage the reputation of a company that constitutes the economic foundation of the anti — imperialist policy of President Hugo Chavez.

Caught in the act of poisoning, Transparency International refused to respond to questions from the Latin American press and to correct its report. So these two personalities should not be considered ordinary politicians, a leader of the opposition and a retired dean. Rather, as active leaders of the NSC programmes. The first is chaired by the Australian, John Howard.

IRI and NDI are also supported also by political foundations linking them to big political parties in Europe six in Germany, two in France, one in the Netherlands and another one in Sweden. Furthermore, some operations have been sub-contracted to mysterious private companies such as Democracy International Inc which has organized the recent rigged elections in Afghanistan.

He came to France to organise the primaries of the Socialist Party. All this leaves a bitter taste. The US has corrupted most of the big political parties and trade unions all over the world. The electoral campaigns have become shows where NED picks the cast by providing the necessary financial means to some and not to others. Even the notion of variation has lost meaning since NED promotes alternatively one camp or another provided it follows the same foreign and defense policy.

Today, in the European Union and elsewhere, one laments the crisis of democracy. Surely not as a democracy. To achieve sound management, a number of studies have been commissioned to quantify the impact of these financial flows. Experts have compared the sums allocated in each state and the democratic ranking of these states by Freedom House. Then they calculated how much they needed to spend in dollars per inhabitant to improve the democratic ranking of a State by a point. Of course, all this is only an attempt at self-justification.

The idea of establishing a democratic mark is not scientific. In some ways, it is totalitarian, for it assumes that there is only one form of democratic institutions. In other ways, it is infantile for it established a list of disparate criteria which it will measure with fictional coefficients to transform a social complexity into a single figure. Furthermore, the vast majority of these studies conclude that it is a failure: although the number of democracies in the world has increased, there would be no link between democratic progress and regression on the one hand and the sums spent by the NSC on the other.

On the contrary, it confirms that the real objectives have nothing to do with those indicated. Thus it is not surprising that this individual study has been financed by …. Be that as it may, in , on its twentieth anniversary, NED drew up a political account of its action, evidencing that it has financed more than 6, political and social organizations in the world, a figure that has not stopped increasing from that time.

Charged with spying, the NED leaders are tried. The documents prove that NED is wholly responsible for and manipulated the pseudo revolution that took place in Tahrir Square. This resulted in more than 4, deaths to hoist the Muslim Brotherhood to power. After experiencing global success, the rhetoric of democratization no longer convinces. By using it in all circumstances, President George W. Bush has depleted it of meaning. Noone can seriously claim that the subsidies paid by NED will make international terrorism go away. The claim that the US troops have toppled Saddam Hussein to offer democracy to Iraqis, cannot be asserted more persuasively.

Furthermore, citizens all over the world that fight for democracy have become distrustful. They now understand that the aid offered by NED and its tentacles is in fact aimed at manipulating and snaring their country. Also, US heads from different channels of corruption have tried to silence the system once again. After the CIA dirty tricks and the transparency of NED, they envisage creating a new structure that would replace a discredited package.

Aïe Aïe Aïe !

It would not be managed by trade unions, management and the two big parties, but by multinationals on the model of the Asia Foundation. In the eighties, the press revealed that this organization was a CIA cover to fight communism in Asia. It was then reformed and its management was entrusted to multinationals. This re-styling was enough to give the impression that it was non- governmental and respectable — a structure that never stopped serving the CIA.

After the dissolution of Russia, it was replicated: the Eurasia Foundation, whose mandate extends covert action to the New Asian states. The first option offers better legal cover but the second is a much more efficient tool of corruption. Given this panorama, the requirement laid down by Vladimir Putin and Vladisl Surkov to regulate the funding of NGOs in Russia is legitimate even if the bureaucracy they have set up for doing so is outrageous and difficult to satisfy.

The instrument of NED, put in place under the authority of the US NSC not only fails to support attempts at democracy all over the world but poisons them. The decision to allow the terrorists to flee to Turkey was handed down by the Pentagon. Chris Garver, a spokesman for the U. He said there were civilians in each of the vehicles, and the military wanted to avoid casualties. Questions regarding the photos were also raised due to the fact that the U. In November, , as the United States invaded Afghanistan and closed in on al-Qaeda, thousands of top commanders and members of the Taliban and al-Qaeda, their Pakistani advisers including Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agents and army personnel, were airlifted from Kunduz.

It was said at the time the US missed an opportunity to kill some bad buys, never mind the airlift was conducted by the Pakistan Air Force and orchestrated by the Inter-Services Intelligence, which was at the time cooperating closely with the CIA. Gary G. Kohls , August 24 Syrian land and airspace are sovereign state territory.


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No foreign power may deny its military or other aircraft from operating anywhere within its borders — or Russian planes and ground personnel invited by its government. Elaborately staged Hoax? New information on the Aleppo Boy story at the very least gives it the appearance of being an elaborately staged hoax. They mistakenly thought that he had a mental illness depression of unknown etiology. Hemingway, a legendary chronic alcoholic who consumed large volumes of hard liquor daily, had also been wounded by shrapnel in WWI so he probably also had physical pain issues.

