The one is simpler, clearer and more akin to nature in the self-sufficient perfection of its single works; the other, despite its fragmentary appearance, is closer to the secret of the universe. For instance, the images of biological organic growth as opposed to the mechanical and ordered, are common currency in the language of German idealism: Schlegel applies them to whole periods and styles. In matters of presentation and disposition, he had learned some lessons from Berlin; while in terms of his general attitudes, he had not greatly changed.
Old enmities ran deep. Thus to introduce the essential Shakespeare, Schlegel reformulated the insight, not new or original, which the Germans Herder, Goethe, Eschenburg, Tieck, Schlegel himself had made their own: that Shakespeare is the natural inerrant genius who essentially has nothing to learn, but who submits to the discipline of form and art to achieve true greatness.
Read my Shakespeare, is the unspoken message of his Shakespeare lecture to his German audience, an instruction of less relevance for later French, English or other readers. Shakespeare had links with both the intellectual Bacon and the political strivings of his age, but there was in his account of the English nation still some of that spirit of chivalry and feudalism, independence of mind and action, that had animated the Middle Ages. Furthermore: the Histories, taken as a cycle, could be read as heroic epic in dramatic form: it was not Spenser, not Milton especially not he , but Shakespeare who through the unconsciousness of genius had supplied the English with their national epic.
Not for the first time German ideas were being assimilated to the processes of foreign literature: Schlegel was clearly finding analogies with the Nibelungenlied , one of his current preoccupations. Aeschylus and Sophocles had been Athenian citizens, Seneca the court philosopher of Nero.
Hence the amount of space, seemingly beyond all proportion three lectures out of fifteen , that Schlegel devotes to the disqualification of the neo-classical, the need to deny it houseroom in the wide scheme of European drama that he unfolds, one that also obliquely takes in the Indians, who with the Greeks were the only ancient people with a native dramatic tradition.
It reflected national characteristics and virtues love, honour. Much of this would take on a peculiar relevance as the Lectures appeared in print, the sections up to and including European neo-classicism in , followed in by the sections on Romantic drama. These political aspirations as opposed to legal, military and educational reforms were of course not to be fulfilled in the German lands, and Prince Metternich, no doubt sitting in the front row of the lecture hall, would be the author of the later reaction that saw their frustration. Their journey took them into the Bohemian lands: Goethe was rumoured to be in Carlsbad.
This meeting never eventuated, but in Prague, where they arrived on 26 May, they hoped to meet Friedrich Gentz. He chose therefore to lie low in Prague. He had to borrow money from his brother to get this far, and more would be needed to see him to his ultimate destination. His first communication from Vienna, in July , would inaugurate a litany recounting his tribulations, his waiting in the antechambers of the influential, his harassments, real and imagined, by the secret police.
Wieland was gracious, even to Schlegel. Schlegel left the party at Weimar and made a quick dash across to Hanover. It was part of her discovery that the Germans were a profoundly religious people Protestant Germans, that is, for Catholics formed a disproportionately shorter part of the narrative. She may not even have appreciated the differences inside German Protestantism. But the visit to the Moravian Brethren in Neudietendorf near Erfurt struck a different note. She described the communal life and worship of the Brethren, their regularity and tranquility, the harmony of their inner feelings and their outward conduct.
It was to be the last time that he saw his cherished and devoted mother. Hanover had been swallowed up by this Napoleonic creation. Outside, Spain rose in revolt; later, Austria prepared for war. He is more conciliatory in the matter of national dramatic styles, provided that none claims a monopoly of taste or excellence the second part of his Vienna Lectures, published later in the same year, would adopt a different tone. Instead, he uses Constant to diminish Schiller. Schiller had not succeeded in containing his material in five acts; his trilogy was not, like those of the Greeks, the product of inner necessity, but of despair.
Had Schiller been a more experienced dramatist, had he spent less time on philosophical or historical studies, he might have achieved the same five- act solution as Constant. This was the delayed critical voice of Jena. Reimer in his turn handed Schlegel over to Julius Hitzig in Berlin, a new publisher looking for copy and very glad to add the famous translator to his list.
Sophie Bernhardi had not forgotten her poetic ambitions amid her family affairs. Could Schlegel find a publisher for her verse epic Flore und Blanscheflur? He remembered Zimmer in Heidelberg. Zimmer was not interested, but he sensed a real prize when Schlegel offered him his Vienna Lectures. Schlegel had wanted them to appear in Vienna itself, but publishers there would only pay in paper money.
Zimmer could offer proper currency, two and a half Carolins per sheet for a print-run of 1, Doubtless Schelling had a hand in this. There was an academy project on standard German grammatical usage. Could he be persuaded? In fact Schlegel was far more interested in borrowing the Munich manuscript of the Nibelungenlied. Schlegel had remained behind while she, Sabran and Montmorency set out for the event, which took place on 17 August. It was the only folk event that she in fact seems to have seen and it suited her purposes admirably.
There were other spectators of note at Interlaken. That great royal traveller Crown Prince Ludwig was there. It was the moment to intercede for Friedrich Tieck, still in Rome. Having done the busts of the Weimar notabilities and some in Munich, would Tieck not be the ideal sculptor for the Walhalla, the monument to German greatness that was to arise on the banks of the Danube near Regensburg? Thus ensued one of the more bizarre episodes in the history of Coppet. He did not practise ethereality: no serving- wench was safe from his attentions. Goethe had been equally fascinated and repelled by him, but the periodical Prometheus expressed itself more drastically: sampling his works was like enjoying a banquet where one had unwittingly been eating human flesh.
Werner also spent hours in conversation with Schlegel. Maybe she needed a catalyst such as Werner or Schlegel. Tieck, Novalis and Friedrich Schlegel had been attracted to the Silesian theosophist, whereas August Wilhelm had been less drawn. That was only to cease with his conversion to Catholicism in Schlegel was not to take such a step. For there is enough evidence from his correspondence up to the Russian journey of a searching for spiritual satisfaction, for an easing of soul, but not necessarily inside an ecclesiastical or hierarchical framework.
At this stage he was willing to defend the speculations of his brother Friedrich in Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit against the likes of Schelling; indeed in an important letter to the latter of 19 August he saw philosophy as but one way towards truth, not an end in itself; it alone—not even Kant—could not open up the ultimate secrets.
Whereas later it would be history, historical record, the examination of sources on the broadest of bases that would inform his method of study, he was now prepared to entertain hidden links between the spiritual and material world that would not sustain historical or philological analysis.
