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Seligman C. Inst, vol. II, Part in, July, XL, Sell Rev. Essays on Islam. Slatin Sir R. Fire and Sword in the Sudan, St John J. Stewart C. Khartoum, Feb. Rerum Geographicarum Libri xvn. Casaubon, Sulpicius Severus. Vitae Patrum, ed. Chronique d'Abou-Djafar Mohammed Tabari. Idyllia Quoted by Letronne, q. Tremaux P. Voyage en Ethiopie au Soudan oriental et dans la Nigritie. Perron et Jomard. Van Dyck E. History of the Arabs and their Literature. Laibach, The present state of Egypt, or A new relation of a late voyage into that Kingdom performed in the years and translated.

Volney C. Travels through Syria and Egypt in the Years , and Von Luschan F. The Early Inhabitants of Western Asia. Von Muller. Historiae Augustae Scriptores, ed. Waddington G. Journal of a Visit to some Parts of Ethiopia. Wallin G. Wellsted Lieut. Travels in Arabia. Werne F. African Wanderings. Johnston The Traveller's Library, vol. Westermann Diedrich.

The Shilluk People. Their language and folk- lore. Philadelphia Pa. Wilkinson Sir J. Wilson Sir C. Wilson Sir R. A Digest of Anglo-Mohammedan Law. Wilson C. Uganda and the Egyptian Sudan. Chapter by, in The World's History. Wingate Sir F. Woolley C. Museum, Philadelphia, Karanog: The Town.

Wright W. Arabic Grammar. Register zu den genealogischen Tabellen der Arabischen Stamme und Familien Yakut 11 a. Dictionary of Learned Men Margoliouth, Geographical Dictionary Zaydan G. See lourn. Zavemer Rev. Arabia: the Cradle of Islam Edinburgh and London, Tribes of Arabs, it is true, pasture their herds at certain seasons south of this line, and in some cases cultivate: the Bakkara tribes of southern Kordofan and Darfur and the Seli'm Bakkara on the White Nile are the most notable examples of this : but allowing a few exceptions due to the suitability of the sub-tropical zone for cattle-breeding it is fairly accurate to say that the country south of the twelfth parallel is not yet arabicized in the sense that is true of the drier zones of country further north, where the Arab, or soi-disant Arab, is in undisputed possession.

It is proposed in these first chapters to give some general idea of the ethnic characteristics of the people who inhabited this northern portion of the Sudan 1 before the period of Muhammadan immigration. II Now, it is well to realize in advance, the fact that the Muham- madan settlement in the Sudan caused a profound modification of the pre-existing native stock is apt to obscure the other equally important fact that long before the Islamic period Arabian races had been crossing over into Egypt and the Sudan. Let us then, as a first step in the discussion of our subject, attempt to estimate the extent to which non-Muhammadan immigration to the Sudan took place from Arabia during this earlier period.

III It would be a most surprising fact if the connection between the two sides of the Red Sea had not been intimate from the earliest dawn of history, for their inhabitants were to a large extent cognate races 2 and the passage was an easy one. The merchant led the way. From the most ancient times trade in aromatic gums, ivory and gold flourished between Arabia and the ports of Egypt, the Sudan and Abyssinia 3. Settlements arose on the African coast and traders carried their wares at least as far as the 1 I limit the meaning of the term " Sudan" throughout to the country at present so called.

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This excludes Abyssinia and Eritrea. Elliot Smith, Ancient Egyptians, p. May , pp.


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The widespread occurrence of marine shells, presumably from the shores of the Red Sea, in the predynastic graves of Upper Egypt and Nubia is positive evidence of the reality of such intercourse 1. IV Some again have held that the conquering dynastic Egyptians who worshipped Horus were in fact Arabians who entered Africa by way of Massowa, and in the course of developing this theory Professor Navile 2 quotes the saying of Juba, recorded by Pliny, that the Egyptians were of Arabian origin, and "as for the neighbours of the Nile from Syene to Meroe, they are not Ethiopian nations but Arabs.

Even the temple of the Sun, not far distant from Memphis, is said to have been founded by the Arabs 3. V Some such movements are probably reflected in the ever recur- rent tradition that the early dynasties of Egypt were of Ethiopian origin. It is perhaps too often assumed that "Ethiopian" is neces- sarily the equivalent of " negro. Throughout the whole of this period a large proportion of the world's commerce passed by way of Abyssinia and the coast of the Red Sea to the Nile 5 , and the populations on either side of the straits of Bab el Mandeb became more and more assimilated to one another 6.

