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The French and Russian Revolutions had enormous impact beyond their metropolitan borders. Their ideological zeal and the dramatic changes they brought about both frightened and inspired many abroad. They were not models that were simply emulated in any straightforward sense. Rather, in responding to them, external witnesses often refracted them through the prism of their own political, economic and cultural priorities.

Contingency mattered, since local circumstances could open up or shut down possibilities in how witnesses might use these revolutions. Ultimately, the historical importance of the French and Russian Revolutions owes to the global impact they had. That also could provide a reason for foreign investors to look elsewhere.

A key question has to do with so-called effective corporate tax rates. That is more or less on par with the United Kingdom, below that of Argentina That effective rate will fall with the tax reform—although exact calculations to what it will be are still lacking. And it is with the new effective rate that countries will try to compete.

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How things shake out for Latin America and the Caribbean from such a scenario is difficult to predict. Government authorities in the region—with pressure from business interests—may decide that they must reduce corporate tax rates to remain competitive. If these things occur, tax revenue may well be reduced at a time when countries have considerably less fiscal space to maneuver than in the recent past. Over the last 15 years or so, many countries, especially in South America and Mexico, have increased corporate rates as a way to introduce more progressive systems.

If they now reduce those rates, they may have to compensate with other measures. They may have to increase consumption taxes VAT and widen the tax base, including the elimination of certain loopholes and tax exemptions. Corporate taxes have never been a major source of revenue for governments in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Still governments in Latin America and the Caribbean may have to confront the possibility of dwindling revenue from this source, along with reduced FDI and accompanied losses in technology transfer from relocating foreign companies, as the potential impacts of the U. However, individual income tax cuts of the tax reform are quite important from a quantitative point of view, though they all expire by the end of Steven Ambrus worked as a correspondent for US and European media during two decades in Latin America, covering politics, education, the environment and other issues.

He currently works in the communications and publications unit of the Research Department at the IDB. Now it would be necesary to understand how it will impact to income distribution. While U. I think the entire continent should agree a harmonious taxation system and avoid comercial war. But once blended into the trail, small mistakes no longer stick out disgracefully and as many improvisers know, repeating a jarring sound several times is a good way to make it sound acceptable indeed.

In their settings, the delay between successive echoes generally remained constant throughout the whole event, typically around milliseconds. Now each kind of tune has a typical tempo: there are fast dances, moderately fast dances, slow songs for still listening, etc. The tempo of the drum machine is fine tuned by a wheel on the synthesizer.

The musicians often use it to adapt the performance tempo to the echo delay.

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They try to match an integer number of echoes between the beats: one for very fast dances, two, three and sometimes four echoes for slower tunes. The important thing is to have them synchronized with the pulse. Musicians explained to me that this helped them to perform at length.

Singers and blowing instrumentalists were particularly grateful to the echo. Now they could breathe at ease. With echo their melodic lines became full, continuous and pulsated on the beat, all effortlessly.

U.S. Tax Reform: Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean - Ideas Matter

Undisciplined waves would simply come and go between the surfaces they encountered leading to a mess in which one was reluctant to perform. Artificial reverberation was not enough for this. Watching a singer or a saxophonist perform is indeed something of a fantastic experience. His body is here, you can touch him, speak to him, ask him to say a few words on your behalf or to play your favorite tune. In sight, corporeal and verbal interactions, he is close, much closer than if he were on a conventional stage for example.

But at the same time, the place in which he sounds is not — cannot be — the place where his and your body is. It would take some deep alpine valley to create such an echo, and even then, it would probably not sound like this. They simply stand at the junction of two realms with incompatible properties: visual and corporeal on the one hand, sonic on the other.

At some point of the party, typically when they play manele , one may get the feeling that musicians do not really provide music for the audience anymore. They are constantly interrupted by individuals who wish to dedicate to one another the tunes.


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The latter start to act as mere gatekeepers of the musical space. Music as such is hardly needed anymore, as the listeners pay to simply project their agencies into it. However, the manea pl. Secondly, its link with echoicity is emblematic, to the point where parodies of manele songs incorporate the imitation of echo to enhance their comic effect.