Therefore, like many other soldier-victims of combat-induced PTSD he used alcohol to self-medicate his physical pain as well as his psychic pain, anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, failed marriages and the financial stresses related to the alimony payments to his ex-wives. There is no record of what psychiatric drugs he had been prescribed over the years, but ECT is typically only attempted after all drug options had failed.

He was treated with an cocktail of drugs for a month and, shortly after his discharge, committed suicide by hanging August 11, His discharge medications, which included the antidepressant drug Remeron, the anti-psychotic drug Seroquel probably prescribed off-label for his insomnia and an unknown anti-Parkinsonian drug caused him to be somnolent, despondent, despairing and increasingly depressed.

Remeron, it is helpful to remind readers, was one of the two psych meds the other was the anti-psychotic drug Haldol that the infamous Andrea Yates was taking before she irrationally drowned her five children — including her 6 month-old baby Mary — in the family bathtub. She is now spending the rest of her life in a psychiatric facility, no longer a threat to children.

I understand that a remake of the film is planned. I hope some of the real secrets will be revealed in the new film. Robin Williams left no suicide note, and so far Hazelden is mum on what happened behind closed doors during that fateful — and failed — month-long stay. What is also deserving of consideration is the fact that when patients abruptly quit taking an antipsychotic drug, withdrawal symptoms can occur — even if the drug was first prescribed for non-psychotic issues like insomnia.

Hollywood journalists swarmed all over the tragic event two years ago, but characteristically avoided even speculating about the possibility of psychiatric drug-induced suicide, the most logical explanation for the series of events, especially for any thinking person who knows anything about the connections between psychiatric prescription drugs and suidicality, homicidality, aggression, violence, dementia, and irrational thinking and actions whether while taking the drugs or withdrawing from them. Iatrogenic doctor-caused or prescription drug-induced causes of morbidity and mortality are apparently not to be discussed in polite company.

And there have been hundreds of dis-informational essays and website commentaries written by professional arm-chair psychiatrists who have financial or career conflicts of interest with Big Pharma, Big Psychiatry, Big Medicine and the rehab industries. Most of those commentaries distract readers from making the connections between suicidality and psych drugs. Some of the comments I have read have preemptively tried to discredit those who are publicly making those connections.

Whenever unexpected suicides or accidental drug overdose deaths occur among heavily drugged-up military veterans, active duty soldiers, Hollywood celebrities or other groups of individuals, I search the media — usually in vain — for information that identifies the drugs that are usually involved in such cases. But revealing the drug names, dosages, length of usage or who prescribed them seems to be a taboo subject. One has to read between the lines or wait until the information gets revealed at www. Patient confidentiality is usually the reason given for the cover-ups — and why important potentially teachable moments about these iatrogenic drug-induced or vaccine-induced tragedies are averted.

And, simultaneously, the altruistic whistle-blowers among us will be black-listed, denigrated and labeled as nuisance conspiracy theorists. The corporate entities mentioned above also know how useful it is if patients rather than the system are blamed for causing their own health problems. We wanted to know the names of the ingredients in the cocktail of drugs that had been tried on him and the dosages and length of time they were taken. We wanted to know what side effects he had from the drugs and what his responses were.

We wanted to know what was the reasoning behind the decision to prescribe unproven combinations of powerful drugs on someone whose brain was already compromised by the past use of known brain-damaging drugs. And we wanted to know, for the sake of past and future victims of these neurotoxic substances, if the prescribing practitioners informed Williams about the dangers of those treatments, particularly the black box suicide warnings for Remeron.

Robin Williams gained fame and fortune as a comic actor, starting with what was to become his trade mark manic acting style stimulant drug-induced mania? As have many other famous persons that attained sudden fame and fortune, Williams spent his millions lavishly and — in retrospect — often foolishly.

After his third marriage he found that he could no longer afford his Hollywood lifestyle. But long before his two divorces and the serious financial difficulties caused him to decompensate and again fall off the sobriety wagon, Robin Williams had lived in the fast lane, working long exhausting days and weeks and partying long exhausting nights with the help of stimulant drugs like the dependency-inducing drug cocaine that overcomes sleepiness and fatigue and artificial sleep-inducing tranquilizers whose mechanism of action resembles long-acting alcohol.

Sedative drugs artificially counter the drug-induced mania and drug-induced insomnia that predictably results from psycho-stimulants like cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, Ritalin, Strattera, Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa, Wellbutrin, Provigil, amphetamines, etc, etc. Williams had acknowledged that he was addicted to both cocaine and alcohol when his famous comedian buddy John Belushi died of an accidental drug overdose shortly after they had snorted cocaine together March 4, There is no public information about his use of addictive prescription drugs, but it is well-known that many Hollywood personalities like him have close relationships with both prescription-writing physicians and illicit drug pushers, many of whom make house calls.

However, Williams relapsed in and started abusing drugs and alcohol again, eventually being admitted to a Hazelden drug rehab facility in Oregon. He moved into a more modest, more affordable home in the San Francisco area, where he lived until his death. But despite solving his near-bankruptcy situation which would make any sane person temporarily depressed , Williams continued having a hard time paying the bills and making the alimony payments, so he was forced to go back to making movies which he despised doing because of the rigorous schedule and being away from his family for extended periods of time.

