Things like flourishes, frames, arrows and vines help transform a piece of text into a piece of art. In this workshop, we'll be looking at one of the most basic embellishments and learning to combine it with our faux calligraphy to take your lettering to the next level. It's not true! None of us are perfect, no matter how hard we try. We can practice forever and still not reach that goal. But that doesn't mean it's not worthwhile to keep practicing and learning. No matter what we're doing, what we need to remember is that practice does make something: progress. Every time we do something another time, we get better at it, whether it's hand lettering, cooking or playing a musical instrument.
The more you try, the better you'll become. Instead of getting frustrated that you're not able to create the letters or embellishments perfectly, focus on the process and your progress. Is what you did today a little bit better than yesterday? Give yourself permission to celebrate that! Do the same thing each day and over time, you'll look back and be amazed at how far you've come!
Ready for the next step? First, we're going to write the phrase using the faux calligraphy technique we worked on in the last workshop here. Remember, just start by writing in cursive and leaving a little extra space between letters. Then add your double line on the downstrokes and fill it in to create the brush lettering look! Next, we'll add the embellishment. The laurel, or leafy vine, is one of the most popular ways to add a decorative touch to your lettering, and it's really easy to do.
All you need to do is combine a few basic shapes, and you'll be embellishing your work in no time. STEP 1 Draw a curving line. It can be as long, short, straight or curved as you like. STEP 2 Draw a teardrop shape on one end of the line. STEP 3 Draw a series of heart shapes going down the line. You can make all the hearts a similar size, as shown above, or gradually draw them bigger as you get to the base of the line for a different effect.
Once you have the hang of creating laurels, there are so many variations you can do on this embellishment, including coloring in the leaves, making the leaves more pointed, alternating the leaves or adding berries or flowers. You can also play around with different shapes, making your vines straight, curling in multiple directions and even turning the laurels into a wreath! Simply sketch a few circles, then add your leaves.
Use the space below to practice your own laurels, then create your lettered design on the next page. One fun way to draw attention to a word is by putting it inside a sketched banner. This not only makes the word seem to pop off the page, it also adds a festive touch to your art.
It's perfect for birthday cards and other celebratory messages, as well as just about any other phrase you're illustrating. Although banners may look intimidating, they're actually a piece of cake to draw once you break them into basic steps and shapes. I'm not a daredevil by nature, and I also never learned to swim, so the idea of flying hundreds of feet above the ocean supported only by a rope, harness and parachute terrified me. But you know what? When I finally opened my eyes, it was exhilarating and incredibly peaceful so far above everyone and everything.
As I relaxed and let myself experience what was happening, I realized how much I would have missed if I'd kept my feet on the boat. Although we don't all have the opportunity to parasail on a daily basis, we do make choices every day about whether we're going to stay where we're comfortable or push ourselves to do something that might not come naturally. Are we going to play it safe and possibly miss something amazing, or are we going to step out of our comfort zones and see what happens?
What challenges await you today? What might you experience if you just say yes? Maybe setting aside time to letter and be creative is a challenge for you, and if so, now is the perfect time to step out and see what you can do. Let your self-doubt go and just enjoy the opportunity to create!
So, what do you say, are you ready to tackle our next tutorial? Let's go! Remember, the more you practice a technique, the more natural it becomes, so let yourself relax as you go through the motions of forming the letters. The words, "life begins," are the part of this phrase we really want to emphasize, so we're going to place them inside a decorative banner. Here's how to create it!
Allow as much space as you want for your word s , then draw a second line below it with a curve that mirrors the first one. This will be the center part of your banner. It can be as long or as short as you want it to be. The bottom line should be just slightly shorter than the one above it. STEP 2 Connect the top and bottom of your banner with short vertical lines. I like to make mine just slightly curved outward. STEP 3 Draw a line about halfway up each side of your banner to create the top of the "tails.