They are called turbo-folk in Serbia, chalga or pop-folk in Bulgaria, musica popullore in Albania or manea in Romania, and share important features see Buchanan ; Silverman All of them display a paradoxical combination of seemingly incompatible temporal and geographical framings. They were sung by Florin Salam at several events around That they would ever be set to rhyme was highly unlikely. They belong to completely different worlds, not only chronologically, but also geographically. The last verse anchors the contrast in the actual performance context.

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It refers to Florin Salam, who is currently singing it. One may notice that he employs to this effect his own surname rather than the first person pronoun. The latter had appeared just before, but it does not belong to him: the singer takes good care to leave it free for the dedicator or his addressee. This is achieved with semiotic references, but also by building an actual space where listeners are immersed and which stands apart, both geographically and temporally, from any other place which they may experience.

This is possibly the most important aspect: as sounds fill in the whole place, these imagined universes gain a degree of immediate presence, which other media hardly achieve. Listeners do not project themselves into a different realm as if they were watching a movie for example. It is the different realm which comes onto them, immersing their bodies and their familiar places in its particular ambiance. Performed live, manele songs are precisely located in space and time, not only because the musicians are there, in reach of speech and touch, but also because individuals from the audience inscribe their agencies into the songs through dedications.

This kind of performance is more localized than, say, a typical rock, pop or folkloric concert. It literally bears the names of some of the listeners. On the other hand, manele songs piece together worlds which seem incompatible, both with one another and with the actual performance context. On the one hand, no doubt, the performance is precisely there: the recording is sprinkled with dedications of the bride to her mother, her husband, her godmother, and with names of other people in the audience inserted by the singer of his own initiative, to cheer them up, or as a mark of respect.

Their importance has been underestimated by ethnomusicologists, possibly because it is underestimated by their informants too. Amplified or electronic music do not constitute a distinct category in local typologies. On closer inspection however, this is a rather theoretical assumption. Violinists for example have developed intricate ornaments and melismas which can only be obtained softly. They differentiate regional or individual styles, which are the topics of most discussion amongst the local connoisseurs. The omnipresence of amplification, reverberation and echo throughout the country and its musical genres contrasts with these differences.

The effects are well circumscribed, as they relate to a small set of acoustic phenomena. Secondly, they speak of reverb and echo as ontological properties of sounds, as performance helpers, but not, in my experience, as evocations of places which actually exist. In manele locations are often evoked but in deliberately paradoxical combinations. They apply them with longer decay times and more systematically, to all the instruments and all the tunes which they play.

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In their hands, these techniques are not features of particular songs, but cornerstones of homogenous musical spaces, in which all their repertoire can be developed, with its contrasted emotional shades. This theory of art and magic was developed with durable objects in mind, but its author pointed out that it could hold as well for performances see Gell 13, 95, and Animals also hear these properties, and respond to sounds and to the information contained in sounds. But to hear music […] we must be able to hear an order that contains no information about the physical world, which stands apart from the ordinary workings of cause and effect, and which is irreducible to any physical organization.

This, in turn, is essential for musical expectancies to arise on musical causality see also Ockelford , Ethnographic accounts from more musical traditions are needed to understand this issue. How do they relate to each other?


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This question is of course larger than the use of artificial echo and reverb. But the latter offer a vantage point to dive into it, as they play on the ambiguities between the properties of the sounds, and those of the places where they sound. Cambridge, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Buchanan ed. New York, Pantheon Books. Coote and A. Shelton eds. Oxford, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Aldershot, Ashgate. London, Academic Press, Bucarest, Editura Muzical. Bucarest, Paideia. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Actual echo was achieved by playing back with a slight delay two or more magnetic tapes bearing the same content. Nowadays virtually all artificial reverberations and echoes rely on electronic sound processing. In , I carried ten months of fieldwork on amplified music in Bucharest, with the support of a fellowship at the New Europe College.