So when CBS cancelled the show in May , humiliation, sadness, anxiety and insomnia naturally set in, and he decided to go for professional help at the Minnesota Hazelden addiction facility, spending the month of July as an patient there. The public deserves to know what really happened inside that facility. We certainly deserve to know the full story. There are many painful lessons that can be learned. The psychiatric drug-taking public deserves to know what were the offending drugs that contributed to his pain, anguish, sadness, nervousness, insomnia, sleep deprivation, hopelessness and the seemingly irrational decision to kill himself.

For more information on the above very serious issues, check out these websites: www. See the seminal work of practicing psychiatrist Grace E. There are penalties for bartenders who serve underage drinkers who go on to have auto accidents while under the influence. There are penalties for street corner drug pushers who supply their junkies with dangerous illicit drugs, and there are penalties for the drug lords who are at the top of the drug supply chain. The very profitable industries of Big Pharma, Big Psychiatry, Big Medicine and drug rehabilitation are all very interested in de-emphasizing all unwelcome truths about the lethality of their products and thus they successfully prevent them from being aired in the mainstream media.

Drug withdrawal commonly causes patients to become irrational, violent or suicidal — realities that can occur at any time, even after the drug has long disappeared from the blood. The lessons are numerous and the teachers are available, but they are censored-out of our corporate-dominated media system. Spread the word. Dr Kohls is a retired physician who practiced holistic, non-drug, mental health care for the last decade of his family practice career. The operation includes not only Turkish military forces, but also throngs of Western-backed militants who will likely be handed control of the city before expanding operations deeper into Syria against Syrian government forces.

US Vice President Joseph Biden made an official visit to Turkey just this week in what was the highest level visit by a US representative since the attempted coup in July. Biden, who visited Latvia on Tuesday, will look to show support with Turkey, while raising concern about the extent of the crackdown, according to officials. And quite to the contrary of those changes one would expect Turkey to make if truly the US engineered this coup to oust, not abet Erdogan, Turkey is very likely to double down on hostility toward neighboring Syria and its allies.

With Turkey now moving into northern Syria, backing militant forces that will go on to fight Syrian forces and prolong the conflict from a new forward base of operations inside Syria and with NATO protection, this is precisely what has now happened. Currently, these operations are launched from Turkish territory itself. The participation of US airpower in the ongoing operation also makes clear the lack of strategic and political depth of US loyalty to its supposed Kurdish allies, a betrayal in motion even as Kurdish forces are being marshalled and directed against Syrian forces by the US in eastern Syria.

This may lead to the creation of safe-havens and humanitarian corridors, which would have to be backed by limited military power. This would, of course, fall short of U. From that starting point, however, it is possible that a broad coalition with the appropriate international mandate could add further coercive action to its efforts.

This is now precisely what is being created, starting in Jarabulus, and likely to extend westward toward Azaz, directly north of the contested Syrian city of Aleppo. Since , various pretexts have been invented, abandoned and then revisited in order to justify a cross-border operation like the one now unfolding. This included Ankara itself plotting attacks on its own territory to look like cross-border terrorism that could be used as impetus for the creation of a Turkish-controlled Jarabulus-Azaz corridor.

It may just be a coincidence that a similar provocation unfolded just ahead of the current Turkish cross-border operation. A bombing on Saturday night at a Kurdish wedding in Gaziantep, a Turkish town near the Syrian border, was one of the deadliest in a string of terrorist attacks that have struck Turkey. Since June , Kurdish and Islamic State militants have staged at least 15 major attacks across Turkey, killing more than people.

In the aftermath of the July coup, many were hopeful Turkey would realign itself geopolitically and play a more constructive and stabilising role in the region. Instead, while citing the threat of the Islamic State and Kurdish forces along its border, a threat that its own collusion with US and Persian Gulf States since helped create, Turkey has decisively helped move forward a crucial part of US plans to dismember Syria and move its campaign of North African and Middle Eastern destabilisation onward and outward.

What, if any actions could be taken to prevent the US and its allies from achieving their plans remain to be seen. While the toppling of the government in Damascus looks unlikely at the moment, the Balkanisation of Syria was a secondary objective always only ever considered by US policymakers as a mere stop gap until eventually toppling Damascus as well. Conceding eastern and parts of northern Syria to US-led aggression will only buy time. Les exercices militaires impliquent environ Les Etats-Unis ont Et pourquoi seulement les trois Grands? Il me semble que ni M. Anyhow, the prevailing narrative among multipolar supporters appears to be one of grief and despair, with Facebookers pulling their hair out over how stupid Russia apparently was to trust Turkey and work on helping it pivot towards Eurasia.

To explain, as of the moment of writing Knihovna, VIII. ISBN: 8. Studies in honour of Cyril Mango presented to him on April 14, Edited by Ihor Sevcenko and Irmgard Hutter. Prix: DEM. La bibliografia, curta da M. VI assume il valore di celebrazione della vita eterna, simboleggiata dal vino eucaristico. Nel campo dei miracula Susan A. Nel mondo monastico si muovono Alexander P.

Kazhdan e Lee F. A sua volta Nicolas Oikonomides approfondisce lo specifico del vassallaggio bizantino nei sec. Robert W. Cairo Masp. V Altri otto studi affrontano aspetti letterari e stori- co-giuridici del mondo bizantino con utilizzo di fonti manoscritte; sono pertanto oggetto di segnalazione particolareggiata nel BC. Squisitamente paleografiche sono le riflessioni di Paul Canart sulla scrittura cipriota, letterarie quelle di Elizabeth Jeffreys, nel campo codicologico Hunger ed Irmgard Hutter, con importanti im- plicazioni di archeologia urbana Peter Schreiner, agiografiche e religiose Bernard Flusin e David H.