Johnston in jfourn. Palgrave, C. Arabia, 11, ff. Bent, p. VII As regards early Arabian immigration by land to Egypt, there are some who, while rejecting the theory that the early dynasts came through Ethiopia, would yet bring them from Arabia into Egypt by way of the peninsula of Sinai 2. This is very doubtful. The positive evidence, dating from the time of the earliest dynasties, does, how- ever, prove that the eastern side of the Delta was being perpetually harried by nomads from Sinai and Syria 3 , and there are numerous early reliefs shewing a Pharaoh smiting the Beduin, "the sand- dwellers" of the mining regions of Sinai 4.

VIII During the twelfth dynasty, nearly years before the Christian era, the monuments prove that there was also trade with these Beduin. The more amicable conditions now prevailing are also suggested by the wording of the Tale of Sinuhe's flight to Palestine during the time of the same dynasty : I came to the Walls of the Ruler, made to repulse the Beduin I went on I fell down for thirst I upheld my heart, I drew my limbs together, as I heard the sound of the lowing of cattle, I beheld the Beduin.

That chief among them, who had been in Egypt, recognized me. He gave me water, he cooked for me milk. I went with him to his tribe, good was that which they did for me 7. IX About B. This people may have been Hittite or possibly Arabian by race: the evidence points to the former 9 , but we may assume in any case that Arabia sent its quota of Beduin in the wake of the invaders 10 and that during the Hyksos period and that succeeding it trade between east and west flourished to a larger extent than formerly.

Lepsius, q. Navile, loc. The first of these dates from the first dynasty, and all fall within the period of the first six dynasties. Their power received a check at the hands of Seti I c. By the time of Rameses 's death there were numbers of Arabians captured in war and enrolled as serfs in Egypt, or employed as mercenaries 4. XI The power of Egypt then began to decline, and during the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first dynasties the Libyans so over- ran Egypt that by B.

The presumption is that some of the eastern nomads, who were divided by no great racial gulf from the Libyans, took the oppor- tunity at the same time to settle with them in the Delta and inter- marry with them as they had probably already intermarried with the native Egyptians. Psammetichus I was practically a vassal of that power in the early years of his reign ; but later, as Babylon supplanted Assyria, he asserted his indepen- dence and entered into widely ramifying foreign relations with the powers to the north and east; and his successors imitated his example.

Cambyses, King of Persia, occupied Egypt. The presumption is made more certain by the fact that when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in B. XV In the reign of the first Ptolemy we hear of the Arabs providing great convoys of camels for the abortive invasion by Antigonus 2 , and no doubt they transported and raided both sides alternately through- out all the wars of the successive Ptolemies on the Syrian frontier; but to what extent they made any permanent settlement in Egypt during this period it is impossible to say. XVI Meanwhile let us not forget the more continuous intercourse that was proceeding further south.

Not only were trade relations maintained, but the Kahtanites or Himyarites of southern Arabia were forming a definite link between the Arabs and the negro popu- lation of Abyssinia 3 , and periodically invaded the Nile valley. We need not pay much attention to the tale of Sheddad, a Himyarite king of the 'Adites, who invaded Egypt in the days of Ashmun the great-grandson of Ham son of Noah, and built pyramids and reser- voirs before he was compelled to retreat 4 , but the tradition that one of the early kings of Yemen, 'Abd Shams Saba, the founder of Marib, invaded Egypt 5 probably refers to an actual incursion from the south-east during the Nubian period.

The former was born, according to Caussin de Perceval, about B. He is said to have made 1 Mahaffy, History of Egypt, pp. Palgrave, Arabia, I, , Abu el Fida, pp. P- By reason of the nickname he was sometimes confused with Alexander the Great "Dhu el Karnayn. Part III, Chap. This story evidently points to a Himyaritic expedition into the Sudan by way of Abyssinia. In the first place, numbers of them are said to have settled west of Egypt among the Libyan tribes and multiplied with these under the common name of Berbers : such is the origin assigned with very reasonable probability to the Sanhaga and Ketama sections of the Berber 2.

In this connection it may be noted that at the battle of Actium Arabs of the Yemen fought for Antony on the galleys of Cleopatra 3. Secondly, it seems certain that colonies of Himyarites settled in Nubia, though it is hard to say whether the traces of Himyaritic carnayn' 'a deux cornes'. Sittius may be Afrikus, and the name Afrikus may have been merely conferred in honour of the expedition. Ibn Khaldun 1, 27 calls him "ibn Sa'ifi. Ibn el Rakfk q.

