Increased minimum and maximum temperatures, highly variable and shifting precipitation patterns, reduced amount of snowpack in the Sierras, and increased frequency and intensity of weather extremes such as heat waves and drought are examples of climate change indicators for the state.
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Impacts on agriculture include low chill hour accumulations, crop yield declines, increased pest and disease pressure, increased crop water demands, altered phenology of annual and perennial cropping systems, and uncertain future sustainability of some highly vulnerable crops. The detailed reviews on trends and impacts of climate change on California agriculture justify the importance and urgency for a stronger focus on enhancing the adaptive capabilities of agriculture to reduce vulnerability to climate change and gain substantial benefits. California agriculture is very diverse and since each crop responds to climate differently, climate adaptation research should be locally focused along with effective stakeholder engagement and systematic outreach efforts for more effective adoption and implementation.
Abstract - Recent boreal winters have exhibited a large-scale seesaw temperature pattern characterized by an unusually warm Arctic and cold continents. Whether there is any physical link between Arctic variability and Northern Hemisphere NH extreme weather is an active area of research. Using a recently developed index of severe winter weather, we show that the occurrence of severe winter weather in the United States is significantly related to anomalies in pan-Arctic geopotential heights and temperatures.
As the Arctic transitions from a relatively cold state to a warmer one, the frequency of severe winter weather in mid-latitudes increases through the transition. However, this relationship is strongest in the eastern US and mixed to even opposite along the western US. We also show that during mid-winter to late-winter of recent decades, when the Arctic warming trend is greatest and extends into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, severe winter weather —including both cold spells and heavy snows— became more frequent in the eastern United States.
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Climate Prediction Center. Polar Science Center.
The year finished out with an annually averaged sea ice volume that was the lowest on record with 12, km 3 , below for which the annually averaged volume was 13, km3. This was even though extent and sea ice thickness were at record lows during the early months of but anomalousy little melt for the recent years Fig 8 , brought the ice volume back above record levels.
Average Arctic sea ice volume in February was 18, km3. This value is about km3 above the previous February record that was set in with 17, km3. February ice volume sits right on the long term trend line. A relative increase in ice thickness over is also shown in CryoSat data. Ice thickness is particularly anomalous north of Greenland where a large Polynya open up during the second half of February due to strong off shore motion of sea ice brought about by unusual wind patterns.
Arctic Data archive system ADS. Antarctic sea ice extent. C'est si vrai, en riant avec What on earth? A Variation in the relationship between rate of Northern Hemisphere springtime land surface warming and latitude among successively more recent decadal periods beginning in , coinciding with the periods encompassed by the studies upon which estimates of phenological trends used in this analysis have been based. Figure 2. Extracted from Cal-Adapt interactive web portal [ 13 ]. Figure 5. Snow water equivalent time series for the observed and projected time-period. Figure 6. Historical and projected snow pack for the Sierra Nevada.
Rouch and Morin filmed their subjects for more than six months, accumulating over twenty-four hours of raw material which was edited into a ninety-minute feature.
Rouch Rouch replaced him with the Canadian cameraman Michel Brault, whose film Les Raquetteurs made a strong impact on Rouch due to its unusually fluid camerawork, certain sequences having been filmed while walking. Thus Chronique contains two categories of scenes: the initial fixed-camera sequences Viguier shot with a tripod-mounted Arriflex camera, and the later mobile ones filmed by Brault with the Coutant-Eclair.
As such, the film constitutes a precious document of French cinema in a state of change. Rouch however was more critical of what he produced, both in theory and in practice. Were you truthful or acting for the camera? Thus the central issue of the film is neither truth nor falsehood but the permeable border between life and art.
Godard firmly believed that all great films are characterised by the mix of documentary and fiction and would later incorporate themes and techniques found in Moi, un noir into his own feature films. Filmmaking was still based on the reconstruction of a proper scenario rather than as a spontaneous response to developing events in the real world Dilorio An intentional technique of making the camera shake to convey veracity was introduced.
As a consequence, film shooting became casual and fun, witnessing a return to the early cinematic practice of a two-person crew: the cinematographer and camera-operator. They took to the street and shot their films there, offering us a genuine record of Parisian life in the s when France was on the brink of an economic boom that made everyone enthral to the new rave of consumerism. The camera used on the project, a 35mm Cameflex, was noisy, relatively heavy and easily visible. Thus, to shoot Belmondo and Jean Seberg on the Champs Elisees, Godard had to hide his cinematographer Raul Coutard inside a mail-delivery pushcart and physically drag him up and down the street.
Coutard was a war reporter, which meant that he knew how to seize images in a split second and was familiar with the fastest and the most light-sensitive of stocks.