Wright, storico-librarie Alan Cameron. Agapitos Panagiotis A. Byzantine and Greek Philologists in the Nineteenth Century. Classica et mediaevalia, 43, , p. The author's main aim is to delineate a tentative approach towards investigating the reception of language and literature by Greek in the 19th century and the consequence of. In this respect, the author analizes Greek editions in the 19th century of three 14th-century anonymous vernacular romances: the edition of Li- bistros and Rhodamne based on Paris, BNF, gr. Agosti Gianfranco. Nonno, Parafrasi E e la descrizione di edifici nella poesia tar- doantica.

Prometheus, 24, , p. Florence, B. Alves Dias Maria Manuela. Euphrosyne, 27, , p. Amiet Robert. Andorlini Isabella. Angelo Poliziano. Stuttgart- Leipzig, B. Aussi les codicologues n'y trouveront-ils pas de questions qui les concernent directement. Prix: FrFr. C'est de cette Cosmographia que Jolivet. Armstrong Lawrin. Mediaeval 61, , p. Vers le milieu du XIVe s. The Art of the Book. Its Place in Worship. Edited by Margaret M. Manion and Bernard J. Nero A. II und BL, Cotton ms. Galba A. Margaret M. Es handelt sich um die Handschriften Bibl.

Untersucht werden Text- und Ausstat- tungstypen sowie deren Herkunft und spezifische Funktion. Manions Untersuchung gilt der historisierten Initiale mit der Himmelfahrt Maria f. Comunale Augusta, ms. Vera F. Vines behandelt am Beispiel von im Exemplarisch wird das Ausstat- tungssystem des Missale beschrieben im Kontext der Bildtradition des Buchtyps. Die subtile Analyse der ikonographischen Typen und ihrer Vorbilder sowie der Textzusammenstellung legen eine Anfertigung fur Notre-Dame de Paris oder eine seiner Kollegiats- kirchen nahe.

Als Grundlage dienen insbesondere die im Eichberger kommt zu dem Ergebnis, da 3 sich fur Andachtsdiptychon und An- dachtsbuch vergleichbare Funktionen im Kontext der privaten Andacht belegen lassen, was sich auch in der gegenseitigen Beeinflussung der spezifischen Bildthemen und -formate manifestiert. Par Servant. Avec le concours du Centre national du livre. Paris, Ed. Cahiers d'histoire du Livre, 3. Prix: FRF. Nys et A. Cette regroupe les peintres, les tailleurs d'images sculpteurs et les brodeurs. Quelques illustrations en couleurs et en noir et blanc prennent place dans le cahier central.

Arweiler Alexander. Das Gelehrten- mahl. Buch I-VI. Eingeleitet und iibersetzt von Claus Friedrich. Kommentiert von Thomas Nothers. Bibliothek der Griech- ischen Literatur, hrsg. Kaibel BT, 3 vol. Gulick Loeb, 7 vol. XXIX s. Abteilung I. Christliche Mystik. Dans des longues pages l'a. V Autobiografia nel Medioevo. Centro Italiano di Studi sul Basso Medioevo. Prix: ITL. Tillette, p. Au contraire, A. Enfin, Fr. Certaines sont encore plus ponctuelles, comme celle M. Une autre voie s'impose alors: la recherche des. Avril J. Backhouse Janet. Badia L. Baldissin Molli Giovanna.

Note bio- grafiche su alcuni artisti veronesi del Settecento. Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova, 83, , p. Il vol. Infatti alla fine di ogni scritto contenuto in questo tomo il. Viene ricordato anche l'ar- chitetto Girolamo Dal Pozzo, noto al De Lazara in quanto possedeva copia dei suoi due trattati: Del modo di ridurre in moite parti alla forma degli antichi le teatri moderni e Degli ornamenti delFarchitettura secondo gli antichi.

Barigazzi Adelmo. Barron Caroline M. Bartels Ulrich und Wolf Jurgen. Hand- schriftenfunde zur Literatur des Mittelalters, Zeitschrift fur deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur, , , S.

Inde : les musulmans et les chrétiens dans le viseur des ultranationalistes hindous

Das noch vor Mitte des Jahr- hunderts datierte Fragment wird beschrieben und diplomatisch abgedruckt. Aufierdem ist ein Gesamt-. Fol- gende Hss und weiteren Fragmente werden ge- nannt: Amberg, Staatsarchiv, o. Bartolucci Lidia. Quaderni di lingue e letterature 22 , p. Le premier, portant sur le ms. Le ms. Le second article, sur le ms. Mme constate que la version italienne de la Lettre dans ce ms.