To do this, draw a sideways "v" shape, then connect it to the bottom line of your banner. Don't worry about getting the sides perfectly even or symmetrical. Remember, the point is that these are drawn by hand, not by a machine, so a little bit of irregularity is part of the charm. This is all about relaxing and doodling for fun, not perfection. STEP 5 Make a small curving line connecting the bottom corner of your banner to the place where the tail connects to it.
This creates the appearance that the banner is folded. STEP 6 Add details, like coloring in the fold spaces and drawing accent lines on the top and tails. This part is totally optional. Have fun playing around with different accents and see what you like best! B Sailors. B To help education majors prepare for C Manufacturers.
D Merchants. C To offer tutorials to elementary school students. D To provide funding for a community A The distance the merchandise had to be shipped. B The number of insurance companies available at the time. A He advises students participating in a C The amount of danger involved in special program. B He teaches part-time in an elementary D The type of vessel used to transport school.
C He observes elementary school students in the classroom. D He helps students prepare their resumes. A Only four types of policies still exist B They are cheaper than the ones in the A Contact the elementary school. Middle Ages. B Sign up for a special class. C They include features similar to earlier C Submit a resume to the dean.
D Talk to Professor Dodge. D The interest rates are based on early methods of calculation. A The oxygen level in the water. A They look short, quick steps. B The angle of the treadmill. B They were pulled off of the treadmill. C The weights on the divers. C They lost their balance.
D The temperature of the water. D They look longer, coordinated steps.
A Walking on Mars will be easier than A Martian suits will have larger air tanks. B Martian suits will be equipped with special weights. B There is more gravity on the Moon than C Martian suits will be more flexible. D Martian suits will be less durable. C Walking quickly will be difficult on Mars. D Astronauts on Mars will require more oxygen than will astronauts on the Moon. I can manage. They're empty. This is Mark Smith. I'm calling lo see if my blood test results are in. Miller just sent them to the lab last night, so the earliest they could be back is tomorrow.
Someone said you lived there. I've got a test tomorrow! I don't understand the problem. You've known for months this report was due today. The data was harder to interpret than I thought it would be. I can't wail till Debbie gets back. Would you say it's still all right to eat? Oh, if I were you. I wouldn't even think of it. And I know Frank's decided to take the early flight. But my mother just happened to be watching at home and gave me a call. It was even too hot to go to the pool yesterday.
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Jones see me on Tuesday morning instead of Tuesday afternoon? Let's see. I've practically spent my entire budget for the semester. I think there' re a few openings left in the evening. Let's stop for dinner. And let's find a motel, too — instead of continuing on, we can get an early start tomorrow. There're supposed to be thirteen sections of it this semester. Did any of my coffee just spill on you? Is that all you have to say?
Must have gotten caught on that nail. Have you checked the sales rack in the back? There were still a few there yesterday. It looks like it'll take us about six hours to drive from here to Chicago. But, I guess we should watch our expenses. I'd been wanting to get in better shape.
Seems like all your hard work has paid off. If only we'd gone to the beach instead. This morning I found orange juice spilled all over the kitchen floor. He's only four. I heard your field hockey team is going to the mid-Atlantic championships! Listen to a conversation between two teaching assistants. What's up? I've been meaning lo talk to you about the situation in the office. It's so noisy that I can't work. We're supposed to be able to do our preparation and marking in that office, but have you noticed?
Jack constantly has students coming in to get help with his course. A lot of people are going in and out. But I'm not able to do my work and neither are you. I imagine it's the same for the others in the office. When TA's have to talk with a student, they could go to the meeting room and not use the office. You know, there's a room down the hall, a rather small room that we could ask to use. It's only for storing supplies. Oh, that would be too small. With the cabinets taken out it might be bigger than it looks. I'd like to have a look at that room.
Can we go there now? Let's go. What problem at the office are Cathy and Stan discussing? Why do Jack's students come to see him? What does Stan suggest they do? What does Cathy say about Stan's suggestion? Questions 35 through Listen to a conversation between two students. I thought you might want to go over it together. And, anyway, it helps me review. Hope you're feeling better now. So, you said. Sounds a little strange. The octopus and the squid descended from earlier creatures with shells.