But where personal involvement or friendship entered into it he could be relied upon to produce a striking image that comes over to us as authentic. He filled niches in the Weimar palace, not only with Goethe and Schiller, but with Klopstock and Voss. His Schelling breathes energy and intelligence; his Alexander von Humboldt has something of the freshness and determination of the young voyager. That was certainly the way that Werner, the later convert to Catholicism and ordained priest, wished to see it. This would not be the hardship it might seem to be, for her father had presciently purchased property there.
The fates of these two enterprises were soon to be intertwined. Was he the property of the Franco-American owner of Chaumont and a reminder that slavery was still being practised in both countries? The poem states that the slave was set free, and it affirms his belief still in the efficacy of the sacraments. For a publisher the author went to Gabriel-Henri Nicolle, who had also brought out Corinne.
They knew of her unrepentant interest in politics, for instance her concern as the widow of a Swedish diplomat at the outcome of the succession to the Swedish throne. Their recommendation was: publication, but with changes to the offending passages. The proofs then went to the highest authority himself: Napoleon. His main instruction was the removal of the section favourable to England. It is clear from that context that Auguste, not subject to the same ban as his mother, had taken the letter in person; Schlegel had sought to intervene with Corbigny.
The proofs were then pulped. Pleas for an audience fell on deaf ears. In fact she received a visa for Coppet and decided to return there instead. And was it not clear that Schlegel, the author of the Comparaison , was regarded as her accomplice? Fortunately the French translation had not reached the production stage, and Chamisso was able to retain his manuscript for future use. The French police bulletins of October and November were notable in drawing attention to the ideological dangers filtering in from Germany: Werner, with his offensive Attila ; Fichte of the Reden an die deutsche Nation , Gentz in the pay of the English , and the Schlegel brothers.
Nor with a print run of 5, and several sets of proofs in existence was this humanly possible. Some say, in Lausanne, Humboldt is supposed to have said it. Do you not have any bright new plans for next spring? She had meanwhile decided that it would be prudent for him to absent himself from Coppet or Geneva for a couple of months. It all added to the precariousness of their situation. In the summer of and lasting into , there was even an infatuation: with the admirable and gifted Marianne Haller, the wife of the city architect and very much his junior.
Schlegel could only enjoy her charms, her intelligence and her talk at a distance. It is certainly no coincidence that the two poems that he addressed to her adopt the conventions of Minnesang, one of them even in an approximation to Middle High German stanzaic form, for this was the lady untouchable and inviolate whom one could approach only in verse.
It was to the robuster Nibelungenlied that Schlegel now devoted time and leisure, to collate the various manuscripts. It was, however, to Mohr and Zimmer that Schlegel turned for the works that for him mattered in these last Swiss years: the completed Vienna Lectures and the Poetische Werke , both of which came out in These were not good times for publishers or for authors.
North Germany, a market that a bookseller overlooked at his peril, was subject to the decree of 5 February that extended across the French imperial territories to all those under its jurisdiction; Zimmer, in neutral Baden, went ahead with the Poetische Werke nevertheless. Die Kunst der Griechen , that elegy that had once adulated Goethe, was still there, more on account of its correct versification than its genuine sentiments. He would have even more pleasure when in the same year Ludwig Tieck, a notoriously bad correspondent, surprised him by dedicating to him his collection Phantasus and reawakening the memory of Jena.
Here were some political tactics, some acts of deference, but also an acknowledgement of who belonged together, who had stood up for the other over the years—and there were not many of them left. Frontispiece and title page. It was a reminder of how medieval chivalry and fable still informed the Renaissance Ariosto, Tasso, Shakespeare, Cervantes , how the canonical poets all proceeded from the same sources and substance. In June, , while he was briefly back in Coppet, she decided on an altogether more adventuresome and risky operation: she asked Schlegel to travel from Berne to Vienna with a copy, to be deposited in the safe hands of Friedrich Schlegel and to be recovered on their way eventually to Russian or Swedish asylum.
The route to be taken was at this stage not clear, but Vienna would in all likelihood be the point of departure. In Vienna, he found his brother, doubtless told in advance of this imminent incursion, and not a little surprised. It bound him to a political ideology—that of the Habsburg state, its aspirations and its myths—yet who in these years could live free of such allegiances? Ludwig Tieck, living in his bolt hole in remotest Brandenburg, perhaps, or those two footloose if very different figures, Clemens Brentano and Zacharias Werner, until Rome claimed them, but most others could not afford that luxury.
One must picture—if one can—a corpulent Friedrich festooned in this finery, on horseback, in the rain, mud, heat and dust of armies on the march. It was his task to produce an army newspaper. The Austrian army had meanwhile withdrawn to Hungary. Friedrich suffered privations: with his usual intellectual curiosity he nevertheless explored in Buda the antiquities of the kingdom and met scholars and writers. He was not back in Vienna until the end of More significant for him were the lectures on history which he gave in Vienna from 19 February to 9 May, And these lectures, delivered in the fine historiographical prose of which Friedrich was capable, had a distinctly Austrian accent.
And the fine rhetoric of delivery did not conceal a historical teleology and a message for the times, something that a political journalist and intellectual was expected to supply. It is for us brothers of course a great privation to be separated from each other without any prospect of meeting again; he was quite hypochondriac and in lowest spirits before I arrived, but our conversations picked him up again. When I left, he went with me and then he turned back, alone, on foot across a bare and treeless plain, a truly sad image of our separation.
Unlike Friedrich, who was to deliver three more big lecture cycles in Vienna and Dresden, August Wilhelm was only once again to lecture to a general public, much later in Berlin. His lectures on history embraced the ancient world, not the modern, and they were for a university audience.
It was a reflection of her own experience, sometimes even shared with him, yet it was so much limited to what she had actually seen and taken in, was so ideologically slanted to her needs, that questions of mere attributions or informants— who helped her with this part or that—became largely irrelevant. There was little point in asking, as some contemporaries were to do, whether Schlegel had checked it through. Nations should serve as guides one to one another, and they would all be wrong were they to deprive each other of the enlightenment that they can afford one another mutually.
There is something very strange about the difference between one people and another: climate, landscape, language, government, above all the events of history, a force ranking above all others, contribute to these diversities, and no-one, however superior he may be, can guess at what is going on naturally in the mind of the one who lives on a different soil and breathes a different air: one will do well in every country to receive alien thoughts; for, in this way hospitality makes the fortune of the one who receives it. He knew also which places and which persons she chose to omit no Munich, no Berlin salons, no Gentz, for instance and which individuals she chose to elevate to a status largely ordained by her and her own personal acquaintance.
