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China: Ming Dynasty to Mao Zedong
Proceed to Basket. View basket. Continue shopping. Title: western record admiral popular romance full two chinese edition old used. Superficially, the Qing empire was multicultural and inclusive: many Qing monuments, for example, display four languages: Chinese, Manchurian, Mongolian, and Tibetan.
Ming Great Wall - Wikipedia
Islam could, perhaps, be incorporated into this worldview because Muslims predominated in far western provinces, such as Gansu, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. This made it hard for the Qing to craft a policy. They decreed that Muslims could be valuable subjects, but also imposed exclusionary policies on all Muslims, and never integrated them into the national religious system—hence, no mosque in the Forbidden City. Tibetan Buddhism was widely practiced among not only Tibetans but Mongolians, too, so it usefully bound two very significant ethnic groups.
The Manchus, who originally had been animists, had also quickly adopted it. So when Muslims began to resist Qing rule, the court drew upon a powerful Tibetan Buddhism story to fight Islam. This was the story of Shambhala, the mystical kingdom hidden in the far reaches of the Himalayas. For Westerners, this has somewhat romantic associations, and in the twentieth century helped create the myth of Shangri-La. But the original story is actually a bloody end-times revenge fantasy. In the tenth or eleventh centuries in northern India, Buddhism was in decline and Muslim invaders were blamed.
The legend of Shambhala was that it was the final mountain retreat of Buddhists after their lands are overwhelmed by Muslims. Although this violence is often glossed as an allegory for the vanquishing of greed and lust in the world and indeed many accounts leave out the anti-Muslim angle , the Qing used it to justify a kind of reverse jihad.
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Qing rulers built shrines to commemorate Shambhala, and commissioned thousands of monumental thanghkas to inspire their subjects to fight Islam. He also attended our conference in Beijing and we spent an enjoyable morning walking the palaces and discussing Islam in China, then and now. As Elverskog describes in his catalogue essay, by the eighteenth century the Qing court drafted discriminatory regulations aimed at Muslims, such as the declaration of any group of three or more Muslims who carried a weapon as criminals. In a downward spiral that sounds depressingly familiar, the state reacted with more violence while using the Shambhala myth to mobilize Qing supporters.
Today, though the state no longer adopts the utopianism of a Buddhist religious state, it does have a similarly coercive, assimilationist policy toward its ethnic minorities.
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When the ethnic Chinese Communist Party took over in , it copied the Stalinist policy of creating nationalities. As in imperial times, this policy was less tolerant than it seemed. The largest remaining Ming fighting force in North China at the time of Beijing's fall was Wu Sangui 's 40,man frontier force, who had abandoned the Ningyuan garrison to come to the emperor's aid. He and his men were now caught between the rebels within the Great Wall and the Manchus without. After some deliberation, Wu Sangui decided to resist the new Shun regime, having heard that Li Zicheng had ordered Wu's family executed.
Up to this point the Battle of Shanhai Pass between Li Zicheng and Wu Sangui had been moving in Li's favour, but the sudden appearance of the Manchu bannermen decisively routed the Shun forces. They eventually defeated both the rebel-founded Shun dynasty and the remaining Ming resistance , establishing Qing rule over all of China. Each wall-building project was designed to meet imminent or potential threats along short sections of the empire's northern border, never larger in scope than a single regional defence command, and were often as short as a few hundred meters. There were three main groups of people that made up the builders of the Great Wall during the Ming Dynasty: frontier guards, peasants, and convicts.
Towards the end of the Ming period, skilled artisans became a prominent group of wall builders as well. Because of low productivity on military farms and the need for more guards along the frontier, most of the frontier soldiers were from military families that served on the farms.
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Soldiers were involved in the building of the Great Wall because Ming officials preferred to fight a defensive war on the northern frontier. This took the form of building fortresses and walls along the frontier to protect the empire from invaders. Therefore, the building of the Great Wall fell on the shoulders of the military. Depending on the military colony and the general in charge, labor could be paid or unpaid.
If they were paid, it averaged out to six pounds of silver per man per year. But like peasants and convicts, labor was always conscripted by the government, meaning that the government would force people to work on the wall. Like previous dynasties, the Ming officials also recruited peasants from the surrounding areas to work on the wall for seasons at a time. Not much is known about how the peasants were recruited or how they worked, but the labor was often conscripted and paid very little. The last major group of wall builders during the Ming dynasty were convicts. Convicts were the other part of the military that was not conscripted from hereditary military families.
At the beginning of the Ming dynasty, only military convicts were sent into frontier exile, but as time went on, civilians convicts were also sent to the frontier. Because Ming officials wanted to create more hereditary military families, unmarried convicts were often given a wife from the female convict population to start a family with.
In addition to these main groups of wall builders, there were also masons who were hired by the emperor to build the more sophisticated parts of the wall that were made of brick and mortar instead of the traditional tamped earth method. These workers were paid significantly more by the emperor because of their specialized skills in wall building, including working with kilns to create the bricks and designing the walls to fit the terrain. Living and working conditions for the wall builders were miserable and often fatal. Traveling to the Great Wall itself was a dangerous journey that many would die on.
This difficult journey would also make supplying the garrisons with food and other supplies extremely difficult. These factors, combined with the harsh working climate instituted by the generals in charge of the wall building, lead to a high mortality rate among wall builders, which is why many call the Great Wall "the longest cemetery in the world". Ming soldiers who had built and guarded the Great Wall were given land nearby for their families to settle down and farm small plots of land. There are altogether such villages. Their ancestors were recruited from the districts of Jinhua and Yiwu in Zhejiang province and had served in the Ming military under Qi Jiguang.
Several techniques were used to build these walls. For materials, the Ming used earth, stone, timber, and lime like previous dynasties. But they also used bricks and tiles, especially for areas with rougher terrain, which was a new technique in China at the time. These were made with kilns, which were a new invention at the time. Materials were transported hundreds of miles either on the backs of workers, by hand carts or wheelbarrows, or on animal-driven carts. There were two main techniques for building the wall. The first was the rammed earth method, which was used on level areas, and had been used by previous dynasties as well.
Materials at the location were compressed together to build the wall. The Ming dynasty refined this technique by being able to do this on a larger scale than previous dynasties. The Ming builders also created a new technique, the two-layer method, which involved bricks and tiles. This was used on uneven terrain, like hills and mountains.
Bricks were stacked diagonally if the incline or decline of the landscape was less than 45 degrees, and were shaped into stairs if the incline or decline was greater than 45 degrees.