Guide Agency: Its Role In Mental Development (Essays in Environmental Psychology)

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This means the studies findings cannot be reasonably generalized to real life, such as prison settings. The study may also lack population validity as the sample comprised US male students. The studies findings cannot be applied to female prisons or those from other countries. For example, America is an individualist culture were people are generally less conforming and the results maybe different in collectivist cultures such as Asian countries.

A strength of the study is that it has altered the way US prisons are run. For example, juveniles accused of federal crimes are no longer housed before trial with adult prisoners due to the risk of violence against them. The study has received many ethical criticisms, including lack of fully informed consent by participants as Zimbardo himself did not know what would happen in the experiment it was unpredictable. Also, the prisoners did not consent to being 'arrested' at home.

Also, participants playing the role of prisoners were not protected from psychological harm, experiencing incidents of humiliation and distress. For example, one prisoner had to be released after 36 hours because of uncontrollable bursts of screaming, crying and anger. However, in Zimbardo's defence the emotional distress experienced by the prisoners could not have been predicted from the outset. In addition Zimbardo did conduct debriefing sessions for several years afterwards and concluded they were no lasting negative effects.

Another strength of the study is that the harmful treatment of participant led to the formal recognition of ethical guidelines. Studies must now gain ethical approval before they are conducted. An ethics committee review whether the potential benefits of the research are justifiable in the light of possible risk of physical or psychological harm. They may request researchers make changes to the studies design or procedure, or in extreme cases deny approval of the study altogether.

Obedience is a type of social influence where a person follows an order from another person who is usually an authority figure. Milgram wanted to know why Germans were willing to kill Jews during the Holocaust. He thought that Americans were different and would not have followed such orders. Procedure : Milgram wanted to see whether people would obey a legitimate authority figure when given instructions to harm another human being. To test this he created a set up in which two participants were assigned either the role of a teacher this was always given to the true participant or learner a confederate called Mr.

The teacher and learner were put into separate rooms. The teacher was then asked by the experimenter who wore a lab coat to administer electric shocks which were actually harmless to the learner each time he gave the wrong answer.

The Growth of Knowledge: Crash Course Psychology #18

These shocks increased every time the learner gave a wrong answer, from 15 - volts. There were 4 prods and if one was not obeyed then the experimenter read out the next prod, and so on. Milgram did more than one experiment — he carried out 18 variations of his study. All he did was alter the situation IV to see how this affected obedience DV.

For example, when the experimenter instructed and prompted the teacher by telephone from another room, obedience fell to A limitation is that this study lacked ecological validity as it was carried out in a lab under artificial conditions. This means that it might not be possible to generalise the finding to a real life setting, as people do not usually receive orders to hurt another person in real life. Another problem is that the sample was biased. Milgram only used males in his study and this means we cannot generalised the results to females.

It also highlights how we can all be blind to obedience often doing things without question. A strength of the study is that it used a standardised procedure because it was a lab experiment. This is good because it improves the reliability of the study and also helps establish a causal relationship. Milgram also interviewed participants afterwards to find out the effect of the deception.

Apparently Protection of participants - Participants were exposed to extremely stressful situations that may have the potential to cause psychological harm. Many of the participants were visibly distressed. Signs of tension included trembling, sweating, stuttering, laughing nervously, biting lips and digging fingernails into palms of hands.

Three participants had uncontrollable seizures, and many pleaded to be allowed to stop the experiment. Full blown seizures were observed for 3 participants; one so violent that the experiment was stopped. In his defence, Milgram argued that these effects were only short term. Once the participants were debriefed and could see the confederate was OK their stress levels decreased. Milgram also interviewed the participants one year after the event and concluded that most were happy that they had taken part.

However, Milgram did debrief the participants fully after the experiment and also followed up after a period of time to ensure that they came to no harm. Agency theory says that people will obey an authority when they believe that the authority will take responsibility for the consequences of their actions.

For example, when participants were reminded that they had responsibility for their own actions, almost none of them were prepared to obey. Another example of the agenetic state involved a variation of Milgram's study whereby participants could instruct an assistant confederate to press the switches. In this condition This shows when there is less personal responsibility obedience increases. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school and workplace.

With regard to Milgram' study the experimenter is seen as having legitimate authority as he has scientific status.

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The Milgram experiment was carried out many times whereby Milgram varied the basic procedure changed the IV. By doing this Milgram could identify which situational factors affected obedience the DV. Williams wore a laboratory coat a symbol of scientific expertise which gave him a high status.