He might also have reflected that his material, his insights, his plot-summaries could be implicitly relied upon for their accuracy, while hers could not, being often second-hand, tailored to her needs, and sometimes wilfully wrong as in her account of the plot of Faust. He may have despaired at her account of Kant, until he recognized, as one must, that she was using him, as so many other figures and ideas, to further her own cultural and political aims, or that she was calling for the study of serious philosophy as opposed to frivolous scepticism or materialism.
There were allusions enough to the times in which they were delivered, arguments for the audience to understand why Germany in its present state could not emulate Athens or Golden Age Spain or Elizabethan England. In that sense his Lectures were a continuation of debates and agonizings since over what had gone wrong, why the old order had collapsed, why the German lands had fallen to Napoleon one after the other and had been divided and ruled as he saw fit. In postulating how the theatre might contribute to the building of the nation, Schlegel was doing his patriotic duty, less outspokenly of course than political voices like, say, Arndt, Gentz, or Stein, while performing it nevertheless.
True, with its territorial divisions, it had then as now lacked a capital city, something that the Germans themselves had been deploring for several generations and that Friedrich Schlegel had noted with regret in Europa. For her part, she was not interested in institutions or society other than its highest echelons, or indeed too many tiresome factual details. The important thing was to point to what France did not have, but might have, if it let another nation be its guide and inspiration. It might see alternatives to centralism, control, despotism and acts of arbitrary tyranny.
Readers in France might have cause to ponder issues that were not specific to Germany, but which might acquire a new urgency through an openness to another culture: reason, intelligence, faith, imagination, philosophy, mental energy. It had been a way of transcending the provincial narrowness of Jena and it would also overcome the restrictions of Bonn, for his later scholarly career was oriented as much to Paris and London as to the Prussian university where he was to live and work.
In fact he was only there from October to November, , and from March to May in America was now ruled out, although as late as November she was contemplating it. They became more and more dependent on snippets of news regarding the political situation in Europe. Could Turkey be a route, once the Russo-Turkish border was secure? When Capelle used chicanery to challenge the validity of the original purchase of Coppet by the Neckers, it was Schlegel who was able to use the good offices of his Heidelberg publisher to secure the deeds.
On his side, he could not aspire to claiming her affection, let alone her love; he was merely indispensable and fraternally so; on her side she permitted no rivals, but at the same time she was free to indulge her passions as she chose. Small wonder that he in a letter of April or May, reproached her with folly and heartlessness towards him. Already in May, Germaine and Rocca entered into a solemn engagement to marry, and in the late summer she found herself pregnant—in her forty-sixth year. Of the official Coppet circle only Fanny Randall was party to the secret; Schlegel never found out while there.
Germaine was to the outside world suffering from dropsy: even Zacharias Werner in Rome heard of it. It was in Berne, too, that he received through his sister-in-law Julie Schlegel in Hanover the news of the death of his mother, on 21 January, Protestant worship no longer met the needs of his heart: it was in Catholic shrines that he found a first solace.
Nowhere is there a word about confession or doctrine: the outward signs and symbols manifested in the act of worship, he claimed, brought us an assurance of the divine presence. He must have assumed that he would never return, for this cache was to remain undiscovered for over years. He left behind too his 1,volume library, carefully ordered according to incunables, quartos, and octavos.
One could see here the books that had occupied him during this part of his career—the material on Dante, Shakespeare, Homer, Roman antiquities, the Nibelungenlied , the fine arts—and some, like the volumes of the Asiatick Researches , that pointed to future preoccupations. Rocca and Albert would join them later.
No-one must suspect anything: there were to be no visible preparations for departure. It was to end in St Petersburg. In a sense she had been traversing Europe since late Schlegel was in her company for a large part of that time. Why not an even grander tour? Yet this journey was in every other respect different. Stockholm lent itself, because she was the widow of a Swedish envoy and baron. Her children were technically Swedish citizens, and she wished to see her sons employed in the service of their adopted country.
Her ultimate goal was however England, the land that in her eyes could do no wrong or very little. He was already the much-celebrated author of the Vienna Lectures, which had been published in full in , and were to appear in French in and in English in It would be issued in London by John Murray. For these were years that saw him producing not poetry but a great deal of prose, political rhetoric in fact. After this interlude of roughly two years, Schlegel was to turn again to pure scholarly activity, involving learning the basics of Sanskrit.
Like her he was a fugitive from Napoleon. His association with her had seen him banned from Geneva. Now he was fleeing in her company, finding refuge in Russia, a country at war with Napoleon, and then in Sweden, where the Prince Royal and the Tsar had just concluded a treaty.
Once Sweden and France were formally at war, Schlegel had no option but to stay close to Bernadotte. For Napoleon and his agents they were seditious, insurrectionary even. When later comparing his own career in these years with the academic idyll in Heidelberg enjoyed by his old adversary Johann Heinrich Voss, Schlegel was not exaggerating in saying that he could have been arrested for treason in French territory.
In , Albertine, now sixteen and a young beauty, was married to Victor, duke of Broglie. There were other reminders. All this may help in part to explain the tone in his letters, not without some self-pity, of stoical acceptance of an unfulfilled lot, the sense that one had to accommodate to what life had in store and not expect happiness. A secret political agent, following armies on horseback; wearing a splendid uniform, in court dress; rubbing shoulders with the high and mighty, corresponding with the Tsar, Metternich Bernadotte as a matter of course ; formulating state policy, like Stein or Gentz?
There was nothing new in these associations: the visits to Italy, Germany and Austria, while under different circumstances, had been a first habituation. In a way the rest simply followed. In these years people changed in station and allegiance as chance and circumstances demanded. Why could not Schlegel the Hanoverian write pamphlets in Swedish service? The middle-aged Fichte ruined his health as an academic firebrand in Berlin. Younger men, some of whom had heard Schlegel in Jena or Berlin, rallied to the colours. Only the unmartial Ludwig Tieck, dedicating his collection Phantasu s to Schlegel in and evoking the great days of Jena, kept well out of the fray in his bolt hole in the Mark of Brandenburg.
