PDF New Mexico: A History

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Island areas, or born abroad to American parent s , and 9. As of May 1, , 7. Among U. This classification covers people of very different cultures and histories, including descendants of Spanish colonists with deep roots in the region, and recent immigrants from a variety of nations in Latin America, each with their own cultures.

At that time, the estimated number of persons in poverty was recorded at , The latest available data for estimate the number of persons in poverty at , Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. New Mexico is a majority-minority state. The majority of Hispanics in New Mexico claim to be descendants of Spanish colonists who settled here during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

They speak New Mexican Spanish or English at home. The state also has a large Native American population, second in percentage behind that of Alaska. According to the United States Census Bureau , 1. According to the United States Census , [68] : 6 the most commonly claimed ancestry groups in New Mexico were:. According to the U.

Census , The original state constitution of provided for a bilingual government with laws being published in both English and Spanish; [72] this requirement was renewed twice, in and Cobarrubias and Fishman therefore argue that New Mexico cannot be considered a bilingual state as not all laws are published in both languages. With regard to the judiciary, witnesses have the right to testify in either of the two languages, and monolingual speakers of Spanish have the same right to be considered for jury-duty as do speakers of English. Oil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of the state economy.

State government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies. New Mexico is the third-largest crude oil and ninth-largest natural gas producer in the United States. Federal government spending is a major driver of the New Mexico economy. This rate of return is higher than any other state in the Union. New Mexico provides a number of economic incentives to businesses operating in the state, including various types of tax credits and tax exemptions.

Most of the incentives are based on job creation. New Mexico law allows governments to provide land, buildings, and infrastructure to businesses to promote job creation. Several municipalities have imposed an Economic Development Gross Receipts Tax a form of Municipal Infrastructure GRT that is used to pay for these infrastructure improvements and for marketing their areas. The state provides financial incentives for film production. Since , personal income tax rates for New Mexico have ranged from 1. This resembles a sales tax but, unlike the sales taxes in many states, it applies to services as well as tangible goods.

Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. GRT is imposed by the state and there may an additional locality component to produce a total tax rate. Property tax is imposed on real property by the state, by counties, and by school districts.

In general, personal-use personal property is not subject to property taxation.

History of New Mexico

On the other hand, property tax is levied on most business-use personal property. In the tax year, the average millage was about Property tax deductions are available for military veterans and heads of household. New Mexico has long been an important corridor for trade and migration. The builders of the ruins at Chaco Canyon also created a radiating network of roads from the mysterious settlement. The pre- Columbian trade with Mesoamerican cultures included northbound exotic birds, seashells and copper. Turquoise, pottery, and salt were some of the goods transported south along the Rio Grande.

Present-day New Mexico's pre-Columbian trade is especially remarkable for being undertaken on foot. The north-south trade route later became a path for colonists with horses arriving from New Spain as well as trade and communication. New Mexico's latitude and low passes made it an attractive east-west transportation corridor. The railroads essentially replaced the earlier trails but brought on a population boom.

Early transcontinental auto trails later crossed the state bringing more migrants. Railroads were later supplemented or replaced by a system of highways and airports.

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New Mexico only has three Interstate Highways. Interstate 25 is a major north-south interstate highway starting from Las Cruces, New Mexico to the Colorado stateline near Raton.

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Interstate 40 is a major east-west interstate highway starting from the Arizona stateline west of Gallup to the Texas stateline east from Tucumcari. New Mexico currently has 15 United States Highways. It runs in the same trace with I and I New Mexico has had a problem with drunk driving, but that has lessened. According to the Los Angeles Times , for years the state had the highest alcohol-related crash rates in the U. The automobile changed the character of New Mexico, marking the start of large-scale immigration to the state from elsewhere in the United States.

Route Today, New Mexico relies heavily upon the automobile for transportation.

New Mexico had 59, route miles of highway as of [update] , of which 7, receive federal aid. The highway traffic fatality rate was 1. As of [update] , highway bridges, or one percent, were declared "structurally deficient" or "structurally obsolete". It began operation on July 14, There were 2, route miles of railroads in the year ; this number increased with the opening of the Rail Runner 's extension to Santa Fe. Narrow gauge railroads once connected many communities in the northern part of the state, from Farmington to Santa Fe.