Even when tackling a musical comedy, the most unrealistic of genres Une femme est une femme , Godard chose to shoot in the most realistic of settings: in the apartment of an old couple in Strasbourg Saint Denis, one of the less fashionable quarters of Paris. In the end, due to the couple changing their minds at the last moment, Godard was forced to shoot in a studio MacCabe As studio shooting could not be further from a Bazinian aesthetic, Godard decided to reproduce the conditions of location shooting in the studio.
Thus the apartment he initially wished to shoot in was meticulously reconstructed, with immovable walls and ceilings and a real door. As to the sound, Godard recorded the real sound of the crew working and added it to the soundtrack, which again shows his great determination to capture reality in his films.
Like them, he is interested in capturing the fleeting moment, the very thing that makes cinema so beautiful and the reason for which it was invented. To the Rouchian observation of Paris, Godard added a hatred of perfection in shooting: he would knock the camera sideways if the shot had the appearance of a perfectly organised shot MacCabe , perfection being obviously at the opposite side of the spectrum of a realist aesthetic.
As already mentioned, Chronique is based on the Vertovian belief that cinema is truth, an idea that is introduced at the beginning of the film, but only to be subversively questioned at the end. Thus Chronique very seriously questions all attempts to claim truth status for representations of seen and heard phenomenal reality, including those of direct cinema to have automatic access to reality. From this point of view, any work of art includes its own critique, its own interpretation and biased understanding of reality.
This makes the concepts of naturalism and realism, that are based on the idea that art can express the objective truth, seem inadequate or even a fallacy. For instance, Antonioni believed that the truth can be better served by intelligent fiction than by recording factual reality. However a distinction should be made between the truth of something that already happened and the truth caught on the wing, as it expresses itself in the present, this latter notion being what the New Wave filmmakers wanted to capture above all. With his insistence that the raw material of any fiction must be drawn from the historical record and that the transformations of that material must form part of the subject matter of the work of art, Brecht sketched out one of the most powerful of modernist aesthetics.
Also Godard repeatedly insisted that the film is not about a prostitute, it is a film about a woman, prostitution being used as a metaphor for social situations and social exchanges in general Bergala She will fail however to do so and this is not a coincidence. In any work of art, form and content inform each other and work together to express the same idea and in a perfectly realised work of art, form is content. When we look at the film in more detail, other nuances that point in the same direction become apparent.
Thus the sense of intimacy is subverted and gradually replaced by a feeling of detachment, both of the main character and of the spectator. I like to think that I am a workman. To this effect, another sequence is extremely revealing: the scene between Nana and the philosopher Brice Parain, invited to play himself and who therefore appears in the fiction as himself. Similarly to the conclusion reached by the participants at the end of Chronique , Godard demonstrates that within the frame of the camera it is impossible not to act, which calls into question the authenticity of any subject.
The soundtrack in Vivre sa vie is also treated in a very unrealistic manner. Throughout the film, Godard used music in a very interesting way and and an analysis of the timing of the visual and aural sequences suggests that he aimed to give his raw material a high degree of form, to impose abstraction on realistically shot material e. This carefully worked-out choreography for the camera is abstract in the sense that it does not correspond to any dramatic or expressive necessity.
From Vivre sa vie onwards Godard does not content himself with simply capturing and glorifying everyday life.
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Like all great artists, Godard is successful at reconciling these opposites, reality and abstraction, and his greatest films are built on the unavoidable tensions between the two Roud Writing with the camera. Similar to Rouch and Godard, Varda also strongly believed in the power of the real. It faudrait cinq cameras qui marchent tout le temps et filment tout. This derives from her natural inclination for documentaries. Her films are solidly anchored in reality, she pays attention to the way people live and seems on the lookout for revealing details of their lives.
This lends an objectivity to her feature films and makes them reflect contemporary issues and concerns. Moreover, many scenes were shot at the exact diegetic time, which means that the light was as realistic as possible e. However, the film contains ellipses, tropes, extensions and compressions, breaks in shot continuity and linear chronology that disclose this immediacy as represented rather than recorded Ungar , e.
Chronique De Tabari (French Edition) Hermann Zotenberg on PopScreen
Also most scenes reveal details of urban architecture, clothing and cultural activities that marked the moment and the period. This gradual disclosure of the city through details of daily life make the film a genuine ethnographic document. This is first expressed in the radio broadcast and then in the character of Antoine. The radio news broadcast in the taxi sequence was indeed broadcast on the day of the filming and Varda used a recording of the actual radio broadcast on Europe no. This is all thanks to Rouch and his technological experiments that made the improved portable Nagra tape-recorders readily available to all filmmakers.
Thus, with the exception of a few scenes that had to be post-synchronised due to poor sound quality e. Rejecting the script as the sole foundation for the film, like Astruc, Varda considers editing, lighting, choosing the music as the very essence of cinema writing. The change in film language and aesthetics advocated by Astruc was prophetic and its repercussions were felt both in the world of fiction filmmaking as well as in the documentary form.