Unlike some of these, Schlegel did not see action and generally kept back with the headquarters staff. Not for him the mud, the dust, the fleas, the corpses, the dead horses, the Cossacks, the detritus of the battlefield, the first-hand narratives of great encounters. In the rearguard, he would exchange the sword for the pen, as a forceful writer in both German and French. Here, they were joined by Rocca, Albert, and Schlegel, who had been entrusted with securing passports for the next leg of the journey.
He would rejoin them in Stockholm. He had no option but to swallow his chagrin and concentrate on the main task of their all somehow reaching Sweden. It would be different from their previous journeyings, for she was now in poor health and less able to withstand discomforts. Schlegel was in effect a proscribed person, Rocca was a French citizen. From Berne they went via Zurich and Winterthur and then briefly through the Bavarian controlled Tyrol. Rather than reflect on the recent fate of Andreas Hofer and his Tyrolean uprising, it was expedient to pass quickly through to Salzburg and Munich and gain Austrian soil.
The parties met up at Linz and proceeded to Vienna. She would soon realize that Austria had changed since The Schlegel brothers saw each other for the last time until There was however the need to obtain passports for their forward journey: visits to the Russian and Swedish ambassadors became as much a necessity as a social duty.
They were soon to learn the unpalatable fact that Austria could present a different aspect if one came as a fugitive, even one of fame and high rank. They were subjected to constant surveillance, and it was even to emerge that one of their servants was in police pay. His master Metternich, less enamoured than he, was absent and did nothing.
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Peace had been concluded between Russia and Turkey. It was one reason why she had preferred exile in Coppet to banishment in America. Napoleon however put paid to that particular scheme by declaring war on Russia. There were harassments and petty inconveniences along the way, with uncertainties about passports Schlegel had been left in Vienna to sort these out as they passed through Moravia Brno, Olomouc and Galicia.
The monotony of the landscape depressed her. There were however compensations. With great relief they arrived at Brody, the Austrian-Russian border station, on 13 July. The governors of Kiev, Orel and Tula received them. Then, on 2 August, the golden cupolas of Moscow came into sight. Except in a political context, he rarely wrote anything complimentary about the Slavs. Whether the journey through the Slavonic lands was the cause, must remain a conjecture.
They had time to take in the ancient city, to meet its most famous literary personage, Nikolai Karamzin, and its governor, Count Rostopchin, who was soon to give the order for its destruction. They then travelled across the endless plain, through Novgorod and thus to St Petersburg, where they arrived on 11 August. The month in the Russian capital was to be the first of her late triumphs, with Stockholm, London and Paris to follow. This meant that Schlegel inevitably receded into the background, while she shone all the more refulgently.
Arndt mentions him only by name, Stein similarly, John Quincy Adams, who had two animated conversations with her, not at all. St Petersburg was offering asylum to notable ruling spirits in the opposition against Napoleon.
Arndt had made his journey to Moscow and to St Petersburg to join Stein and become his private secretary. A treaty had been signed there on 30 August, leaving Sweden free to pursue its policies against Denmark, suitably assisted by a Russian loan. The Tsar had charmed his Swedish partner, but had not committed himself to concrete undertakings.
Savary certainly thought so. More probably she put in a good word for Bernadotte during her audience with Alexander. To her distress it was booed. Anti- French feelings might run high, but surely French culture was excepted. It clearly was not. In that assumption he was correct.
This meant leaving the splendours of St Petersburg for the more sober grandeur of Stockholm. If one wanted an illustration of how the French Revolution had shaken up the old political and social order of Europe, he would provide it. Bernadotte was above all the army commander at Austerlitz, at Jena, at Eylau, at Wagram, yet Napoleon was never satisfied with his performance at these battles, and what is more he did not trust him. Nor did the thought of a parvenu on the Swedish throne worry him. Or indeed of older Swedish history: the remembrance of the Treaty of Kalmar of , for instance, that had once united the three Scandinavian nations under one throne, or of Gustavus Adolphus, or even of Charles XII.
He would have learned that Sweden was still smarting under the loss of its large eastern buffer province of Finland, which had been wrested from it by Russia in after a brief campaign. It was all the more necessary to ensure good relations with Russia in the east and to secure territorial guarantees in the west. He had forced Sweden to declare war on Britain no shots were actually ever fired , then he had invaded Swedish Pomerania preparatory to his Russian campaign in the summer of For the first time since Vienna, Schlegel emerged from the shadows.
Her customary intrepidity deserted her when she left dry land, and her fears were compounded on seeing the frail vessel that was to transport them. It was, as it were, Lady Hamilton translated to the Baltic. A storm rose, the ship was forced to take shelter near a rocky island. Under such bizarre and slightly hilarious circumstances were Niobe or Iphigenia seen in the Gulf of Bothnia.
Schlegel produced a poem for the occasion—it could not be otherwise—adding it to his earlier homage to the young dancer Friederike Brun. The Prussian envoy claimed that her house was the centre of anti-Napoleonic intrigue in the city. Nor did he support the Danish initiatives to secure concessions from the British, which later elicited sarcastic comments from Schlegel.
Of course he had in various contexts expressed quite pronounced views on the development of the modern state, its tendency to centralism, bureaucracy, standing armies. For him the Reformation was the source of many of these evils, which as he saw it had brought the Middle Ages proper to a symbolic end.
Rather—in the year —they were a call for reflection on the past as a guide to present uncertainties. Real politics were, as ever, best left to those who knew its practical limits and who did not go into reveries about what once was. His brother Friedrich meanwhile had been called upon to formulate general policies of state according to Austrian doctrine and had assumed the role of a political propagandist for the Habsburg cause. They were very largely in German, a language that Bernadotte did not read. The Vienna Lectures, the best proof of the man and his style, were not to appear in French until later in Thus General Suchtelen was more or less right when he saw in Schlegel a man whose talents and whose knowledge of Germany made him ideally suitable.
Thus it lacked official status and remained a draft. The reasons for this are not difficult to see. It begged questions and made sweeping assumptions. No-one doubted that a campaign against Napoleon would have to be initiated in the German lands: opinions differed on the details. Bernadotte himself was really only marginally interested in Germany. When he did go there, he used Swedish territory in Pomerania as his base. Baron Stein, and later Prince Metternich, also had very different notions of how Germany would look during and after a campaign against Napoleon, and they were not especially interested in a Swedish role in these processes except in a minor capacity.
He knew that, rhetorically, the case had to be prepared with care. The mention of Walcheren, the British fiasco of , suggested that small and badly organised expeditions were unlikely to succeed. It would by the same token remind the Prince Royal that he, as Marshal Bernadotte, had once been largely instrumental in that particular British defeat.