Carette, loc. Ibn Khaldun only allows the Himyaritic origin of the Sanhaga and the Ketama. He puts down the rest as related to the Philistines and descended from Canaan. This traveller visited Zhafar, a month's journey by land from Aden, and records the striking resemblance between the food, the habits and the women's proper names among the people there and among those in the Moghrab. He says "This resemblance bears out the statement that Sanhaga and other tribes of the Moghrab are of Himyaritic origin.

At this period sun-worship was flourishing both in Southern Arabia and among the Himyaritic colonists of northern Abyssinia 2 and the worship of the same deity that survived at Talmis Kalabsha until the time of Justinian 3 may well have formed a bond of sympathy between Himyarite and Nubian through the medium of Abyssinia and so have facilitated and encouraged intercourse between the two.

Pliny, as we have already seen, even quotes Juba to the effect that the Nile dwellers from Aswan to Meroe were not Ethiopians but Arabians 4 — a statement which though obviously exaggerated may be taken as containing at least some grain of truth. There is, too, a tradition 5 that Abu Malik, one of the last of the true Himyarite dynasty, made an expedition into the Bega country in quest of emeralds and there perished with most of his army.

The event on which this tale is founded probably occurred during the early decades of the Christian period 6. XIX In 25 B. Augustus, under the impression that the merchan- dize brought to the Red Sea ports by the Arabs was produced by Arabia, commissioned Aelius Gallus, the Prefect of Egypt, to conquer that country 7. This expedition was a failure ; but about thirty years later, having learned that the most valuable merchandize brought by the Arabs came originally from India, and desiring a monopoly for ships from Egyptian ports, the Romans imposed a 25 per cent, import duty on goods from Arabian ports and destroyed Adane, the chief trading centre of them all 8.

For about two centuries Roman shipping was developed at the expense of the Arab 9 , but the old freedom of inter- course between the two coasts does not seem to have been checked thereby, and by the time of Diocletian a. XX These two peoples, closely connected by race, were now united by the bond of a common religion. Axum had been finally converted 1 See Index, sub " Himyar. Van Dyck, pp. Muir, Life of Mahomet, pp. Ixxix, Ixxx. He attributes to this cause the northward migration of the Kuda'a and Beni Azd.

The Yemen had been converted half a century earlier and remained nominally Christian until about a.

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XXI Both Anastasius and Justinus I sent embassies to the Himyarites seeking their aid to check the increasing inroads of the Persians by an attack in the rear 3 ; but their plans were nullified by the trouble that had arisen between the Himyarites and the Axumites as a result of the persecution of Christians by Dhu Nawas. Elesbaan, king of Axum, invaded the Yemen and subdued it about a. This man, with the aid of the Persians, succeeded in driving most of the Abyssinians out of el Yemen and enslaving the rest. Some of these latter, however, murdered him about a.

The Persians then occupied the country until it was con- quered from them by the Muhammadans in 5. Now, curiously enough, this Sayf ibn Dhu Yazan is fabled to have founded the kingdom of Kanem 6. That he did not do so is quite certain, great traveller though he is related to have been in Arab tradition 7. But during the tumultuous years which ushered in the seventh century in Arabia and immediately preceded Islam, there may have been, and probably was, some emigration from the Yemen to Africa, and it is not outside the bounds of possibility that some of these Himyarites penetrated to the far west, called themselves members of the royal family of el Yemen and were accepted as such by the ignorant natives 8.

The legend that a Himyarite founded a dynasty in Bornu at the end of the sixth century Nachtigal ap. Schurtz, loc. I, 19 ap. Carbou, loc. I suppose Sultan Bello to refer to this movement when he speaks of certain Berber slaves and conscripts in el Yemen as rebelling against the Himyarites and being forced in consequence to emigrate to the African coast. The Persians themselves, as a race, had affinities with the Arme- noid invaders of an earlier date 1 , but among their number were members of many Syrian and Arab tribes 2 , and with these latter their congeners already settled in Egypt were no doubt in active sympathy 3.

They had lost the support of the Arabs as a result of the Islamic move- ment, and by Heraclius had driven them out. But by now both Roman and Persian were enfeebled by con- tinuous warfare and the Arabs began to swarm over the frontiers of Egypt. For a while they were bought off by subsidies, but in 'Amr ibn el 'Asi led his forces into the country, defeated the prefect Theodorus at Heliopolis, and drove the Romans back into the Delta.