But when the experimenter dressed in everyday clothes obedience was very low. The uniform of the authority figure can give them status. Milgram's obedience experiment was conducted at Yale, a prestigious university in America. The high status of the university gave the study credibility and respect in the eyes of the participants, thus making them more likely to obey. When Milgram moved his experiment to a set of run down offices rather than the impressive Yale University obedience dropped to This suggests that status of location effects obedience.

People are more likely be obey an authority figure who is in close proximity i. In Milgram's study the experimenter was in the same room as the participant i. If the authority figure is distant it is easier to resistant their orders. When the experimenter instructed and prompted the teacher by telephone from another room, obedience fell to Many participants cheated and missed out shocks or gave less voltage than ordered to by the experimenter.

One of the various characteristics of the authoritarian personality was that the individual is hostile to those who are of inferior status, but obedient of people with high status. Independent behavior is a term that psychologists use to describe behavior that seems not be influenced by other people. This happens when a person resists the pressures to conform or obey.

Social support also decreases obedience to authority. In a variation of Milgram' study two other participants confederates were also teachers but refused to obey. Confederate 1 stopped at volts and confederate 2 stopped at volts. A person can either have an internal locus of control or an external locus of control. The Charles Young School experience is guiding and assisting other schools in evaluating and correcting environmental problems based on the lessons learned in the remediation.

The most important result in this restoration example is not the measured improvement in environmental quality. It has been measured and documented that educational performance and achievement has risen dramatically at the school. It is the demonstration that there is a direct connection between healthy school environments, behaviors and attitudes of students, parents, and educators; and academic performance and achievement.

Andrews, James, and Richard Neuroth. Environmentally Related Health Hazards in the Schools. Detroit, MI, Oct. Andrews and Neuroth discuss the health risks associated with inadequate indoor air quality, which have a greater effect on children than adults. They provide historical background to indoor air quality issues and outline the reasons to be concerned about poor air quality in schools.

Andrews and Neuroth assert that school facility planners have a moral obligation to do everything possible to mitigate conditions that may contribute to poor indoor air 5. Berner, Maureen. Berner presents a case study of public schools in Washington, D. She found that parental involvement affects the physical condition of schools, and building conditions affect student academic achievement scores. Bowers, J. Howard, and Charles Burkett. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Oct. Bowers and Burkett summarize their research on the effect of the environment on students, concluding that a significant difference existed between students at the two elementary schools in regard to the relationship of the physical environment and student achievement Students performed significantly better on various academic tests in the newer school building as compared to those students in the older facilities.

Higher attendance, decreased incidents requiring discipline, and better health were also documented among students in the more modern school. Bartholomew, Robert. Bartholomew puts forth a bibliography of resources for improving school environments with the aim of improving student learning. He states the physical environment has considerable impact on the educational achievements, wellbeing and performance of the students 2.

Baechler, M. Berner, Maureen M. Berry, Michael A. Canter, David, and Peter Stringer. Environmental Interaction. New York: International Universities Press, This is a wide-ranging book that deals with numerous issues related to environmental psychology, examining the complex array of interactions which people have with their physical environment Canter, Stringer and the other contributors to Environmental Interaction investigate how the physical environment affects people.

While not written exclusively about schools, many of the specific factors addressed apply to the school environment, including climate temperature, humidity and ventilation , light, noise and spatial layout. A number of the broader themes discussed are also relevant to the school environment, such as the need for considering how specific factors interact with each other. Overall, the authors argue that physical surroundings have both physiological and psychological effects on humans.

Capell, Lee, and Frank Lewis. Caring for the Indoor Environment in Southern Schools. Capell and Lewis provide a number of reasons that schools should focus on improving indoor air quality, including gains in student and teacher productivity, reduced health problems and lower costs. Chan, Tak Cheung. Chan describes his study of student attitudes regarding their schools, in which he contrasted data collected from a new school with data from older schools. He concluded that students attending the modern school hold far more positive views of their surroundings than those attending the older schools.

Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance - Article -

Chan believes the finding is important for the following reason: positive pupil attitudes produce positive pupil performance and behavior, while negative attitudes contribute to impaired learning and behavioral problems 1. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement. Chan hypothesizes a link between the condition of school facilities and student achievement. However, in this paper, he further breaks the data down and examines the impact of air conditioning, carpeting, and lighting and color choices on academic performance.