What was needed was the revival of the German empire itself. Of course it would be an empire that reflected the present state of Germany, its sophistication in political and philosophical thought, not some entity in the past. At most one might wish an existing royal house to assume leadership, such as Habsburg.
Only here did the memorandum pick up some of the medievalisings of the Deutsches Museum. This latter would be no other than Baron Stein with whom, Schlegel reminded the Prince, he had had conversations in St Petersburg. Switzerland would form part of it, the Hanseatic towns as well they would make it a sea power. Without realizing it, Schlegel was coming close to the pan-German visions to be formulated in mid-century and beyond. The envoi of the memorandum was addressed to Sweden and to the Prince Royal himself.
It invoked the ultimate example of Gustavus Adolphus, whose worthy successor it suggested Bernadotte was. A good command of selected facts, a well- presented argument however shaky in parts , and some gross flattery: all of these factors combined to make this a skilfully written political pamphlet. It was, as said, a draft, destined for the eyes of the Prince Royal only, but Schlegel clearly had the authority to make some of its general thrust known in other quarters. It was now opportune to make use of these contacts.
Should Napoleon not be vanquished, it would be hemmed in by the constraints of a French alliance. How much more attractive an association with Russia, Britain and Sweden that would guarantee the balance of power but also enable a German league against Napoleon to be constituted. There follow the usual flatteries about the Emperor Francis, Sickingen himself, and the Prince Royal.
There was still opposition in. She would be free to move as ever, to England, while he, now the committed amanuensis and propagandist of Bernadotte, must remain behind. Geschichten, die hin-ter den Arbeiten stecken, also eher das weibliche Prinzip, dieses in die Tiefe, in die Psyche. Stock, bis 1. Beide, die antike Anregung und das Werk selbst, sind im Raum einander zugeordnet und bilden eine Einheit; Begleitbuch bis 8. Richard Artschwager! Sie untersucht ein Gesamtwerk, das danach fragt, wie wir uns visuell und physisch mit der Welt auseinandersetzen bis 6.
Vernissage am Do Kunstauskunft: jew. Eine Auswahl von Exponaten aus dem facettenreichen Werk aus 60 Jahren 1. Stock, bis Barer Str. Unter Schirmherrschaft des Bayerischen sen und Ereignisse. Marcel Huber bis Treten Sie aus! Grafinger Str. Jahrhunderts, der abstrakte www. AllianzTag jeden Mi freier Eintritt. Die ca. Alfred Flechtheim. Im Zentrum von Walls Arbeit steht in diesen Arbeiten der v. Vernissage am Di 5. Bilddokumentation im St. Mi , Fr 1. Sonntag im Monat um Dauerausstellung.
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Reutter ii , klI, also attrib. Hofmann and Krottendorfer, klI, also attrib. Krottendorfer and Schneider, klI, also attrib. Schneider, klI, also attrib. Heimerich, klI, also attrib. Strasser, klI, also attrib. Biba Hilversum, ; Alleluia! Biba Hilversum, Alleluia! Reichssiegel: Eliezer , st76, 10 April , intrada ed. Weiser , st85, before 12 March , lost, pt i by W. Mozart, pt iii by A. Feldzug und Sieg, pt iii orat , st, 20 Feb , pt i by Adlgasser, pt ii by J. Adlgasser: Die gereinigte Magdalena, and J.
Angerer , st,? Klopstock, after J. Varesco , st, 14 March , sinfonia p25 ed. Anne vigilio? Wie heilig, st74, Grabe, Spaden! Mozart kAnh. Sherman Vienna, ; G, st25, 2 ob, 2 hn, str, c—64, ed. Sherman Vienna, ; G, st26, 2 ob, 2 hn, str, c—64, ed. Haydn in h I, the other paired by M. Ballo st, ed. Vanhal , p40 and 48? Pokorny ,p50? Aug , frag. Rainer Bad Reichenhall, , incl. Darvas Budapest, ; p86 and 87, spurious, by F. Minuets:  Menuetti, st, vn, b, c—72;  Menuetti, fl, 2 ob, 2 hn, 2 vn, b, c—72, formerly attrib. Albrecht Lippstadt, ; p, doubtful, also attrib.
Haydn h II:G1 ; p, spurious, by J. Haydn and G. Pugnani , st attrib. Sherman Stuttgart, ; C, st27,? Sherman Bellingham, WA, set completed by W. Haydn, of Larghetto from W. Va tornar a Haarlem on va seguir exercint com a pintor i on va assolir notable fama. Va morir a Haarlem el novembre de Pomponio Nenna Bari , bap. Fill de Giovanni Battista Nenna c. Archilei Rome, Madrigal, 6vv, ; Madrigal, 5vv, S. Felis: Il quinto libro de madrigali, 5vv Venice, , lost ; 4 villanellas, 3vv, , , ed. Two-thirds of the madrigals open with this technique. The effect is similar to that produced by echoes in the works of Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli for cori spezzati.
The fifth book is only the second collection to use a sizable number of texts by Marino: seven pieces are settings of him. The four-voice madrigals published in were probably composed much earlier; two of them appeared in in a book of madrigals by Alessandro di Costanzo this edition is lost but a later one, RISM , is extant.
The seventh book was particularly popular, for it was reprinted four times up to and was copied in the 17th century with English words in GB-Ob Tenbury El va tornar a Anglaterra i es va convertir en un dels primers pintors paisatgistes anglesos. Durant la seva vida, els seus paisatges no van gaudir de popularitat. Gewey, after A. Schwaldopler, after C. Lieder: 6 deutsche Lieder, i, op. Gattechi , , op. B, ix New York, , op. Mozart, 3 as op. Keyboard: Sonatas: op. Mozart; Sonatine, , op. Other kbd: 3 fantasias: op. Besides being an outstanding composer, he was a pianist of the first rank and toured throughout Europe.
He wrote well over works and in nearly every genre. The opus numbers given to his works bear no relation to reality. An opus number in the 's would have been more accurate. Though primarily classical in nature, there are the stirrings of early romanticism in the music. In particular, the treatment of the cello is far in advance of all of Mozart's piano trios as well as Beethoven's first set of piano trios. A brief Andante introduction leads to the Allegro con spirito which is the main theme where our sound-bite starts of the first movement.