Exercise #1 in the remaining 11 keys
They survived by shedding their shells — somewhere between and million years ago. That's what she said though. To be precise: "Exactly when they emerged is uncertain Can you imagine something that big if it still had a shell? But some are really huge.
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I've read about fishermen that caught squid that weighed over a ton. Did she talk about how that happens? But she did mention some unusual cases. In in New Zealand they caught a squid Its eyes were eighteen inches across. Can you imagine?
Simpson thinks there are probably even larger ones that haven't been found because squid are intelligent and fast — so they can easily get away from humans. Maybe some of those monster stories are true. What topic are the man and woman discussing? Why docs the man need to talk to the woman about the class? According to the woman what happened to million years ago? What does the woman imply about sea monsters? Listen to a talk given by the dean of the School of Education. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate.
A new community program called "One On One" helps elementary students who've fallen behind. You education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching — that is, tutoring in math and English. You'd have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester. You can choose to help a child with math, English, or both. Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week. Professor Dodge will act as a mentor lo the tutors — he'll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities.
He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon. You can sign up for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week. I'm sure you'll enjoy this community service… and you'll gain valuable experience at the same time. It looks good on your resume, too—showing that you've had experience with children and that you care about your community. If you'd like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge's office this week.
What is the purpose of the talk? What is the purpose of the program the dean describes? What does Professor Dodge do? What should students interested in the tutorials do? Questions 43 through Listen to an instructor in a business class. But, before we start. I'd like to mention a few things your text doesn't go into. It's interesting to note that insurance has existed in some form for a very long time. The earliest insurance policies were what were called bottomry contracts.
They provided shipping protection for merchants as far back as B. In general, the contracts were often no more than verbal agreements. They granted loans to merchants with the understanding that if a particular shipment of goods was lost at sea, the loan didn't have to be repaid. Interest on the loans varied according to how risky it was to transport the goods. During periods of heavy piracy at sea, for example, the amount of interest and the cost of the policy went up considerably. So, you can see how insurance helped encourage international trade. Even the most cautious merchants became willing to risk shipping their goods over long distances — not to mention in hazardous weather conditions — when they had this kind of protection available.
Generally speaking, the basic form of an insurance policy has been pretty much the same since the Middle Ages. There are four points that were salient then and remain paramount in all policies today. These were outlined in chapter six and will serve as the basis for the rest of today's discussion. Can anyone tell me what one of those points might be? What is the purpose of the instructor's talk? Who were the first insurance contracts designed to protect? What does the instructor say determined the cost of early insurance policies?
What does the instructor say about current insurance policies? Questions 47 through Listen to a talk on the radio about a research project. For four years Newman observed scuba divers as they simulated walking on the Moon and on Mars on her underwater moving belt. She wanted to discover how the gravity of the Moon and of Mars would affect human movement.
To do this, Newman attached weights to the divers and then lowered them into the lank and onto the treadmill. These weights were carefully adjusted so that the divers could experience the underwater gravity of the Moon and of Mars as they walked on the treadmill. Newman concluded that walking on Mars will probably be easier than walking on the Moon.
The Moon has less gravity than Mars does, so at lunar gravity, the divers struggled to keep their balance and walked awkwardly. But at Martian gravity, the divers had greater traction and stability and could easily adjust to a pace of 1. As Newman gradually increased the speed of the treadmill, the divers took longer, graceful strides until they comfortably settled into an even quicker pace. Newman also noted that at Martian gravity, the divers needed less oxygen.
The data Newman collected will help in the future design of Martian space suits. Compared to lunar space suits, Martian space suits will require smaller air tanks; and to allow for freer movement, the elbow and knee areas of the space suits will also be altered. What did Newman change so that the divers could experience different gravity levels? Why will Martian space suits be designed differently from lunar space suits? What happened to the divers at Martian gravity when the speed of the treadmill was increased? What is one way that the design of Martian space suits will differ from lunar space suits?