Bartz Gabriele. Der Boucicaut-Meister. Ein unbekanntes Stundenbuch. Studien und Monographien, Hrsg. Prix: CHF Die Autorin hat die Analyse der Handschrift zu einer Kurzmonographie zum ausgebaut, wobei die Schwerpunkte der Untersuchung im Bereich der Organisation und Ab- grenzung der Werkstatt liegen. Baumstark Reinhold. Baxter Ron. Bestiaries and their Users in the Middle Ages. Price: GBP. Bestiaries have had a good press in recent years, not in the least by art historians, and this study is no exception. In spite of the all-encompassing title, Baxter's focus is firmly on the Latin bestiaries of the so-called First, Second and Third Families the Fourth Family, if such it may be called, is never mentioned , and more particularly on those which were produced in England.

In the first three chapters Baxter reviews the scholarship and traces the development of the starting with the Latin Physiologus, Versio B, on which the later English Latin bestiaries were based. The Physiologus, it is argued, is not just a rather loosely organized work in which Christ and the devil play a dominant role, but a tightly organised treatise made up of eight thematic groups all of which deal with a specific aspect of Christ, such as his divinity leo, autolops, lapides igniferi and serra , his rejection by the Jews caladrius, pel- licanus, nycticorax, aquila and the like.

By adding new material the later bestiaries change the nature of the original work, moving away from the purely theological contents in the direction of a more compilation which, it is argued later, from the essentially oral discourse of the Physiologus and makes it more suitable for private study. This is not to say that the development is a uniform or even a linear one.

The Second, and largest, Family of bestiaries is only referred to in passing. An interesting result of examination of the First Family of bestiaries is the suggestion of a new subdivision among the B-Is subgroup in which one should distinguish between manuscripts related to Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud Misc. This refinement Baxter to trace the stemma of the Morgan. Group of bestiaries those bestiaries which are all or indirectly related to New York, Pierpont Morgan, Ms.

M 81 to Stowe, rather than Laud which used to be regarded as the exemplary manuscript of this subgroup. That the development of bestiaries and hence their use is not the same for all bestiaries is revealed by the Third Family which represents a heavily reorganised version of a Second Family similar to Douce 88 I and one which owes its structure to the classification of animals as found in the food laws of Leviticus and Deuteronomy and arrangement in book twelve of his Etymologiae, both of which, it is argued, can be traced back to the Creation myth of Genesis.

Moreover, the heavy of the Third Family on the Pantheologus the reorganisation took place in the south-east of England. The actual readers and of consumption form the subject of the second half of the book. One important aspect of Baxter's research concerns speculations about where the important centre of production of English Latin bestiaries may have been. In contrast to Xenia Muratova, who argues for such a centre in the north of England Lincoln , Baxter favours the south-east Canterbury. His arguments are based on the known bestiary distribution on the basis of survivals and booklists fig.

This same evidence reveals the particular popularity of the bestiary among the Cistercians, and thus confirms the of Father Morson in his study of the of the bestiary on Cistercian sermons. Medieval book catalogues and companion texts with which some bestiaries appear in manuscripts can also tell us something about the medieval perception of the genre of bestiaries.

Baxter pursues both approaches and concludes that by and large bestiaries are found shelved and bound up with works of theology and vices, sermons, vitae, Biblical narratives , although on occasion they are also found in a context together with lapidaries medical works. What is still badly needed, however, is a thorough study of the textual tradition of the Second Family of Baxter's interpretation of the Physiologus in terms of eight themes is interesting but ultimately fails to convince if only because it is based on a reading of the text.

Moreover, the inevitably rests on the assumption that the order of chapter in the Physiologus is relatively a premise which cannot be maintained for the Greek versions and is less than certain for the Latin ones since so few copies survive. The that the Creation myth, not to mention the Mosaic laws form the basis of Isidore's classification of animals which in turn influenced the Third order I do not find convincing, if only because Isidore's classification appears to be more indebted to Pliny than to Leviticus or Deuteronomy.

In the main body of the text there is some evidence that the thesis on which this study is based was not revised as thoroughly as one might have expected compare for example the reference to chapter 4 in n. In to these minor points a number of factual have crept into the text.

Baxter, for example, justifies his dating of the Physiologus to o. However, the is a forgery rather than the work of Pope Gelasian d. His subsequent argument that the ascription to Hugo de Folieto is unlikely since antedates the known works of Hugo is difficult to understand since there is no relationship between Book II and Hugo de Folieto.

Baxter's finding does, however, cast doubt on McCulloch's assumption that Book II of De bestiis originally formed a whole with. Most vexatious of all is Baxter's uncharitable attitude towards older critics; yet, despite an impression given to the contrary, his own study is much indebted to them, particularly to the work of McCulloch who has to bear the brunt of his indignation.

Randall betrays the same unprofessionalism that he accuses others of in his review of the in chapter one. More serious than his of older critics is Baxter's reliance on old studies to make some of his points at the expense of more recent work on bestiaries and related texts. Clark and Mera- dith T. McMunn, with its useful overview of bestiary manuscripts cf.

ISBN: 2- L'ordre de Grandmont naquit d'un ermitage, celui d'Etienne de Muret. Il n'y a pas, dans ce recueil, de de codicologie proprement dite. Bees Nikos A. Voir nos , Beckers Hartmut. Suze minne gib mir rat. Zeitschrift fur deutsche Philologie, , , S. Millier I 9 , das hier erstmals publiziert wird. Motivlich bemerkens- wert ist die Betonung des vorbildlichen Minneritter- tums griechischer und trojanischer Helden.