By Babylon had fallen and Alexandria was besieged. Terms were then agreed upon, and in September , Alexandria was surrendered and Egypt passed under the domination of the Arabs. Their immediate success cannot be credited wholly to religious fervour. A proportion were no doubt inspired by the new faith, but many were with equal certainty animated by purely material con- siderations; and their task was the easier in that they were freeing from a foreign yoke a country in which numbers of the population already consisted of their own kith and kin.

XXV We have thus seen that in pre-Islamic times there was a direct current of Arab immigration into Egypt, and most probably into Libya, through southern Syria, and a similar influx into the Sudan through Abyssinia, and a channel of trade from the mid- Red Sea coast to the Thebaid. It may therefore be regarded as more than probable that the ever-increasing infiltration of Arabs from these three directions, and their converging movements up and down the common highway of the Nile, whether in search of trade or pasture, had by the beginning of the seventh century led to the implanting at various points of a definite, if racially indeterminate, Arab strain in the population of the northern Sudan.

But they soon rebelled against them, and usurped the country — Their government nourished for some time and their dominion extended to the very extremity of this tract of the earth ; and Wadai and Bagharmee, as well as the country of Houssa II All of these, with the exception of the nomad Bega in the eastern desert, were commonly included by the invaders under the vague denomination of Nuba. This term first occurs in literature in the geography of Eratosthenes 1 , who was born in B. He speaks of "the Novfiat.

The ultimate derivation of the word is not known, but it appears to be of very ancient origin and may be connected through the Coptic NOTBT meaning "to plait" with "nebed," the word used in the inscription of Thothmes I date c. With ethnological differentiation they 1 Ap. Strabo, Bk. Casaubon, p. Inst, xliii, , pp. The latter says, "With regard to the word in the inscription of Thothmes I rendered 'the curly-haired,' i.

Gold and slaves have been the chief attraction of the Sudan in all ages. Budge, I, , II, Cairo, Lepsius speaks of the probably incorrect extension of the name "Nuba" to all lands out of which slaves were brought to the north Nubische Grammatik.

The Present Inhabitants of Nubia III At the present day the inhabitants of Nubia, which may be taken as extending along the Nile banks from Aswan as far south approximately as the eighteenth parallel, to the vicinity, that is, of Debba and Korti 1 , are commonly known to the north as Barabra "Berberines" and to the south as Danagla, i. The term "Barabra" is used to include the Kanuz between Aswan and Korosko, a people whom we shall see to be an element distinct, the "Nuba" round Haifa, the Sukkot, the Mahass proper, and frequently the Danagla. The Danagla extend as far north only as the vicinity of Arko Island and do not admit that they are Barabra.

Physically and linguistically the Sukkot and Mahass fall into a single group and are distinct from the Kanuz and Danagla. The two latter, however, bear obvious resemblances to one another and their lan- guages are similar. This curious fact is due without doubt to the geographical peculiarities of the Nile valley between Korosko and Dongola, the effect of which is to leave the Mahass and Sukkot more or less isolated 3.

IV All these people are Muhammadans and have Arab blood in their veins, but racial characteristics derived from non-Arab ancestors have survived very persistently, and more noticeably so among the Mahass and Sukkot. The Kanuz and Danagla approximate very much more to the Arab type.

At the same time, the importation of slave women from the south, which has proceeded uninterruptedly for centuries, has lent a further measure of spurious homogeneity to all of these Nubian peoples 4. Napata Breasted, A. Beckett, Cairo Sc. Sudan, i, 83, where the term Barabra is used to include the Danagla. Berbery ; but that appellation is seldom made use of by the inhabitants themselves, when speaking of their own nation. By "Mahass proper" are meant the Mahass of Mahass district as distinct from the Mahass settled, e. Schweinfurth, 11, V As regards the Barabra as a whole one thing is quite certain: there are no grounds for closely connecting them as a race with the Nuba of southern Kordofan as Riippell, Rossi and Keane did 1.

They are very similar in type to the Middle Nubians who lived between and years ago in the same locality, but these had no more racial affinity with the southern Nuba than the Barabra-Danagla have, and the latter are almost the complete antithesis of the southern Nuba both physically and culturally 2. It may be the case, and probably is, that the southern Nuba are to some extent the modern representatives of the race of negroes who temporarily held Dongola and the cataract country south of Haifa in the days of the Middle Kingdom and early Empire and whose congeners, no doubt at a later date, formed part of the forces of the Ethiopian dynasty that conquered Egypt and ruled it for something less than a century, but these negroes were aliens in the northern Sudan and most of them were forced back to the south, and their place in Lower Nubia was taken by its original inhabitants and settlers from Egypt.