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Railroad surveyors arrived in New Mexico in the s. It eventually reached El Paso, Texas in and with the Southern Pacific Railroad created the nation's second transcontinental railroad with a junction at Deming. Combined, they operate 2, route miles of railway in the state. A commuter rail operation, the New Mexico Rail Runner Express , connects the state's capital, its largest city, and other communities. The trains connect Albuquerque's population base and central business district to downtown Santa Fe with up to eight roundtrips in a day.

The section of the line running south to Belen is served less frequently. With the rise of rail transportation many settlements grew or were founded and the territory became a tourist destination. Passenger train service once connected nine of New Mexico's present ten most populous cities the exception is Rio Rancho , while today passenger train service connects two: Albuquerque and Santa Fe.

No less than six daily long-distance roundtrip trains supplemented by many branch line and local trains served New Mexico in the early s. Declines in passenger revenue, but not necessarily ridership, prompted many railroads to turn over their passenger services in truncated form to Amtrak , a state owned enterprise.

Amtrak, also known as the National Passenger Railroad Corporation, began operating the two extant long-distance routes in May As early as the s, former Governor Toney Anaya proposed building a high-speed rail line connecting the two cities with New Mexico's major cities. The Sunset Limited makes stops three times a week in both directions at Lordsburg , and Deming , serving Los Angeles, New Orleans and intermediate points. The Albuquerque International Sunport is the state's primary port of entry for air transportation. Upham , near Truth or Consequences , is the location of the world's first operational and purpose-built commercial spaceport , Spaceport America.

The executive branch of government is fragmented as outlined in the state constitution. The governor appoints a cabinet that leads agencies statutorily designated under their jurisdiction. The judiciary is composed of the New Mexico Supreme Court and lower courts. There is also local government, consisting of counties, municipalities and special districts. Terms for both the Governor and Lieutenant Governor expire in January Governors serve a term of four years, and may seek re-election for one additional term limit of two terms.

New Mexico had been considered a swing state , whose population has favored both Democratic and Republican presidential candidates, but it became more of a Democratic stronghold after the presidential election of The governor is Michelle Lujan Grisham D , who succeeded Susana Martinez R on January 1, after she served two terms as governor from to Gary Johnson served as governor from to Johnson served as a Republican, but in and , he ran for President from the Libertarian Party. In previous presidential elections, Al Gore carried the state by votes in ; George W. Bush won New Mexico's five electoral votes in , and the state's electoral votes were won by Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton in , , and Democratic strongholds in the state include the Santa Fe Area , various areas of the Albuquerque Metro Area such as the southeast and central areas, including the affluent Nob Hill neighborhood and the vicinity of the University of New Mexico , Northern and West Central New Mexico, and most of the Native American reservations, particularly the Navajo Nation.

Republicans have traditionally had their strongholds in the eastern and southern parts of the state, the Farmington area, Rio Rancho , and the newly developed areas in the Northwest mesa. Albuquerque's Northeast Heights have historically leaned Republican, but have become a key swing area for Democrats in recent election cycles. While registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly ,, New Mexico voters have favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels.

New Mexico abolished its death penalty statute, though not retroactively, effective July 1, This means individuals on New Mexico's Death Row can still be executed. On March 18, , then Governor Bill Richardson signed the law abolishing the death penalty in New Mexico following the assembly and senate vote the week before, thus becoming the 15th U. On gun control , New Mexico arguably has some of the least restrictive firearms laws in the country. State law pre-empts all local gun control ordinances. New Mexico residents may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law.

There are no waiting periods under state law for picking up a firearm after it has been purchased, and there are no restrictions on magazine capacity. Additionally, New Mexico is a "shall-issue" state for concealed carry permits. Before December , New Mexico law neither explicitly allowed nor prohibited same-sex marriage. Policy concerning the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples was determined at the county level; that is, some county clerks issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples, while others did not.

In December , the New Mexico Supreme Court issued a unanimous ruling directing all county clerks to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, thereby making New Mexico the 17th state to recognize same-sex marriage at the statewide level. Due to its relatively low population, in combination with numerous federally funded research facilities, New Mexico had the highest concentration of PhD holders of any state in New Mexico has a higher concentration of persons who do not finish high school or have some college without a degree than the nation as a whole.