Bellagente Elisabetta. La Chronica de sex aetatibus di Claudio vescovo di Torino. Ae- vum 73, , p. Becquet Dom Jean. Berschin Walter. Karl der Grosse und sein Nachwirken. Butzer, M. Kerner und W. Turnhout, Brepols, , p. Paris, BNF, gr. Londres, BL, Add. Koehler — F. Mii- therich. Berlioz Jacques. Ein Dichterblatt des XI. Jahrhunderts aus Lorsch. Studi e Testi, , , p. Tuitilo de Saint-Gall et au XIe s. Comme le Pal. Bertelli Sandro.

Bertelsmeier-Kierst Christa , Hein- zle Joachim. Zeit- schrift fur deutsche Philologie, , , S. J UB, Ms. Gallen, Trier, Wien und B. Bertelsmeier-Kierst Christa. Wer re- zipiert Boccaccio? Zur Adaption von Boccaccios Werken in der deutschen Literatur des Eine unbekannte Erstausgabe von Wyles 'Guiscard und Sigismunda' '. Zeitschrift fur deutsches und deutsche Literatur, , , S. Bianchi Simone. Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica. Ritman Library, Amsterdam Association de Bibliophilie. Binkley Peter. Preachers responses to thirteenth-century encyclopaedism. Pre-Modern encyclopaedic texts Blicke in verborgene Schatzkammern.

Mit- telalterliche Handschriften und Miniaturen aus Hamburger Sammlungen. Juli Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg. Hamburg, Dr. Schriften aus dem Antiquariat Dr. Dickmann et H. Blockley Mary. Caedmons Caedmon's Hymn 7a Revisited. Speculum, 73, 1, , p. Les mss auxquels l'a. Publique, Q. Blockmans Wim. Bobzin Hartmut. Bibliotheksfo- rum Bayern, 27, , S.

Ge- nannt werden: Cod. Digby manuscripts, 1. A reproduction of the catalogue by W. Notes on Macray's Descriptions of the Manuscripts by f B. Prix: GBP. ISBN: X. Elle comportait la description des offerts en par ce bibliophile p. Elle figure ici sous forme anasta- tique. Les p. Van den Bergen-Pantens. Boeken van Oranje-Nassau. De bibliotheek van de graven van Nassau en prinsen van Oranje in de vijftiende en zestiende eeuw.

Anne S. Kor- teweg. La localisation de la n'est pas connue. Bompaire Jacques. Bonaventura Enza. Borkopp Birgitt. Boudet Jean-Patrice. Bouhot Jean-Paul. Bourgain Pascale. Bracke Wouter. Braet Herman. Scheidegger avec la collaboration de Sabine Girardet et Eric Hicks. Paris, Champion, , p. Branca Vittore. La sapienza civile. Stu- di suit Umanesimo a Venezia. Florence, Leo. Prix: Londres, BL, ; 2.

Ermolao Barbaro in Francia, b. Ermolao Barbaro e l'uso del volgare nel carteggiare, c. Bredero Adriaan H. Bernard de Clair- vaux Culte et Histoire. Bernard, l'a. Le premier Paris, BNF, lat. Brefeld Josephie. Brinkmann Bodo. Textband - Tafelband. Ars Nova. Prix: BEF. Die vorliegende Publikation verdient in mehrfa- cher Hinsicht als monumental bezeichnet zu wer- den. Das gilt z.

In der Tat fiigt sich z. Dies hat der Verf. Die weiter oben geschilderte Sachlage bringt es mit sich, dafi fur das Oeuvre des Dresdener Meisters als Buchmaler keine sensationellen Neuentdeckun- gen zu erwarten waren. Wo immer Miniaturen Meisters auftauchten, wurden sie sofort erkannt und zugeordnet.

Maria von Burgund? Margarethe von York? Brinkmann eine These anzubieten. Sie basiert auf der schon friiher vorgebrachten Vermutung, das Stundenbuch sei fiir Margarethe von York bestimmt gewesen wo- bei der Ordnung halber festgehalten werden mufi, da! Hypothesen, eindeu- tig als solche formuliert, sind in diesen Fallen weit konstruktiver als all die vermeintlichen Gewifihei- ten, die dann doch immer wieder und manchmal sehr rasch revidiert werden miissen.

Dabei hat man nebenbei auch noch z. Zuschreibung einzelner Randdekorationen an diesen Meister doch die Grenze dessen, was Stilkritik zu leisten vermag, erreicht sein S. Entschieden abzulehnen ist jedenfalls die Zuschreibung der Evangelistenbilder und der Minia- tur mit dem Einzug in Jerusalem Abb.

Brinkmanns eine breitere und kon- krete Basis bekommen. Das betrifft nicht nur den Dresdener Meister. Brown Michelle P. Brown Virginia. Elle ainsi une liste d'environ trois cents specimens. Ce sont principalement des mss d'usage liturgique. Rilliani Inc. Brubaker Leslie. Vision and Meaning in ninth-century Byzantium.

Image as Exegesis in the Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus. Cambridge Studies in Palaeography and Codicology. ISBN: 0- L'introduction du livre de p. Elle redit l'importance des folios d'introduction f. Ce grand ms. Index C, p. Aux p. Ensuite les p. La conclusion p.

