To the authors knowledge, the associations between the STAI test and the risk of breast cancer are rarely considered together, and therefore this was a prospective study to examine the role of the STAI test in women with breast symptoms referred by physicians to the Kuopio University Hospital Finland. The Kuopio Breast Cancer Study was a multidisciplinary cooperative project conducted by different departments of the University of Kuopio and Kuopio University Hospital, and included all women who were referred to the hospital for breast examination between April and December The collaborative study is based on the assumption that breast cancer and colorectal cancer may have common risk factors.
Characteristics of the study participants. The women referred from January to June were included. Participation was based on written consent. One hundred and fifteen women participated and were interviewed to determine the level of emotional depression by a psychiatrist P. The interviews were recorded and the ratings were completed before the final diagnosis. The clinical examination, mammography and biopsy showed BC in 34 Assessment of life events and stress.
The research method was a semistructured in-depth interview that was described previously After the interviews the life events were rated by P. The defences used were also assessed on a five-point scale Coping and defence strategies. A modified Haan coping and defence inventory 33 was used. This inventory is divided into ten scales, and each scale has subscales from grade 0 to grade III: with 0 meaning no definition, I: coping, II: defending and III: fragmentation.
Beck depression inventory BDI. The women completed the BDI 34 with 21 variables. The investigator used the modified inventory divided into three grades: grade I score , no depression; grade II score , moderate depression; grade III score over 24 , severe depression.
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Forsen inventory FI. The women completed the Forsen Inventory 11 with 11 variables. The investigator used the FI inventory divided into three grades: grade 0, no psychiatric symptoms; grade 1, moderate psychiatric symptoms; grade 2, severe psychiatric symptoms. All the study participants completed the Spielberger trait inventory using the STAI Form Y-2 test 2 with 20 statements refering to how a person generally feels, with a higher total score reflecting a higher anxiety trait range.
The MADRS 35 with ten variables scores from zero to six was used to evaluate the depression of the study participants. Statistical analysis. The mean age of the BC patients was The corresponding figure for the patients with BBD was Almost half of the patients By profession, the patients represented industrial and service employees The groups differed only slightly from each other as to the factors of the reproductive life of the women Table I.
Although the first definitions of fear and anxiety date back to Greek antiquity, when Galen noticed that women with melancholy mood due to an increased rate of black bile were prone to develop BC 36 , concerns about fear and anxiety are as old as humanity itself. Sigmund Freud first proposed a critical role for anxiety in personality theory and in the etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The distribution of the mean sum of the Spielberger Trait Scores in four separate categories for patients with breast cancer BC , for those with benign breast disease BBD and for the healthy study participants HSS.
The concepts of state and trait anxiety were first introduced by Cattell and have elaborated by Spielberger. An emotional state exists at a given moment in time and a particular level of intensity. In contrast to the transitory nature of emotional states, personality traits can be conceptualized as relatively enduring differences among people in specific tendencies to perceive the world in a certain way and in dispositions to react or behave in specific manner. It consists separate self-report scales for measuring state and trait anxiety.
The initial goal was to develop a relatively brief and objective self-evaluation instrument to assess state and trait anxiety in college students. STAI test activities were shifted in to Florida State University and the goal broadened to include testing high school students and emotionally disturbed persons.
College students generally require about minutes completing either the S-Anxiety or the T-Anxiety scale, and approximately 10 minutes to complete both. Emotionally disturbed persons may require 10 minutes to complete one of the scales and about 20 minutes to complete both. About half of the statements in the STAI inquire about negative characteristics feeling nervous and restless, feeling failure, feeling worry and some people are reluctant to admit having these characteristics because they regard them as signs of weakness.
Peppone PhD James P.
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Antenatal stress: An Irish case study.
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