Practice Test A - Structure 5. Flag Day is a legal holiday only in 1. Although thunder and lightening are 6. A form biological species B biological species are formed A the most are important C which forming biological species B are the most important D the formation of biological C the most important are species D that are the most important 8. In its pure state antimony has no 4. Prairies: the American bison and the pronghorn antelope. Beginning in the Middle Ages, composers of Western music used a Franklin D. A will B that A as the first President he C and when to understood fully D so they could B the first President that, to fully understand C the first President fully The firstly naval battle of the Revolutionary War was fought off the coast of Machias, Maine, in June The public ceremonies of the Plains Indians are lesser elaborate than those of the Navajo in the Southwest.
In some species of fish, such the three-spined stickleback, the male, not the female, performs the task of caring for the young. When she retires in September , tennis champion Christine Evert was the most famous woman athlete in the United States. The ancient Romans used vessels equipped with sails and banks of oars to transporting their armies. Dinosaurs are traditionally classified as cold-blooded reptiles, but recent evidence based on eating habits, posture, and skeletal structural suggests some may have been warm-blooded.
Zoos in New Orleans, San Diego, Detroit, and the Bronx have become biological parks where animals roams free and people watch from across a moat. In human beings, as in other mammals, hairs around the eyes are ears and in the nose prevent dust, insects, and other matter from entering these organs. The works of the author Herman Melville are literary creations of a high order, blending fact, fiction, adventure, and subtle symbolic. Each chemical element is characterized to the number of protons that an atom of that element contains, called its atomic number.
The body structure that developed in birds over millions of years is well designed for flight, being both lightly in weight and remarkably strong. From to , American novelist Edith Wharton was at the height of her writing career, publishing of her three most famous novels. In the early twentieth century, there was considerable interesting among sociologists in the fact that in the United States the family was losing its traditional roles. Although pure diamond is colorless and transparent, when contaminated with other material it may appear in various color, ranging from pastels to opaque black.
Comparative anatomy is concerned to the structural differences among animal forms. A seismograph records oscillation of the ground caused by seismic waves, vibrations that travel from its point of origin through the Earth or along its surface. Located in Canada, the Columbia Icefield covers area of square miles and is 3, feet thick in some places. Because of its vast tracts of virtually uninhabited northern forest, Canada has one of the lowest population density in the world.
The very tools that the first New England furniture Line makers used were, after all, not much different from those used for centuries — even 5 millennia: basic hammers, saws, chisels, planes, augers, compasses, and measures. These were the tools used more or less by all people who worked with wood: carpenters, barrel makers, and shipwrights. At most the furniture makers might have had planes with special edges or more delicate chisels, but there could not have been much specialization in the early years of the colonies.
This kind of construction was used for making everything from houses to chests. Relatively little hardware was used during this period. Some nails — forged by 20 hand — were used, but no screws or glue. Hinges were often made of leather, but metal hinges were also used. The cruder varieties were made by blacksmiths in the colonies, but the finer metal elements were imported. Locks and escutcheon plates — the latter to shield the wood from the metal key — would often be imported.
Above all, what the early English colonists imported was their knowledge of, 25 familiarity with, and dedication to the traditional types and designs of furniture they knew in England. The relationship of a mortise and a 7. For what purpose did woodworkers 8. The author implies that the colonial 5. Which of the following were NOT used joiners in the construction of colonial furniture? The author implies that colonial Which of the following terms does the metalworkers were author explain in the passage?
The establishment of these posts opened new roads and provided for the protection of daring adventurers and expeditions as well as Line established settlers. Forts also served as bases where enterprising entrepreneurs could 5 bring commerce to the West, providing supplies and refreshments to soldiers as well as to pioneers. Posts like Fort Laramie provided supplies for wagon trains traveling the natural highways toward new frontiers.
Some posts became stations for the pony express; still others, such as Fort Davis, were stagecoach stops for weary travelers. All of these functions, of course, suggest that the contributions of the forts to the 10 civilization and development of the West extended beyond patrol duty. Through the establishment of military posts, yet other contributions were made to the development of western culture.