In the Dodekaschoinos 3 it is probable that the negroes had hardly displaced the original inhabitants, but south of Haifa they must have done so temporarily and to some extent modified the racial type in the process. But, even so, allowing for periods of interruption, it is true to say that from the time of the Middle Empire B.

VI It will be seen too that this prolonged infiltration to the south was more than the return of an ancient population, reinforced by fresh blood, to its quondam home on the river. When once the Arabs had overthrown the Christian kingdom of Dongola and established themselves in its place, they rapidly amalgamated with the local Nubians and began to send colonies further afield. Thus it came about that Barabra, with an Arab leaven, pene- trated into Kordofan and settled round about the most northernly of the Nuba mountains and intermarried with the negroes who were 1 See Seligman, Journ.

For Keane, see Man: Past and Present, p. The immigrating race, in addition, imposed its own language upon the blacks in their vicinity, and thus are explainable the linguistic affinities which have troubled so many generations of investigators. The Barabra, in short, do not speak a language akin to that of the northern Nuba of southern Kordofan because the negroes conquered Nubia, — the negroes probably spoke some language or languages of their own that may still survive in the mountain fastnesses of the far south, — but because the Barabra colonized the country round the foot of the northern hills of Dar Nuba.

The conclusion, however, has here anticipated the argument and we must revert. The Earliest Inhabitants of Nubia VII As regards the earliest period it has been proved that those shadowy inhabitants of northern Nubia, who are known to archae- ologists as "Group A," were contemporaries of the pre-dynastic Egyptians, that both buried their dead in the same way and that in cultural matters there were marked similarities. The two peoples must have been practically uniform 2 , and their stock may have extended in a more or less diluted form from Egypt to the Blue Nile and Abyssinia 3.

They were a "small, dark-haired, black-eyed, glabrous people" bearing a close resemblance to the Libyans of the southern Mediterranean seaboard, and were, in the earliest period of all, devoid of all negro characteristics 4. The First Arrival of the Negroes VIII Later, about the time of the third dynasty, negro types began to settle in Nubia as far north as Aswan, and from now onwards "the population that grew up was a mixture of early Nubian and dynastic Egyptian with an ever increasing Negro element 5.

Nubia, Report for , 11, Chap.

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Of this stock he also says p. March , pp. It is likely that they arrived there during the second millennium B. The "C Group" in Lower Nubia IX By the time of the twelfth dynasty the fusion of races in Lower Nubia had resulted in the production of the singularly homogeneous blend of traits which distinguish the people of the Middle Empire, that is, dynasties twelve to seventeen, or "C Group"; the very type which in a modified form is represented in the same locality by the Barabra of the present day.

By the same date the population further south must have become almost exclusively negro nehes. Early Libyan Influences in Nubia X Concurrently with the early negro infusion into Nubia further racial modification was probably being caused by the settlement on the Nile of Libyans Temehu from the western oases and the steppes of northern Kordofan.

In the time of the sixth dynasty, about B. Lower Nubia on the west side 2 , and, he says, "I found the chief of Yam going to the land of Temeh to smite Temeh as far as the western corner of heaven. I went forth after him to the land of Temeh and I pacified him The advocates of the Libyan theory find here evidence that the Libyans Temehu lived between the first and second cataracts, but as Giuffrida-Ruggeri remarks 5 , "there is still the possibility suggested by Hrdlicka 6 that these Temehu lived Collections, lix, No.

The negroes, he thinks, must have ousted them at a later date. Reisner thinks Harkhuf followed the river and doubts if he pene- trated as far as Sennar.


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  • The products brought back, he points out, might have been obtained in trade anywhere between Dongola and Sennar, whatever their ultimate origin 3. However, as large and wealthy Arab tribes have chosen to live in the Bayuda desert for centuries it is also likely in any case that races of similar habits and inclinations occupied it before them. That the earliest of such to do so were of Libyan origin appears to be sufficiently established, but the extent, if any, to which these races settled on the Nile and mixed with the Nubian population of the Middle Nubian period is still undetermined 4.

    XI The Middle Nubian stock was also mixed, it is probable, with another strain, that of the red-skinned Bega from the eastern deserts 5. But in the main, from Assuan for some distance south of Haifa, it was negroid, though certainly not true negro 6. In connection with these a series of forts and garrisons was established from the Egyptian frontier as far as the lower end of the present Dongola Province, and at several of these, notably at Semna and Kerma Inebuw- Amenemhat , regular colonies of Egyptians were founded.

