New routes for people to engage with politics are now essential. Generalised allusions to the power of new social media and networking are equally unlikely to help and raise their own issues. Trolling and the hostility of online commentary can actually reinforce feelings of isolation, and not all groups have equal access to the internet. Instead we need to think, talk and act differently to rekindle a popular politics of the everyday. But these kind of initiatives tend to privilege the usual suspects who are more likely to be engaged in politics anyway.
First we need to develop different narratives about the things that matter to people that politics are meant to deal with: from housing to childcare and job security. These are unlikely to be forthcoming through a UK mass media that is more skewed to the political right wing than ever in living memory. Those of us who want change must stop just talking to each other and instead reach out to talk to others — anywhere, in shops, streets and buses. Not to get people to vote a particular way, but to begin to listen to what worries and troubles people — and with them co-produce new narratives and campaigns for action.
Reading and literacy groups, such as Reading Groups For Everyone , offer a model to help people make better sense together of the divisive messages they received from dominant politicians and mass media. It is perhaps time to re-imagine the old pre-war cycling, rambling and walking clubs. Some of these clubs are still going , but they need to be renewed and re-popularised. We have to generate a new sense of social responsibility. Instead of just being victims they have been at the vanguard of pressure for change.
Getting together provides the starting point for acting together.
- Violence et nationalisme (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition).
- Violence et nationalisme (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition)?
- Limpero dei lupi (Italian Edition).
- Six Songs from the East, op. 42, no. 1: Folksong (Volkslied).
- Mais acessadas de The Blood Countess?
- join the rebellion.
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We need to think more in terms of a proactive Pride Festival than a reactive mass meeting against more government cutbacks. We should remember that the best way of challenging big lies is small acts of truth and kindness. Every one of the ideas set out here is happening now — and many more too. But what is still needed is to line up all these ducks in a row and make them the key direction for a much-needed, concerted attempt to develop a new popular, rather than populist politics. As the play begins, the audience is introduced to a bizarre combination of an interracial trio — two white bums, Duff and Loco and a black prostitute.
The two main characters of the play, Duff and Loco, engage in a deceptively hollow discussion which focuses on issues pertaining to life, beauty, compromise and tolerance.
The writer gives a warning sign to the audience that life is at the disposal of these whites for whom it is a mere cake walk. Their conversation is interrupted by the entrance of the Negro woman out of the doorway in blue slouch hat. What ensues is the immediacy in her to consort the two white bums. They commence to engage her in a crass and obscene banter by overtly employing sexual images. All these holes in your body I want to fill. This statement of Duff is very central to the understanding of the color inequality that subtly engulfs the socio-political framework of USA.
New York is known for its interracial co-mingling and is also the centre-house of immigrant population. The African American ethnic minority forms the largest immigrant populace. Nevertheless the palpable reality that thwarts the core of African American existence is in actuality threatening.
By pitching the two white characters against a black prostitute on stage, Baraka forges a new meaning to the content of the play. Duff and Loco exemplify the decadence of the western culture at a broad-spectrum. They can be the libertines who stand for the spiritual and moral vacuity that spoil the otherwise advanced super-power nation of America.
It should be noted that in many states of US same-sex marriages are legally sanctioned and the pairs allowed adopting children too. What Amiri Baraka desires to notify his spectators is the perils that lurk behind the melting pot of American culture and ultimately the hope of black nation. Looking at the dwindling status of the American culture and its socio-political and cultural malaise, the dramatist adumbrates a new black aesthetic mandatory to validate and authenticate the inimitable and indigenous cultural responses of the African Americans.
In the course of the conversation, Duff inquires how much the prostitute would demand. Lick and lick. Help, hairy lady. Smelly lady. Blackest of all ladies… Duff with his sense of racial authority prevents Loco from having sex with a black woman. However in the end, when Duff yields to his libidinous urge, there begins a scuffle against the background of screaming and drum beat. Loco slumps down unconscious. The two bums who appeared in harmony with each other in the start of the play become rivals in the end. This becomes conducive for Duff to copulate with the black woman.
But the play reaches its culmination with the arrival of the Death squad commissioned by the dramatist. Here begins the mission of Baraka to exorcise the influence of the white evil.
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A group of long-haired bearded Negro youths marches out with drums. They are full of combat and revolt, in spite of being worn out. The audience is emotionally appealed to the imperative need to purge the sway of the white. As soon as the leader discovers the black woman and the white man, he bids a shooting order as this combination might accelerate the racial adjustment and ultimately jolt the new social order visualized by the writer.