Many posts maintained libraries or reading rooms, and some — for example, Fort Davis — had schools. Post chapels provided a setting for religious services and weddings. Throughout the wilderness, post bands provided 15 entertainment and boosted morale. During the last part of the nineteenth century, to reduce expenses, gardening was encouraged at the forts, thus making experimental agriculture another activity of the military.
The military stationed at the various forts also played a role in civilian life by assisting in maintaining order, and civilian officials often called on the army for protection. From the earliest colonial times throughout the nineteenth century, disease ranked as the foremost problem in defense. It slowed construction of forts and inhibited their military functions. Official documents from many regions 25 contained innumerable reports of sickness that virtually incapacitated entire garrisons. In response to the problems, detailed observations of architecture and climate and their relationships to the frequency of the occurrence of various diseases were recorded at various posts across the nation by military surgeons.
Which of the following statements best A lost A By the nineteenth century, forts B bold were no longer used by the C lively military. D foolish B Surgeons at forts could not prevent outbreaks of disease. C Forts were important to the development of the American West D Life in nineteenth-century forts was very rough. Which of the following would a How did the military assists in the A influenced investigation of health problems?
B established C raised A By registering annual birth and D maintained death rates B By experiments with different building materials Which of the following is the most C By maintaining records of likely inference about the decision to diseases and potential causes promote gardening at forts? The author organizes the discussion B Food brought in from outside of forts by was often spoiled C Gardening was a way to occupy A describing their locations otherwise idle soldiers.
B comparing their sizes D The soil near the forts was very C explaining their damage to the fertile. The implication is that bone, 5 and other tissues, have somehow been turned into stone, and this is certainly the explanation given in some texts. But it is wrong interpretation; fossils are frequently so dense because the pores and other spaces in the bone have become filled with minerals taken up from the surrounding sediments. Some fossil bones have all the interstitial spaces filled with foreign minerals, including the marrow cavity, if there is 10 one, while others have taken up but little from their surroundings.
Probably all of the minerals deposited within the bone have been recrystallized from solution by the action of water percolating thru them. The degree of mineralization appears to be determined by the nature of the environment in which the bone was deposited and not by the antiquity of the bone. For example, the black fossil bones that are so common in many 15 parts of Florida are heavily mineralized, but they are only about 20, years old, whereas many of the dinosaur bones from western Canada, which are about 75 million years old, are only partially filled in.
Under optimum conditions the process of mineralization probably takes thousands rather than millions of years, perhaps considerably less. We are therefore usually able to see the microscopic structures of the bone, including such fine details as the lacunae where the living bone cells once resided. The natural bone mineral, the hydroxyapatite, is virtually unaltered too — it has the same crystal structure as that of modern bone.
What does the passage mainly Why is fossilized bone heavier than Why does the author compare fossils ordinary bone? A Bone tissue solidifies with age. C To suggest that fossils found in both places were the same age. D To explain why scientists are What can be inferred about a fossil D modern bone with a high degree of mineralization? A It was exposed to large amounts C moist C Many colorful crystals can be D apparent found in such a fossil. D It was discovered in western Canada. Which of the following does NOT survive in fossils?
Which of the following factors is most A Noncollagen proteins important in determining the extent of B Hydroxyapatite mineralization in fossil bones? Each man had lived in Paris, and each understood the economics and social potential of this Parisian housing form. But the Stuyvesant was at best a limited success. Those who could afford them were quite content to remain in the more sumptuous, single-family homes, leaving the Stuyvesant to young married couples 10 and bachelors. That lot was a rectangular area 25 feet wide by feet deep — a shape perfectly suited for a row house.
The lot could also accommodate a 15 rectangular tenement, though it could not yield the square, well-lighted, and logically arranged rooms that great apartment buildings require.
But even with the awkward interior configurations of the early apartment buildings, the idea caught on. It met the needs of a large and growing population that wanted something better than tenements but could not afford or did not want row houses. In the closing decades of the nineteenth century, large apartment houses began dotting the developed portions of New York City, and by the opening decades of the twentieth century, spacious buildings, such as the Dakota and the Ansonia 25 finally transcended the tight confinement of row house building lots.