Enfin, une bibliographie abondante occupe les p. Bryer Anthony. Buchinger Wilma. Bugslag James. Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte, 61, , p. Cette recherche tire parti des de plusieurs mss. Buonocore Marco. Nuove acquisizioni di manoscritti ovidiani. Giornale italiano di filologia, 46, , p. Recensio Horatiano- rum codicum, qui in bibliotheca apostolica vati- cana asservantur.

Украина заняла 7 место в мире по количеству убитых за полгода журналистов

Giornale italiano di filologia, 45, , p. Burman Thomas E. Speculum, 73, 3, , p. Au XIIe s. Burmeister Heike A. Marburger Fund- und Reiseberichte. In dem Beitrag werden einige bedeutende Funde der jungsten Vergangenheit vorgestellt. II 3 identifiziert werden, fur den Typus dieser Hs. Zu den friihen Regelhandschriften im Zentralarchiv des Deutschen Ordens. Berlin, SB, Ms. Jahrhunderts datiert. I zu ei- nem gleichgewichtig lateinisch-deutsch verfafiten Gebetbuch aus dem ersten Viertel des The Byzantine Achilleid. The Naples Introduction, critical edition and by Ole L.

Smith f. Edited and prepared for publication by Panagiotis A. Agapitos and Karin Hult. Kommission fur. Institut fur Byzantinistik u. Prix: ATS Agapitos et de K. La publication se termine sur une bibliographie et un index des noms propres et des mots contenus en N. ISSN: Le principe sert le prestige de la revue et rassure les collaborateurs. Calore Andrea. XV in contrada S. Agostino a Padova. Bollet- tino Museo Civico di Padova, 85, , p. XIV all'inizio del sec.

XVI, sulla famiglia proprietaria. E' proprio Muzio ad essere citato nel ms. Famiglie di Padova. Alla famiglia venne riconosciuto, da quanto ricavato dai documenti ar- chivistici, il titolo di conti palatini da Federico III e l'investitura del feudo di Altura. South Lib. Cardiff 2. L'autre, de P. A iii et Cardiff Central Lib. Hafod, 1. Camden William. Cameron Alan. Basilius, Mavortius, As- terius.

Studies in honour of Cyril Mango Stuttgart-Leipzig, B. Teubner, , p. Chastagnol, risolve in quegli anni l'intervento del correttore sul coevo puteano. Nel raffronto con i codici di Virgilio in capitale rustica, ortografia, lessico e stile. LXXVI , contrariamente a quan- to sostenuto da molti. Altri codici citati: Paris, BNF, lat. Canart Paul. La miscellanea teologica ed ascetica del BAV, gr. Databile nel s. Canova Mariavi Giordana. Carruthers Leo. Carte di scena. A cura di Giovanna Lazzi. Firenze, Biblioteca Riccardiana 21 dicembre - 20 marzo Biblioteca Prix: ITL.

Carthy Caroline M. Zeitschrift fur Kunstge- schichte, 62, , p. Utilisation des images des mss Vatican, BAV, lat. Casado Quintanilla B. Casevitz Michel. Castelli Silvia. Manoscritti teatrali Biblioteca Riccardiana di Firenze. Catalogo ragionato. Castelli fournit pour chaque ms. Castelli recense aussi exemplaires du XVe Florence, B. Ricc, 1, , , , , , Castritius Helmut. Catalogo dei manoscritti Polironiani.

Biblioteca Comunale di Mantova mss. Bologna, Patron Editore, CXIV p. Cazier Pierre. Chase Colin. Actes du colloque international du CESR Le savoir de Mantice. Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. Marilynn Desmond ed. Medieval Geschlechterdebatten seit dem Royal L'approche choisie par C. En comparaison avec l'Ovide BNF, ms. Angelica, ms. Les articles de Mary Anne C. Case et de M. Leur approche diverge pourtant en ce que M. Finalement, signalons l'article de M.

Cimelia Sangallensia. Hundert Kostbarkei- ten aus der Stifsbibliothek St. Prix: CHF. La partie provient de Saint-Gall ou du sud de l'Allemagne entre autres Reichenau [num. Les mss les plus anciens. Par ailleurs, on note un num. Claassens Gert H. Ein Klever Totentanz? Neu entdeckte Fragmente. Jahrhundert entdeckt, die aus derselben Hs.

Nach der ausfuhrlichen dialektologischen Analyse ist der Text wahrschein- lich im Klever Raum anzusiedeln. Als vergleich- bare Rollen bzw. Cockshaw Pierre. Note sur De Dynter. Collodo Silvana. The Community, the Family and the Saint. Patterns of Power in Early Medieval Europe. Edited by Joyce Hill and Mary Swan. International Medieval Research, 4. Prix: Euro Condello Emma.

Tra Littera textualis e Littera bastarda: scritture e codici di Guillaume de Breuil. Scrittura e Civiltd, 19, , p. Actif pendant le dernier quart du XIVe s. Die conste vanden getale. Een studie over Nederlandstalige rekenboeken uit de vijftiende en zestiende eeuw, met een glossarium van reken- kundige termen. Marjolein Kool. The dissertation deals with arithmetic books in Middle Dutch, dating from roughly the half of the fifteenth, and the sixteenth century.