The stage is speckled with the dead bodies of the three people. The heads of Duff and Loco are cut off and fixed on two poles.
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The bodies are thrown asunder as trash heap. The drama of exorcising gradually ends with the Experimental Death squad gearing up with concentrated effort for the next ritual of cleaning-up. The undertaking of the militant artist if fulfilled and the clarion call to black unity and black pride is made perceptible. In the downfall of Duff and Loco, the playwright proclaims the nadir of white cultural and political hegemony on the blacks, especially the black bourgeoisie. In addition, Baraka heralds a new black zeitgeist which can redeem his people from the clutches of western standards.
The fact that Duff and Loco should be killed in the end is a dramatic conjecture. But why should the black prostitute become a victim of the Black Death squad? What could be the supposed intention behind the creation of the woman? How does the writer want his audience to assess the dramatic importance of the character?
The answers to these queries are well understood once we begin to explore the objectives of Revolutionary Theatre.
Clarion Call to Humanity
The black woman plays the imperative role in being the prostitute and the initiator of the exorcising- program. It is she who propositions the two white bums for a sexual adventure. The woman is thrilled and instigates Duff to kill Loco. The black woman, on her part, embodies the shams that engulf the black society.
A prudent warning by Baraka is rendered as to what would constitute the future of African Americans in the height of cultural monopoly and cultural assimilation.
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- The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem Conquest to the Time of Timur. (Elibron Classics).
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- The Clarion Call of Spiritual Mastery.
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- Syn-En: Culture Clash.
He further foresees the perils of cultural adaptation and asserts the need to establish a separate black nation. In proposing to build an autonomous black nation, what Baraka would like to perform is the ritual of expel the existing frame work and to form a new Socio-Political- Cultural order that would amend the lives of the African Americans. As we trace the genesis of the African American literary history, it is an undeniable truth that these subalterns were denied freedom to vocalize their authentic experiences through sustained and institutionalized art forms.
More so the indigenous African American folk arts of culture which existed in its oral tradition enjoyed only a marginal status. As a consequence, the common black population had no knowledge of the creative renderings of the black intelligentsia. They were exposed only to the artistic and cultural output of the American mainstream. An aura of nationalistic spirit was inculcated by the maverick Baraka. He felt the need to create a separate black artistic and cultural forum for which the congregational strength and corporate responsibility of black masses became inevitable.
A congress of like-minded intellectuals and artists, under the leadership of Baraka, spearheaded the Black Arts Movement which in turn created a healthy like between the Black intelligentsia and the black public. A tangible impact was created on the general public which for long had been oriented to the doctrines of the mainstream. The sporadic mushrooming of black organizations and community centers appealed to the masses for a united strength in its quest for autonomy and black aesthetics.
Black Aesthetic is nationalistic in spirit and anti-western in its objective. Cultural ambassadors like Amiri Baraka demonstrated the need to revitalize the ethnic tradition by appealing to the group of black elites. As a cultural warrior, Baraka expounds to what extent the black theatre can act upon and drum up the African Americans to action. Show up the insides of these humans, look into black skulls…should stagger through our universe correcting, insulting, preaching…must Accuse and Attack…it is a theatre of victims…moves the victims to look at the strength in their minds…This is a theatre of assault.
The Clarion Call to Catholic Action: The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church
The play that will split the heavens for us will be called The Destruction of America Home The pathetic story of the brow beaten blacks in America is not unheard of in the history of Mankind. The seething cauldron of contained fury unleashes with full energy and intensity in this play. The oft- repeated slave narratives of repression and disgrace, the plaintive blues and the rejuvenating spirituals have reached their nadir. It is the black rage which permeates the writings of these militant and revolutionary writers. The action of the play is rooted in the prehistoric myth of Yacub.
Elijah Muhammad, the founding father of the Nation of Islam, is acknowledged the author of this ancient myth which recounts the creation of white race as a result of erroneous experiment performed by a black scientist. The playwright gives a free rein to his concentrated black creative force in incorporating this African myth. Rediscovering the rich indigenity of African American cultural heritage is an essential pre-requisite for an appreciative understanding of the ethics of black aesthetics.
The action of the play begins in the interior of a chemical lab of three black magicians — Nasafi, Tanzil and Jacoub. The pulsating voice of the playwright subtly presents the indefatigable and ageless infinity that form the bottom line of black arts. In finding a strong hold in the ancestral Africa, Baraka ensures his divorce from white bohemia and reiterates the urge to blacken his art. According to the native myth, Yacoub, the black scientist creates out of mistake a new whit race through genetic transformation.