For the state, The New Mexico Public Education Department oversees the operation of primary and secondary schools; individual school districts directly operate and staff said schools.

New Mexico - History and Heritage | Travel | Smithsonian

New Mexico is one of eight states that funds college scholarships through the state lottery. With a Native American population of , in , [] New Mexico still ranks as an important center of Native American culture. Both the Navajo and Apache share Athabaskan origin. The Apache and some Ute live on federal reservations within the state. With 16 million acres 6,, ha , mostly in neighboring Arizona , the reservation of the Navajo Nation ranks as the largest in the United States. The prehistorically agricultural Pueblo Indians live in pueblos scattered throughout the state.

Almost half of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin; many are descendants of colonial settlers. They settled in the state's northern portion. Most of the Mexican immigrants reside in the southern part of the state. Many New Mexicans speak a unique dialect of Spanish.

Because of the historical isolation of New Mexico from other speakers of the Spanish language, some of the vocabulary of New Mexican Spanish is unknown to other Spanish speakers. It uses numerous Native American words for local features and includes anglicized words that express American concepts and modern inventions. The earliest New Mexico artists whose work survives today are the Mimbres Indians, whose black and white pottery could be mistaken for modern art, except for the fact that it was produced before CE.

See Mimbres culture. Colonies for artists and writers thrive, and the small city teems with art galleries. In August, the city hosts the annual Santa Fe Indian Market , which is the oldest and largest juried Native American art showcase in the world. Performing arts include the renowned Santa Fe Opera which presents five operas in repertory each July to August, the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival held each summer, and the restored Lensic Theater a principal venue for many kinds of performances.

Santa Fe is also home to Frogville Records , an indie record label. Art is also a frequent theme in Albuquerque , New Mexico's largest city. The National Hispanic Cultural Center has held hundreds of performing arts events, art showcases, and other events related to Spanish culture in New Mexico and worldwide in the centerpiece Roy E Disney Center for the Performing Arts or in other venues at the 53 acre facility.

New Mexico residents and visitors alike can enjoy performing art from around the world at Popejoy Hall on the campus of the University of New Mexico. Popejoy Hall hosts singers, dancers, Broadway shows, other types of acts, and Shakespeare. The KiMo presents live theater and concerts as well as movies and simulcast operas.

New Mexico holds strong to its Spanish heritage. Old Spanish traditions such zarzuelas and flamenco are popular in New Mexico. In the midth century there was a thriving Hispano school of literature and scholarship being produced in both English and Spanish. As well, writer D. Lawrence lived near Taos in the s, at the D. Lawrence Ranch , where there is a shrine said to contain his ashes. New Mexico's strong Spanish, Native American, and Wild West frontier motifs have provided material for many authors in the state, including internationally recognized Rudolfo Anaya and Tony Hillerman.

Silver City , in the southwestern mountains of the state, was originally a mining town, and at least one nearby mine still operates. It is perhaps better known now as the home of or exhibition center for large numbers of artists, visual and otherwise. For many years the two universities have had a rivalry often referred to as the " Rio Grande Rivalry " or the "Battle of I " in recognition of the campuses both being located along that interstate highway.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the U. For other uses, see New Mexico disambiguation. State of the United States of America. Further information: List of counties in New Mexico.

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See also: Delaware Basin. See also: Territorial evolution of New Mexico. Main articles: Texas annexation , U. Civil war effects in New Mexico. Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U. See also: List of settlements in New Mexico by population and New Mexico locations by per capita income. Largest cities or towns in New Mexico Source U. Census Bureau Estimate. Main article: Economy of New Mexico. See also: New Mexico locations by per capita income. Main article: Taxation in New Mexico. See also: Category:Bus transportation in New Mexico.

See also: List of New Mexico railroads. See also: List of airports in New Mexico. Main article: Government of New Mexico. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: List of high schools in New Mexico. See also: List of colleges and universities in New Mexico. New Mexico portal United States portal. MLA Data Center. Retrieved November 4, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, NGS data sheet.

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