Kool has brought together a corpus of such arithmetic books. The twelve and twenty-four printed editions are all the until now known sources of this period. Some of them are copies or reprints of earlier works. The concentrates on two central research questions concerning this corpus p. Which kind of arithmetical instruction method was used in these books: what was taught, and how? What contribution did these books make to the development of the mathematics in general in the Netherlands, and to some aspects in particular, such as the development of the arithmetical terminology?

In this review it is of course impossible to sum up all the manuscripts and post- incunabula treated in this book. But one can distinguish several more or less important key-works from the others, and they will be listed here below. There are three fifteenth- century manuscripts which contain Middle Dutch arithmetic texts: Basel, UL, ms. B 20, p. K , p. B , p. One other sixteenth-century manuscript is Brussels, BR, ms. The most important post- incunabula are Amsterdam, UL, Ned. Plantin-Moretus, R The book is divided into eight chapters and several appendices.

The first chapter describes briefly the most important arithmetic developments in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Chapter two contains a description of the arithmetical instruction in the Netherlands in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The third and fourth chapters deal at length and in great detail with the contents of the Middle Dutch arithmetic books.

One of the most chapters is chapter five, where the target groups the autors had in mind are treated. The books were meant for a young, male audience. They used these books for their education as merchants or administrative practitioners. How complex the between the arithmetic books sometimes were, both in the Netherlands as in the surrounding is described in chapter six.


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  • Detailed diagrams,. The seventh chapter discusses the development of the Dutch arithmetical terminology in the sixteenth century. The processes of vernacularization of an original Latin terminology are convincingly The eighth and last chapter is merely a short explanation of the programme on the diskette which is appended to this study. It contains a glossary of all the arithmetical words and expressions that are found in the arithmetic books. The meaning of each word is given, and one can also read the quotations in which they are found. The diskette has proved to be a very substantial and well-organised supplement to the text of the dissertation for the curious reader.

    The sometimes complex contents of the book are enlivened by an exeptional by great number of mostly copies of textual parts of the works dealing with calculating and arithmetical rules , and of citations from the used works of the corpus. The show how imaginative the — one cannot put it otherwise — mostly rather dull calculations were presented to the readers.

    Beautiful examples are to be found on p. Citations and their word explanations seem to be very accurate, and are clearly from the main text by printing them in two In some cases Kool seems to slighly underestimate the reader though, when she gives the same word explanation more than once on one page see for instance p. Despite the very detailed pioneering that Kool has done on the Middle Dutch arithmetic books, her dissertation has some, mostly minor, A few of them should be named here.

    Of course these functions might well fall together in one but sometimes it would have been important to treat them separately, for determining the true of the relationships with the sources p. Kool has had to order her corpus in a way that is understandible and recognizable, and therefore she gave each book a signature, built up of a of three elements, containing letters and the numerals of the year of writing or printing.

    To be able to refer to and use such a system is but it would have been a lot more convenient for the reader to have introduced this system right- away, and not only near the end of the book on p. The author has made the choice to write her book in the present tense, which works quite surprising anyway. But nevertheless it could be respected, had it not been that Kool does not always stick to her choice, by which present tense and past tense alternate each other see for instance pp.

    Question-marks can also be put about the way in which some of her chapters are ordered. As an example chapter six, about the relations between the arithmetic books. This chapter is hierarchically ordered, from the central, most important textwit- nesses at the top, to the books they are related to at the bottom. But was it really necessary to give D-Man a subparagraph 6. Furthermore there are several small carelessnesses, such as the wrong place of several titles listed in Kools alphabetically ordered bibliography p. The last point to be made here is that Kool does mention that all manuscripts and prints are named in Jansen-Sieben's standard-work on medieval Dutch artes-literature see above , but she does not give the references to this work anywhere, which she should have done.

    But all in all this has no meaning for the of the book whatsoever. Die conste vanden ge- tale is to be considered as a magnificent, broadly orientated study, in which Kool with full knowledge has described many difficult subjects and themes, and has done her utmost to make them for a large, interested group of readers.

    Cordelier Dominique. Revue du Louvre, 3, , p. BF Les fragments de ce ms. Corpus der byzantinischen Miniaturen- handschriften. Oxford College libraries, von Irmgard Hutter. Depuis , I. Dans le premier, l'a. Corpus Christi College, 21, 25, 26, 27, 30, , , , , , et ; Keble College, rouleau 2, mss 4 et 52; Lincoln College, gr. Corpus Catalogorum Belgii. The Medieval booklists of the Southern Low Countries. Editor: Albert Derolez.

    Associate Ed. Victor, W. Bracke, M. Oosterbosch et J. Corradini Corrodo. Coulson Frank T. Classica et mediaevalia, 44, , p. Class, lat. Crown Alan David. Pour ces mss, on trouve dans l'index 70 noms de scribes. Elle se poursuit sur plusieurs feuillets et, lue de haut en bas, donne la date et le nom du scribe. D'Aiuto Francesco. Synod, gr. Quant aux faits historiques, l'a. A cela, l'a. Vaticano, gr. Enfin — et sans aucun doute est-ce l'apport le plus significatif de ce travail dans la perspective du BC — , l'a.

    Daly Peter M. La de l'abbaye au Moyen Age. La splendeur des Rolin. Enfin, le ms. Plus tardif, le ms. Dan Joseph. Dann Otto. D'Aranco M. Prix: USD.