Hearing the lovely melodies and the grace of the writing, it is not hard to see why Eberl's works could so easily be compared to and passed off as Mozart's. The second movement, Adagio non troppo, is an excellent theme and set of variations. Next comes a lively Scherzo. The finale, a spritely Allegretto, is also a loose set of variations. Our all new and entirely reset edition is based on the original Peters edition of and has been edited by R. Of particular importance is the fact that our edition does not use the "false treble clef" in the cello part which appeared in all of the other previous editions and which has always been a problem for cellists.
Instead, we have substituted the bass and tenor clefs which greatly improves the readability. Like all of our editions, this trio is printed on top grade paper with an ornate cover with biographical information about the composer. RIES, F. Lorenzo Sabatini o Lorenzino da Bologna Bolonya , c.
Va morir precisament a Roma l'agost de El va ser un dels membre fundacionals de l' Accademia dei Filarmonici de Bolonya. OBRA: Music lost unless otherwise stated. Vergine, 8vv, bc org , op. Tesini , Bologna, 17 March ; invocazione only by Colonna, other music by F. Pratichista and G. Desideri , Bologna, Il Sansone G. Balbi , Bologna, S Teodora G. Stanzani , Bologna, ; with F. Vitali and others, lib Bc Le contese di Pallade e Venere dramatic cant. Campeggi , Bologna, Amilcare e Cipro dramma per musica, A. Gargieria , Bologna, 8 Dec Other: 19 arias, 1v, bc, in D.
Freschi: Tullia superba dramma per musica, A. Because of a special arrangement with the Habsburg Emperor Leopold I, who ordered a copy of each of his sacred works the most interesting and extensive part of his output , 83 of them are preserved in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.
Many unpublished ones are elaborate concerted settings of the mass and vesper psalms for one or two choirs, soloists and an orchestra sometimes including trumpets, which were a special feature of S Petronio. His Messe e salmi concertati op. The string accompaniments no longer slavishly double the vocal lines as in earlier Italian concerted music, and have taken on the style of the instrumental concerto with its open semiquaver patterns.
The collections of solo motets, op. In contrast to his immediate Italian predecessors Colonna was able to spin out his phrases and to lengthen whole sections by his sure grasp of harmony functioning within the tonal system. In his later choral music he frequently used suspensions and secondary-7th chords, which in works written in many parts produce a rich and often moving effect.
Georg von Bertouch Helmershausen , 19 de juny de - Christiania , 14 de setembre de va ser un compositor i militar alemany. Es va formar amb Daniel Eberlin abans d'entrar a la universitat. Va morir a Oslo el setembre de But Bertouch, a German-born Norwegian, was also one of the leading composers of the day, corresponding with Bach and other prominent musicians. His music reveals a knowledge of Corelli and other contemporary developments, but retains a fresh, almost innocent, spontaneity with an infectious appeal.
Here it is interspersed with dances and airs used in domestic music-making in Baroque Bergen. Va morir a Petrograd el setembre de El compositor Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, que va ser el seu gran admirador, li va confiar l'estrena dels seus dos primers concerts per a piano. Rubinshteynu [Glory to N. Rubinstein] Y. Samarin , 4 solo vv, chorus, orch, [based on Russ. Pushkin , E , chorus, orch, , ed. Tolstoy , cant, chorus, orch, op. Khomyakov , cant, 4 solo vv, chorus, orch, op.
Iordan, G. Kirkov with other accompaniment: Kvartet chinovnikov [Civil Servants' Quartet], 1v, chorus, str qt, Apofeoz khudozhnika [Apotheosis of the Artist] Taneyev , cant, B, chorus, pf, see also no. Derzhavin , BBB, , ed. Tyutchev , op.
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Polonsky , op. Bal'mont , male vv, op. Pushkin , 4 B, , rev. Maykov , T, Bar, B, , ed. Schiller , S, A, T, op. Zhukovsky , S, A, , ed. Yazikov , S, , ed. Tolstoy , B, , rev. Tolstoy , B, , ed. Maslov , Bar, , ed. Tolstoy , , rev. Shcherbina , , rev. Nekrasov , , rev. Nietzsche Four Songs Polonsky , op. Lamm Overture, g, —5 Overture, d, , ed. Kirkor Moscow, Adagio, C,? Lamm Moscow, Piano Concerto, E , —6, ed. Lamm [2 movts only] Symphony [no.
Blok Moscow, [3 movts only] Overture on a Russian theme, C, , ed. Lamm [based on no. Lamm, A. Semenov Symphony [no. Yavorsky Overture to Oresteya, op. Kirkor, B. Lamm, V. Shebalin in Sochineniya dlya fortepiano Theme and Variations, c, , ed. Arensky, Glazunov and Rachmaninoff] Prelude and Fugue, g , op. SAB, pf, Transcrs. Taneyev is, indeed, a lone figure in late 19th-century Russian music, owing nothing to the indigenous Russian tradition established by Glinka, and openly disapproving of contemporary nationalist composers.
He was the antithesis of Glinka, for whereas the latter was possessed of a powerful and vivid imagination but was deficient in technique, Taneyev had little imaginative endowment but commanded a compositional skill unsurpassed by any Russian composer of his period. The patient diligence of his approach to composition was the very opposite of the capricious bursts of energy that characterized the work habits of many of his contemporaries.
It was his normal practice to do extensive preliminary work on his basic materials, such as working out contrapuntal possibilities, before setting about the main task of composition. His creative mentality is clearly exposed in a letter he wrote to Tchaikovsky while working on The Oresteia: [My approach] means that not one number is written in its final form until the outline of the whole work is prepared. It is written, you might say, concentrically, not by composing the whole out of the separate, successive parts, but by going from the whole to the details: from the opera to the acts, from the acts to the scenes, from the scenes to the separate numbers … Thus one may perceive the most important points in the drama on which the attention of the composer must be most concentrated, determine the length of scenes and numbers according to their importance, plan the modulatory scheme of the acts, define the orchestral sounds, and such like.
Accordingly, his scores are among the most orderly and polished in Russian music. His inclination to contrapuntal techniques and his studies of the great contrapuntists of the past fortified his skill, resulting in textures which, however complex, are always engineered with precision and polish. He often used contrapuntal procedures as an enrichment of his harmonic palette, and despite the lack of individuality in his melodic fund, his skill in building melodic paragraphs and in devising interesting phrase structures is admirable.