    During this period the district between Aswan and Semna became populous and prosperous. Every lateral valley had its village or group of huts. Every square meter of alluvial soil appears to have been cultivated.

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    The people were 1 1, Giuffrida-Ruggeri combats this theory in Man, April 5. The question of Berber influences in the western desert at a later date occurs again later in this chapter. A discussion of the ethnic place of the Bega follows in Chap. Nubians, perhaps descended in part from the harried population of the Old Empire, but increased by immigrants from the more exposed districts south of Semna. Culturally they were still in an uncivilized state, nearly neolithic.

    They were sowers and herdsmen, hunters and fishermen. The only crafts were pot-making, cloth and mat-weaving, and basket-making, — all carried out by hand with the simplest of tools. South of Semna, of course, conditions were far less settled and periodical punitive expeditions were necessary. The expedition of Sesostris I appears, however, to have resulted in the "thorough subjugation of the country, certainly as far as the upstream end of Dongola Province, and perhaps well into Berber Province. The fort at Kerma was enlarged and the settlement increased, and the result has been shewn by Reisner's recent excava- tions.

    These prove that a "special local civilization, a curious modi- fication of the culture of Egypt, deeply affected by local forms, materials and customs," was developed and throve. About , however, Amenemhat's fort was sacked as the result of a rising or invasion from the south. Sesostris III at once led an army into the Sudan and crushed the rebels and set up the famous stela at Semna, 37 miles south of Haifa, inscribed with the order forbidding the "negroes" to pass downstream beyond it for ever 1.

    From his time until the New Empire no mention of Nubia is found in the Egyptian inscriptions, but its occupation certainly continued and one infers that local conditions were more or less settled. Kerma had been restored and made the administrative centre of a province, but it seems that about B. Nubia in the Time of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Ahmose I placed Lower Nubia "Wawat" under an Egyptian Governor, and his successor, Amenhotep Amenophis I, appointed in the first of a long line of Egyptian viceroys, who ruled Ethiopia during the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties.

    In the following reign, that of Thothmes I, occurred the serious revolt and its suppression to which reference has already been made. Mines were worked by the Government, taxes were collected, and considerable trade was developed with the out- districts. In fact, from B. The Egyptians followed up their military and political occupation by filling the land with Egyptians, — soldiers, officials, priests, merchants, and crafts- men. Each of these was a centre of propaganda, a community of scribes learned in Egyptian medicine, law, and religion, and of artizans trained in every ancient craft The better agricultural areas at least as far south as Semneh were assigned to the support of the temples and turned over to immigrants from Egypt and their descendants for cultivation The viceroy himself with his personal staff probably shifted his quarters from el-Kab or Elephantine to Semneh or Napata as the season or the necessities of the administration made it seem advisable Most of the Egyptians were permanently domiciled in the country and had brought their families with them.

    The decimated tribes grew into a completely submissive population, were racially affected by intermarriage with the ruling class, and became more or less Egyptianized. The country, as a whole, was thoroughly Egyptianized, especially in religion. The names of the local gods were remembered, and all the gods of the Egyptian pantheon were called upon in their special functions, but the great god was Amon- Ra, the god of the Theban family who had conquered so much of the world He dwelt in the midst of the "Holy Mount" which we now call Gebel Barkal, and in the days to come his oracles were to decide the fates of even the kings of Ethiopia.

    Now there are no pictorial representations of Nubians dating from any dynasty earlier than the eighteenth, but it has been sug- gested as curious 1 that from then until the time of the twentieth dynasty — at a time, that is, when we know the Middle Nubian popu- lation to have been physically similar to that of the present day — the Nubians who were conquered by the great kings of the New Empire, and who were probably the same people as those whose boundaries Senusert Sesostris III some three centuries before had fixed at Semna, are habitually represented as "full-blooded Negroes with coarse negro features.

    The negroes living south of the second cataract and in the country beyond used to raid periodically to the north of 1 Seligman, loc. Senusert III repelled them 1 and fixed their boundary above Haifa. Later, the negroes — no doubt the same ones — gave further trouble, and Thothmes I defeated them even more completely and forced them back to the third cataract. It seems probable that it is these negro invaders who are depicted from the eighteenth to the twentieth dynasty, and not the more permanent and rightful inhabi- tants of Lower Nubia.

    Discussion of the Negro Type found in Nubia under the twelfth and eighteenth dynasties.