From there it was only a small step to building luxury apartment houses on the newly created Park Avenue, right next to the fashionable Fifth Avenue shopping area. The new housing form discussed in Why was the Stuyvesant a limited the passage refers to success? A single-family homes A The arrangement of the rooms B apartment buildings was not convenient. C row houses B Most people could not afford to D hotels live there. C There were no shopping areas nearby. It can be inferred that the majority of A highly educated A Large families needed housing B unemployed with sufficient space.
The author mentions the Dakota and the Ansonia in line 24 because A they are examples of large, well- designed apartment buildings B their design is similar to that of row houses C they were built on a single building B It was rectangular. C It was spacious inside. D It had limited light. Question 41 — 50 A snowfall consists of myriads of minute ice crystals that fall to the ground in the form of frozen precipitation.
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The formation of snow begins with these ice crystals in the subfreezing strata of the middle and upper atmosphere when there is an adequate Line supply of moisture present. At the core of every ice crystal is a minuscule nucleus, a 5 solid particle of matter around which moisture condenses and freezes. Liquid water droplets floating in the supercooled atmosphere and free ice crystals cannot coexist within the same cloud, since the vapor pressure of ice is less than that of water. This enables the ice crystals to rob the liquid droplets of their moisture and grow continuously.
The process can be very rapid, quickly creating sizable ice crystals, some of which 10 adhere to each other to create a cluster of ice crystals or a snowflake. Simple flakes possess a variety of beautiful forms, usually hexagonal, though the symmetrical shapes reproduced in most microscope photography of snowflakes are not usually found in actual snowfalls. Typically, snowflakes in actual snowfall consists of broken fragments and clusters of adhering ice crystals. This moisture is supplied by the passage of an airstream over a water surface and its subsequent lifting to higher regions of the atmosphere.
The Pacific Ocean is the source of moisture for most snowfalls west of the Rocky Mountains, while the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean feed water vapor into the air currents over 20 the central and eastern sections of the United States. Other geographical features also can be the source of moisture for some snowstorms. For example, areas adjacent to the Great Lakes experience their own unique lake-effect storms, employing a variation of the process on a local scale.
In addition, mountainous section or rising terrain can initiate snowfalls by the geographical lifting of a moist airstream.
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Which of the following questions does A tiny A Why are snowflakes hexagonal? B quick B What is the optimum temperature C clear for snow? D sharp C In which months does most snow fall? D How are snowflakes formed? What is at the center of an ice crystal? How do lake-effect snowstorms form? C Large quantities of wet air come off a nearby mountain. A belong B relate What is the main topic of the second C increase paragraph? D begin A How ice crystals form B How moisture affects temperature Which of the following could account C What happens when ice crystals for the lack of snowfall in a melt geographical location close to D Where the moisture to supply the mountains and a major water source?
C cluster D moisture What is necessary for a snowfall to persist? A He wants to know which scarf the woman A She wants to exercise before she runs. B It's too hot to go running. B He wants to know what color the jacket is. C Her jogging suit isn't warm enough. C He thinks he selected a nice scarf. D She already went jogging. D He thinks any color would go well with the jacket. A To tell him they are busy. B To cancel an appointment. A Bob has been married for a long time.
C To invite him to go to a film. B The woman should go to California. D To ask him a question about homework. C He plans to go to the wedding. D He hasn't been to California for a long time. A Keep looking for his wallet. B Report the theft of the wallet right away. C Put his wallet in his jacket pocket. D Be more careful with his wallet. A He wants a glass of water. B He won't do as the woman asks. C He can't wait any longer. D He's looking for the waiter. A She is on a special diet. B She doesn't like to walk to the cafeteria.
C She thinks the cafeteria is too expensive. Classical Arizona PBS. Sorry, your browser does not support iframes. Sponsor message:. Keep your brain healthy with help from Dr. Stay Connected.