In an early work like the Canzona for clarinet and strings the lyricism and waltz proclivities of his teacher Tchaikovsky are clearly reflected, but his style was to develop a more broadly based eclecticism which ultimately achieved an illusion of individuality through its constant capacity to avoid commitment to the style of any one composer, however close certain passages may be to the sound worlds of masters like Tchaikovsky and Brahms whose music, however, he claimed to dislike.
The fastidiousness of his craftsmanship is evident in his songs, many of which are admirable compositions, but his gifts are seen to better advantage in his accomplished handling of large-scale forms, particularly in his fluent sonata structures, as in the first movement of his C minor Symphony , usually considered his finest instrumental work. The slow movement is also an impressive piece, revealing a warm lyricism deployed on an impressive scale, while the scherzo shows his capacity for delightful, if restrained, capriciousness. Nor is it surprising that one who thrived on counterpoint should wish to augment the linear resources of the string quartet, and to write, besides six numbered quartets, three string quintets.
The first of these , revised is typical of his chamber music, opening with a vast sonata structure which exhibits a thoroughly Germanic handling of thematic and tonal mechanisms. Despite that, his penchant for contrapuntal thinking is revealed in the constant thematic interactions of the first movement, and even more explicitly in the variation finale, which concludes with a parade of contrapuntal expertise in a fugue on three subjects.
His contrapuntalism reached its apogee in his last work, the choral-orchestral At the Reading of a Psalm, a cantata which some regard as his masterpiece. Taneyev employed musical styles and dramatic conventions deriving from French grand opera, but overlaid these with an epic vein which makes his loftier musical intentions clear.
The care with which he composed the piece is reflected in the final result, which is a splendidly efficient score. Nevertheless, the conventional character and inequality of his musical invention causes the achievement to fall short of the intent. His music envelops the tale in a noble aura instead of illuminating it by uncovering the souls and feelings of human beings caught in a train of events which is their destiny.
In The Oresteia he was usually at his best when composing a passage in which his resourcefulness as a composer was exercised as in some of the chromatic sections which avoid stock progressions and combinations , or when the dramatic situation demanded the construction of a large musical span. On such occasions he sometimes produced music that has real distinctiveness. Heine , op.
Lion , op. Widmann , op. Schaedelin , op. Wetter , op. Lienert , op. Keller , op. Zahn , op. Solo vocal: Der Spielmann Wetter , 4 Lieder, op. Meyer , op. Hesse , op. Klabund , 8 Lieder, op. Charting a chronological course we start with the Symphony in F major, which was completed in when the composer was barely twenty-one. This is a very Brahmsian work, in terms of thematic development and sonority, and many passages will alert one to the influence of the older composer on the student one.
Andreae shows a firm control of his material and handles orchestration well — brass, lower strings and percussion in particular. The work suits the light tenor of Benjamin Hulett who negotiates the demands freshly and keenly. All early performances of this work were given by the great Julius Patzak. The final work is the Concertino for oboe and orchestra, Op. This is a lovely, rather pastoral work that flows and muses, enshrining a more active, dynamic B section in the opening of its three movements. A perky Rondo is followed by a felicitous folkloric finale.
The performance by John Anderson is extremely fine and as throughout the disc he is most sympathetically supported by Marc Andreae. Of the three works the Concertino is the most easy-going, the songs the most stringent and complex. Incidentally no less a figure than Richard Strauss was later to dedicate his own Oboe Concerto to Andreae. Uneven though this disc is, compositionally speaking largely because of the Symphony , the third volume in this series brings with it very interesting and exciting features for the increasing number of Andreae admirers.
Jonathan Woolf Review Gaudiu i compartiu! Innocentio Alberti Treviso, c. Innocentio Alberti c. His father was the town trumpeter; his uncle and brother were musicians in the courts of Ferrara and Munich respectively. He was one of the three young men brought to the newly founded Accademia degli Elevati in Padua in as music tutors under Francesco Portinaro. In the Accademia degli Elevati was dissolved and Alberti went to work for the Este court at Ferrara. In he prepared a manuscript collection of madrigals for Henry, Earl of Arundel.
The final three books of madrigals for four voices, published in the first decade of the 17th century, are almost certainly collections of madrigals written 10 to 30 years earlier. Sethus Calvisius - Praeter rerum seriem After attending schools at Frankenhausen and Magdeburg, Calvisius began his studies at the University of Helmstedt in and continued them from Easter at the University of Leipzig, where he had matriculated in He spent 12 fruitful years there not only as an inspiring teacher but also in the study of history, chronology and music theory.
For a short period in about he also directed the music at the university church. Shortly before this, as a result of a knee injury which confined him to his bed for over a year and left him with a permanent limp, he found the time to complete his Opus chronologicum , his most important non-musical work. Leipzig University rejected his Elenchus Calendarii Gregoriani , but on the strength of his Opus chronologicum he was offered appointments at the universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and Wittenberg, neither of which he took up.
His many pupils included Erhard Bodenschatz and Martin Rinckart. After his death his reputation grew, and as late as he was enthusiastically admired by W. Trubel Neuhausen-Stuttgart, Der Psalm Davids … auf 3 Chor, 12vv Leipzig,? Commer, Musica sacra, xxviii Berlin, ; ed. Allerup, Die Musica practica des J. Herbst diss. His Madrigali Rome, , for four and five voices, has a long preface repr. He did, however, concede the need for it in pieces for one or two voices and its usefulness in performances in large buildings such as churches and theatres. Another aspect of his conservatism is his support of Artusi's views about the treatment of dissonance.
He, along with his father and two brothers, received payments from the Consorzio del SS Sacramento, Crema. In he competed for the office of maestro di cappella of Milan Cathedral, but was passed over in favour of M. Grossi and Legrenzi were classified as the best; after a new poll Grossi was elected on 28 November with an annual stipend of lire, which was increased to on 11 December He kept this post until his death. Grossi was a prolific composer of sacred music. The poetic texts he set are mostly Latin only some canzoni spirituali are in Italian. Although he had a mastery of polyphonic technique he often wrote for four or five choirs , he preferred writing for a small number of voices, often in the form of the sacred dialogue.
His style is unoriginal but agreeably melodic and sometimes pathetic; in his monodic pieces it tends towards arioso. Arcangelo Lori - Toccata del Sig. Arcangelo He spent the whole of his known career in Rome, where he was a leading lutenist in the midth century. He is first heard of, however, as an organist: it was he whom Luigi Rossi succeeded as organist of S Luigi dei Francesi on 1 April Lori maintained connections with this church, for, at least from to and again from until he was removed in , he participated as a lutenist in the patronal festivals there on 25 August.