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    XIV There is some reason to think that these negroes whom Senusert III defeated and forbade to pass north of Haifa, the " plaited-haired ones" with whom Thothmes I later warred farther to the south, the men depicted as tall, coarse, full-blooded negroes, were probably akin to the tall mesaticephalous type that now survives in southern Kordofan and whose remains, dating from the time of the twenty-fifth dynasty Taharka, Tanutamon, etc.

    They no doubt followed the Nile in their northward movement, impelled perhaps by the Nilotic stock behind them, but it is as well to bear in mind the possibility that some of them also came overland through Kordofan by way of the Wadi el Mukaddam 3. XV It is to this type, the "nebed" that the name Nuba is, I sug- gest, most properly applied, and it is a noticeable fact that the Arab of the present day hardly ever speaks of the Nilotic negro of the south by that name: he instinctively reserves it, on the other hand, a for the big black of southern Kordofan, b the hybrid race living 1 See above, and Breasted, A.

    I, Moya, and Prof. Seligman who has closely studied the Nuba of southern Kordofan, agree as to the close resemblance between the early Ptolemaic negro of the Gezira and the present type in southern Kordofan see Seligman, loc. Moya] have yielded the remains of a tall coarsely built Negro or Negroid race with extraordinarily massive skulls and jaws.

    In a general way they appear to resemble the coarser type of Nuba living in south Kordofan at the present day, and it is significant that the cranial indices of the men of Jebel Moya and the Nuba hills agree closely. Section of the Brit. Seligman says: "They are a tall, stoutly-built, muscular people, with a dark, almost black skin. They are predominantly mesaticephalic In the form "Nubia," however, the name came to be applied not to the country whence these negroes came but to the scene of their greatest triumphs, the valley of the Nile between the first cataract and Napata.

    Nay more, by the irony of fate, although the northern portion of this same country throughout the early and the later dynastic, the Ptolemaic, and Roman periods, and again in the time of the Mamliiks, was considered almost an annex of Egypt and was largely populated by Egyptian colonies, the use of the name " Nubia " was tending more and more to be restricted to it rather than to the southern portion, and we shall see that by the time of Ibn Selim in the latter part of the tenth century it was not uncommon to regard it as applying par excellence to that most northernly district of the Sudan commonly called Maris, which ended some way north of the second cataract 1.

    How this affected the Sudan immediately we do not know, but in the records of B. He even, it appears, invaded Egypt and established his supremacy as far north as Thebes. His capital was at Napata Gebel Barkal , and we may assume that though he and his staff may have been Egypto- Libyans, the mass of his subjects were Nubians of the present darker type in the north and negroes or semi-negroes in the south. Budge, 1, , and n, ; also Letronne, loc. Evidence of the con- sistency with which this tract south of Aswan was considered an annex of Egypt will be adduced later see Part II, Chap.

    This king took further advantage of the decadence that had over- taken Egypt and completed the work begun by his father in over- running the whole country and making it tributary to him. This monarch, not content with merely receiving tribute, firmly established his authority over the whole of Egypt. He was followed by Shabataka 2 , and the latter, about B. But he was unsuccessful, and in B. Esarhaddon forced his way to the Egyptian frontier and heavily defeated him. Taharka retired southwards leaving the Delta and Memphis in the hands of the Assyrians 3.

    Esarhaddon, however, did not press his success, and as he with- drew northwards Taharka reoccupied Memphis and renewed his intrigues with the Palestinian kings. XX On the death of Esarhaddon in , his son Ashurbanipal continued the fresh campaign that had been started against Taharka and achieved a decisive victory in the eastern Delta. Taharka again retired southwards. The Assyrians followed and occupied Thebes, reinstated the Libyo-Egyptian dynasts as Governors in Egypt and left garrisons.

    Ashurbanipal himself then returned with his spoil to Nineveh. Shortly afterwards Taharka died 4. By B. Tanutamon was dead and buried with his great fore- fathers Piankhi, Shabaka and Shabataka near Gebel Barkal, and the power of the Sudan over Egypt had come utterly to an end.

    The rulers of that country, too, turned their attention southwards and the province of Meroe was consolidated and developed near the junction of the Atbara and the Nile 3. It was made an integral part of Ethiopia as Ethiopia had been of Egypt. Meroe was Ethiopianized, that is, brought under the influence of the Egyptian culture which had been inherited from the days of the viceroys. But this Egypto-Ethiopian culture Meroe was Ethiopianized, not Egyptianized. About B. The degeneration of the culture became more rapid The Egyptian element was being overborne by others, Libyan, Nubian, negro, or whatever it may have been.

