The Catalan process for secession, or independence, began in a political sense in , though its root causes are much deeper. Read more: Catalonia's cultural struggle against Madrid goes back centuries. Opinion polls aside, there has never been a majority support for independence in any regional election held since , leading to a questionable legitimacy.
The Spanish authorities, the main political parties and the government have repeatedly declared that the separation of a part of Spain from the national territory is illegal. From and with more intensity from , Catalan institutions embarked on an intense international lobbying campaign to obtain international support and achieve the aim of becoming a new member state of the European Union.
These three elements, ambivalent social and political support, a state explicitly hostile to any attempt at separation and a complete absence of international support, have led to the almost complete defeat for Catalan independence. The capture and imprisonment of Puigdemont symbolically closes this phase. Between and , the Catalan movement for independence displayed extraordinary capacity for mobilisation, managing to bring a million people onto the streets of Barcelona almost every year. The movement was peaceful, optimistic and celebratory, confident that separation from Spain was eminently achievable and imminent.
However, this relentlessly upbeat outlook seemed to prevent recognition of hard political reality. In spite of public statements from a range of international leaders, including the European Union, supporting the continued unity of Spain, the movement told itself that when the time came, recognition for Catalonia was inevitable. While arguably it had little choice, the EU has backed Spain in the Catalan dispute. At the same time, anxiety increases the impact of these war-related attitudes on general evaluations of political actors, thereby rendering the latter more responsive to political events.
Kopftücher, Generäle und türkische Demokratie
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Beeinflusst Angst politische Einstellungen? Abhandlungen First Online: 01 September Anxiety and political attitudes in Germany during the Gulf War. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Adorno, Theodor W.
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Brettschneider, Frank , Spitzenkandidaten und Wahlerfolg. Personalisierung — Kompetenz — Parteien. Ein internationaler Vergleich. Brody, Richard A. Cacioppo, John T. Edwards, George C. Land can be bought up not to use productively, but simply to prevent competitors getting hold of it. Furthermore, if we look at the economy through the lens of climate change, the idea that the state should not intervene strategically to control and direct key aspects of production and investment is positively deranged.
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Looked at in that way, it is a major problem that state aid rules essentially forbid a Green New Deal, which is all about the state intervening selectively in the economy to overhaul infrastructure, make housing and transport energy efficient and so forth. Lauren Dingsdale, a prospective Labour candidate in Middlesbrough and former lawyer specialising in European Competition Law, has argued on Twitter that this is exactly what the Tories are up to in the case of British Steel, with Business Secretary Greg Clark repeatedly referring to EU state aid rules to down-play his power over the future of the company.
Many other EU countries intervene in their own economies to a far greater extent than Britain does but do not always fall foul of state aid rules, finding a way around them. The company is still on the verge of closure if no new contracts can be found. But French energy giant EDF own the site, and it looks like they are going to give most of the contract to an Indonesian firm rather than Bifab.
We have been very sparing in our coverage of Brexit, as we felt most articles were based upon speculation, not facts. In the past week more tangible information has become available, so we thought we […].