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His few surviving pieces show that he was a competent composer. There is also a motet, Venite, gentes, for soprano, violin, lute and continuo in I-Bc. He was the brother of Cristofano Malvezzi, who mentioned him among the musicians who performed in the Florentine intermedi of Alberigo was organist of S Lorenzo, Florence, from about until his death, and in was also appointed organist of Florence Cathedral. He was granted Florentine citizenship on 28 April He entered the Carmelite order at the age of 17 and in was organist of the Seminario Germanico, Rome.
He then spent a few years in Belgium, returning to Germany in In he was vicar of the convent at Neustadt an der Saale. In his Nova instructio he stated that he had received his musical education from Abbot Francesco of Spezia. His Musica romana is a product of this Italian influence; it is a collective volume including 13 works by Carissimi, Francesco Foggia and Bonifatio Gratiani and a Salve regina of his own. His masses of are in the concertato style. The Nova instructio pro pulsandis organis, spinettis, manuchordiis vols. Melchior Vulpius c. He was the son of poor parents and as a result was only able to attend the small Lateinschule in his home town, where he was a pupil of Johann Steuerlein.
In he was at Speyer as a fellow pupil of Christoph Thomas Walliser, whom he instructed in the elements of musica poetica, and he was there again in In that year he was appointed, on the recommendation of the Wasungen preacher A. Scherdiger and in spite of his not having attended a university, to a position as a supernumerary teacher of Latin at the Lateinschule at nearby Schleusingen, the former residence of the counts of Henneberg who had become extinct in His salary at Schleusingen was at first extremely modest, and it rose only slightly even after he secured a permanent appointment in the lowest grade of teacher in and had to assume the duties of Kantor.
He was required to write music for the Lutheran service, chiefly motets and hymns. While at Schleusingen he no doubt became acquainted with the three Passions of Jacob Meiland, which survive in manuscripts copied there between and , for his own St Matthew Passion is influenced by them see below. From until his death he was municipal Kantor and a teacher at the Lateinschule at Weimar. Nitsche and H. Ehrhorn Kassel, Pars secunda selectissimarum cantionum sacrarum, 6—8 and more vv Jena, , repr. Fliegelii … per musicos numeros … congratulabatur Joh. Gebawer, 7vv Liegnitz, , lost [contrafactum of work from Pars prima cantionum sacrarum, see EitnerQ] Nuptiis Ebaldo Langianis, 12vv Jena, , inc.
Afterwards he was apprenticed to John Stanley. He was admitted vicar-choral and organist of Lichfield Cathedral in January The cathedral documents fail to make clear exactly when he ceased to be organist, but this was certainly by September By the cathedral statutes, the organist held a place as vicar-choral, which constituted a freehold, and this Alcock continued to hold for the rest of his life, living in the cathedral close and doing duty in the choir.
He was organist of Sutton Coldfield parish church, Warwickshire, from to part of this time while still organist of Lichfield Cathedral , and of Tamworth parish church from to He was also private organist to the Earl of Donegal. In the dedication of his Service in E minor in Alcock stated that sometimes only one priest vicar and one lay vicar attended the cathedral services, and he also alluded to ridiculous criticism of his organ accompaniments.
That Alcock considered himself hard done by as a result of his conditions of work at Lichfield is abundantly clear from his argumentative preface to his anthems published in It is possible that, far away in the Midlands yet having troubled to take a doctorate for what it was then worth , he felt he lacked the status which his contemporary Boyce and others enjoyed.
Apparently for lack of response nothing came of this, though Alcock issued his own Service in E minor as a specimen of the engraving. His anthems are in similar mould to those of Greene, whose general style they share, and in fact in his aforementioned preface he felt it necessary to anticipate possible charges of plagiarism from both Croft and Greene. But only the Service in E minor, of all his church music, ever attained any currency, and this is too lacking in character to have survived.
As published it is a slightly revised form of the original composed in He cultivated the art of catch and canon writing, and won Catch Club prizes in , and In connection with the organ accompaniment to cathedral music, Alcock made some remarks that are worth mentioning. Anthems: Laudate Dominum, double choir, orch, , LF [rev. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts.
He also published two flute methods. He then became organist of St Jacobi in Sangerhausen a position for which his father had applied in He left Sangerhausen in spring , with what intention is not known. He remained in Naples all his life, and between and established himself as a respected composer of oratorios, operas, cantatas and church music. On 11 July he succeeded Girolamo Abos as secondo maestro of his former conservatory and, contrary to some accounts, did not resign from this post in , but retained it until his death.
His most notable student was Giacomo Tritto. After the death of Giuseppe de Majo, primo maestro of the royal chapel, the incumbent vice-maestro Giuseppe Marchitti was denied succession and, without the customary public competition, the position given to Cafaro on 21 December ; he also continued as maestro di musica della regina, later becoming maestro di musica della real camera. After assuming the leadership of the royal chapel he stopped writing operas and produced primarily sacred music. A Stabat mater, dedicated to the king and queen and printed in Naples in , became his best-known work outside Italy.
Although Cafaro never composed an opera buffa, certain stylistic tendencies associated with this genre simplicity of harmonic structure, texture and orchestration are reflected in his serious works. In them the dramatic pathos of earlier composers gave way to Classicist abstraction, expert use of Neapolitan formulae and accepted modes of expression.
In the Neapolitan tradition Cafaro was one of the essential links between the generation of Leo and Durante and that of Cimarosa and Paisiello. Pizzi , Turin, Regio, spr. He was assistant to Girolamo Chiti, maestro di cappella at S Giovanni in Laterano in Rome, and in was designated his successor, taking up the post in Between and he was a member of the Congregazione di S Cecilia, serving as one of the examiners and several times holding the office of guardiano della sezione dei maestri compositori.
From until his death he was also maestro di cappella at S Maria in Vallicella and was active in several other churches in Rome. He exchanged letters now in I-Bc with Martini in Bologna. Casali wrote much in the strict contrapuntal style of the Roman school, but also used the modern concertante style with virtuoso coloratura lines and homophonic writing, and often with instrumental accompaniment. His Roman oratorios followed the style of the midth-century opera seria, which preserved the da capo aria. During his long term of office he became one of the best-known Italian composers of sacred music of his time.
Vitturi , Venice, S Angelo, carn. Piovene , Rimini, ; La lavandarina int, A.