    The fine traits of the educated and skilled Egyptian were visibly fading into the coarse features of a negroid race which may have been slow at forgetting but was incapable of giving a creative impulse to art, learning, or religion. XXIII We now have, as a result of Reisner's work at Nuri and the vicinity, an almost complete list of the kings that followed Tanutamon, but there is no point in recording them here. More important is the fact that certainly by the time of Nastasenen Nastasen , who reigned from B. The temples of Napata with their endowed bodies of priests and crafts- men educated in the learning of Egypt remained the cultural centre of the 1 Breasted, A.

    For further details as to Meroe and for the settlement of the Automoloi in the south see the following chapter. XXIV Some further remarks on Meroe and its people will be attempted in the next chapter, but, before leaving the subject of the inhabitants of Nubia proper, we must first turn to the classical geographers of the Ptolemaic period, since they provide certain items of information that are of value.

    As quoted by Strabo he says: On the left side of the course of the Nile live the Noubai, in Libya, a great race, beginning from Meroe and extending as far as the bends [of the river]. They are not subject to the Ethiopians but live independently, being divided into several sovereignties 1. Agathemerus third century a. Pliny says: "The island of the Semberritae on the Nile obeys a queen. Eight days journey further [north] are the Ethiopian Nubei.

    Their city of Tenupsis is on the Nile 3. Procopius 5 says of Elephantine Aswan in the latter half of the sixth century, "There live, besides many other races, the very large tribes of Blemyes and Nobatae. Strabo, ed. Casaubon, XVII, Ab ea Nubei Aethiopes dierum octo itinere. Oppidum eorum Nilo impositum, Tenupsis.

    Pliny also calls some tribe in Syria by the same name of Nubei. Deinde Taranei, deinde Patami. Muller, Bk. Procopius was born about and died about a. It has been objected 6 that the inhabitants of the oases were un- doubtedly of a Libyan stock, and that the Nobatae were essentially a Nilotic race and could not have been so far north, and that therefore Procopius was at fault. In addition, several lease agreements wherein the lawyers acted on behalf of the lessor and lessee in both wet and dry transactions. Moreover, our attorneys have been involved in delivery and re-delivery of aircraft and handling insurance concerns with Aon Insurance.

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    Islamic banking transactions are based on Islamic principles, which prohibit among other activities the charging of riba interest on loans and require that any return on funds employed by a lender be earned by way of profit derived from a commercial risk taken by the lender. Thus, an Islamic financial institution will lend funds to borrowers on the basis that it shall share in the risks and the rewards taken by the same. DOB 05 Feb ; alt. DOB 05 Jun ; alt. BIF; a. Box , Peshawar, Pakistan; P. Hipolito Taine 2, Col.

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    CHAN, Changtrakul; a. DOB 12 Feb ; alt. CIDCA a. Moussa a. Los Plateros piso 2, Urb. COLOR V, Ignacio Ramirez No. Educacion Alamos, Guadalajara, Mexico; R. A , Aut. Sur No. Juarez No. Centro, Guadalajara, Jalisco , Mexico; R. C, Col. CBSP; a. Guadalupe, Culiacan, Sinaloa , Mexico; R. Alvaro Obregon No. Emiliano Zapata No.

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    IFP; a. Nuevo Reparto El Carme Edif. Milena No. FARMA 3. Ordaz No. Ejido Matamoros No. Matamoros No. Diaz Ordaz No. Box , El Obeid, Sudan; P. Box 36, New Halfa, Sudan; P. Box 1, El Hawata, Sudan; P. Box 22, El Damazin, Sudan; P. Box 8, El Nuhud, Sudan; P. Box , El Gadaref, Sudan; P. Box , Omdurman, Sudan; P. Azteca 0, Col. DOB 16 Mar ; alt. FOSM Mexico ; alt. FSC S. PEJAK; a. GAD S. A, Calle 24N No. Passport AF Colombia ; alt. GI; a. IG; a. Priv y Bldg G.

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    Portuaria Edif. GSC Mexico ; alt. HAMAS a. ADEL, Youcef; a. HAQ, Abdul a. HEQ, Abdul; a. IMAN, Maimaiti; a. HUJI-B; a. IDEK; a. HUA; a. HUM; a. POB Veracruz, Mexico; alt. HICOM a. HIAST; a. ISAT; a. HIR, Musa Abdul; a.