Chan, Tak Cheung, and Garth Petrie. Classroom Leadership Online 2. Chan and Petrie review recent developments in brain research as they pertain to learning environments. They address issues such as the need for adequate ventilation, aesthetically pleasing facilities, proper color and lighting, comfortable temperatures and quiet surroundings.

Christie, Daniel, and Carl Glickman. Psychology in the Schools They note that boys usually thrive in a noisier environment, while girls learn better in less noisy surroundings. Tarpon Springs, FL Oct. Earthman and Lemasters present a research review focusing on the effect of school physical environments on student performance. They state that every study they describe clearly shows a relationship between student performance, both achievement and behavior, and the condition of the built environment. Earthman and Lemasters argue it is essential to invest in improving the built environment of schools as a means of improving pupil achievement and behavior.

Earthman, Glen, and Linda Lemasters. Blacksburg, VA, Feb. Earthman and Lemasters review some of the key research into how school facilities affect student performance. They conclude that student achievement is higher when windows, floors, heat, roofs, locker conditions, ceilings, laboratory conditions, age of the facility, lighting, interior paint, mopped floors, cosmetic conditions in general were rated above standard by school staffs.

The attitude and behavior of pupils is also affected by these factors. Dallas, TX, Sept. Earthman, Cash and Berkum examine the connection between school building condition and pupil achievement and behavior in North Dakota high schools. Their results indicate that, there is a relationship between the condition of a school building and the performance of students on achievement tests, although the precise nature of the link was not determined. Freiberg, H. Jerome, ed. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer Press, This book is composed of chapters authored by experts across the globe from several different disciplines.

Freiberg states that climate has clear implications for achievement and academic well being. Frazier, Linda. Deteriorating School Facilities and Student Learning. ERIC Digest 82 Frazier states that teachers and their pupils often work in a physical environment that adversely affects their morale, and, in some cases, their health.

She mentions factors such as run-down physical facilities and problems with indoor air quality. Franke, Deborah L. Green, George. Humidity Can Help. Green uses a variety of field data to argue that maintaining proper humidity in schools can greatly reduce sickness. He points out that decreased incidence of sickness would lead to lower rates of absenteeism.

Higher attendance would presumably lead to more productivity and, therefore, increased learning. Hathaway, Warren. Hathaway asks what signals school buildings send to the students who inhabit them. Factors including air quality, color, light, noise and temperature and their physiological and psychological effects on humans are discussed. Hathaway, Warren, et al.

This paper presents the findings from a study of the effect of different lighting systems on pupils. Data were gathered over the course of more than two years, and the effects of four lighting systems were compared. One central finding was that students who attended class in an environment that included ultraviolet light supplements had better attendance and academic performance, increased physical development, and lower dental cavity rates than those pupils who did not receive extra ultraviolet light.

The authors concluded that lighting systems have effects on pupils beyond mere illumination of the classroom. Hansen, Shirley J. ED King, Jonathan, et al. The Physical Environment and the Learning Process. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, King, et al. Specific factors discussed in this literature review include acoustics, climate, color, and lighting. They state that the effects of color and lighting are less clear, although likely significant.

Kuller, Rikard, and Carin Lindsten. In this Swedish study, Kuller and Lindsten evaluate the effects of natural light versus fluorescent light on school children in the areas of production of stress hormones, classroom performance, body growth, and sick leave. Their results indicate there is sufficient evidence of the importance of natural light in the schools and the potential harmful effects of windowless surroundings. Lewis, Anne, and others. Wolves at the Schoolhouse Door.

Washington, D. McGuffey, C. Improving Educational Standards and Productivity. Herbert Walberg. Berkeley: McCutchan, The specific factors investigated in his literature review include school building age, temperature, lighting, color, noise and building maintenance. McGuffey acknowledges that the range of sources reviewed is broad, and it is sometimes difficult to draw uniform conclusions from such disparate materials.

Nonetheless, McGuffey was confident enough in the data to contend that the above factors do impact student outcomes. Meek, Anne, ed. Designing Places for Learning. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Meek introduces the book by stating that it illustrates ways of looking at schools as places of deep meaning and shows how that view of schools can alter our approaches to designing, constructing, and renovating the buildings we inhabit vi.

The chapters that follow focus on topics such as using architectural planning as a means of school reform, designing buildings that facilitate learning and a positive social environment, and how to revamp older schools. Many case studies are presented to illustrate the effect that the physical environment has on students academic and behavioral outcomes. Maroni, M. Maslow, A. Effects of Esthetic Surroundings: I. Journal of Psychology 41 : They find that the more aesthetically pleasing the room, the higher the ratings of energy and well being reported by subjects tested.

Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance

Myhrvold, A. Myhrvold and Olsen describe a Norwegian study of how the conditions of indoor environments, including indoor air quality and room temperature, affect students. Their results support the hypothesis that a good indoor environment in schools This National Institute of Child Health and Human Development article describes a study seeking to identify factors that facilitate quality child care.

One of the four key structural factors associated with infants receiving sensitive, warm, responsive care from their caregivers was physical environments [that] appeared safe, clean, and stimulating. Sinofsky, Esther, and Frederick Knirk. Instructional Innovator Mar. Sinofsky and Knirk discuss the need to utilize principles of environmental psychology in order to help facilitate, rather than inhibit, learning.

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They focus on the potential impact of building interiors and exterior color schemes on attitudes, behaviors and learning. Pierson, T. Berry, D. Poyser, Larry. An Examination of the Classroom Physical Environment. Indiana University at South Bend, Poyser reviews literature relevant to the effect of the physical environment in schools on students. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, This work serves as an overview of issues relevant to environmental psychology and is composed of a broad range of readings on topics related to the field. The introduction states that all organisms engage in a complex interchange with their environments in the course of which they modify, and are modified by, what they encounter.

This viewpoint is a useful foundation through which environmental psychology can be understood, including the effect of the school environment on pupils. The school environment is not specifically addressed in much depth in Environmental Psychology, but the fundamental themes regarding the multiple ways in which the environment affects human behavior are relevant. Sleeman, Phillip, and D. Rockwell, eds. Designing Learning Environments. New York: Longman, This book covers a broad spectrum of school design planning issues, from site selection to technology usage. Areas discussed in these sections of the book include controlling noise levels, providing sufficient and appropriate lighting, and ensuring proper temperature, humidity and ventilation levels.

An ability to communicate between student and teacher is possible only with good sound control at range been 58 and 65 db. At these levels normal speech can be easily heard throughout the school building. Beyond 67db, distraction occurs. This research shows that without carpet, effective sound control in open space classrooms is virtually impossible to achieve. This Internet site includes a variety of short articles and literature reviews regarding the effect of the school environment on student learning. Since this series has presented in-depth research studies and significant findings in child development and its related disciplines.

Each issue consists of a single study or a group of papers on a single theme, accompanied usually by commentary and discussion. Like all Society for Research in Child Development SRCD publications, the Monographs enable development specialists from many disciplines to share their data, techniques, research methods, and conclusions.

Centrally, this journal publishes both theoretical and empirical peer-reviewed articles that examine one of the Nordic countries or compare them, or offer comparisons of the Nordic countries with other parts of the world. The Journal Social sciences is published biannually Online and Print version emphasizing on various social studies, thereby providing an insight into our society.

Studies of Changing Societies SCS Journal is the interdisciplinary collection of scholarly articles in various fields of social sciences including area that cut across different sub-fields. The journal publishes articles in English which discuss methodological issues related to survey research; see SRM's focus and scope for more details about articles published in SRM. Electronic Journals. Demographic Research Demographic Research aims to publish top-quality research and related material from the full range of disciplines that bear on demography, including the social sciences, the life sciences, mathematics and statistics, policy research, and research on the discipline itself.

Diversity and Equality in Health and Care The journal embraces topics such as gender, disability, spirituality, culture, migration and sexual orientation and other factors relating to marginalised or underserved populations. International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences The main objective of the International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences RIMCIS is to disseminate scientific knowledge and generate debate in an interdisciplinary context, linking the different areas of social sciences such as anthropology, political science, history, geography, sociology, philosophy.

International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy The International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy is an open access, blind peer reviewed journal that publishes critical research about challenges confronting criminal justice systems around the world. Journal of Comparative Social Work JCSW publishes articles on subjects of importance for social work with a special emphasis on comparative research. Journal of Economics and Behavioural Studies JEBS provides a forum for the intellectual exchange of academic research in the fields of economics, finance and behavioral studies.

Journal of Social Care The Journal of Social Care provides a forum for managers, practitioners and students undergraduate and postgraduate of social care to share, through publication, their original research, practice reflections, literature and book reviews. Journal of Social Intervention JSI aims to promote available academic research and reflections on practice in social intervention to a readership of academics and professionals.

Journal of Social Work Practice This journal promotes the use of psychodynamic and systemic perspectives to explore and explain social work practice and relationship-based practice.