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HTML code is not allowed. Sunday, 13 September Early Buddhist Discourses. Holder Twenty discourses from the Pali Canon - including those most essential to the study and teaching of early Buddhism - are provided in fresh translations, accompanied by introductions that highlight the main themes and set the ideas presented in the context of wider philosophical and religious issues.

The 9th chapter is a critique of various views on perfect wisdom from the Madhyamika point of view. Shantideva also produced the Shikshasamuccaya , which is a compendium of doctrines from a huge range of Mahayana Sutras — some of which no longer exist and therefore are known only through his quotes. While it is traditionally attributed to Ashvaghosha , most scholars now hold it is a Chinese composition.

The early period of the development of Chinese Buddhism was concerned with the collection and translation of texts into Chinese and the creation of the Chinese Buddhist canon. This was often done by traveling overland to India , as recorded in the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions , by the monk Xuanzang c. Another important school of Chinese Buddhism is Huayan , which focused on developing their philosophical texts from the Avatamsaka Sutra.

An important patriarch of this school is Fazang who wrote many commentaries and treatises. Zen Buddhism developed a large literary tradition based on the teachings and sayings of Chinese Zen masters. One of the key texts in this genre is the Platform Sutra attributed to Zen patriarch Huineng , it gives an autobiographical account of his succession as Ch'an Patriarch, as well as teachings about Ch'an theory and practice.

Another key genre is that of compilations of Zen master biographies, such as the Transmission of the Lamp. Buddhist poetry was also an important contribution to the literature of the tradition. After the arrival of Chinese Buddhism in Japan, Korea and Vietnam; they developed their own traditions and literature in the local language. The Tibetan Buddhist canon includes a number of Nikaya -related texts from the Mula- Sarvastivada school, as well as Mahayana sutras.

However, it is the specifically Vajrayana texts that most strongly characterise it. They are considered to be the word of the Buddha Buddhavacana , and the Tibetan Kangyur contains translations of almost tantras. The texts are typically concerned with elaborate rituals and meditations. These form a large subgroup that appeared between the 2nd and 6th centuries. The Kriya tantras focus on ritual actions. Each centres on a particular Buddha or Bodhisattva , and many are based on dharanis. Also included in this category are some Mahayana texts such as the Heart Sutra and, in some editions, versions of some texts found in the Pali Canon.

Carya tantras.

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This is a small class of texts that probably emerged after the 6th century and are entirely centred on the worship of the Buddha Vairocana. The Shurangama Sutra and the Shurangama Mantra from which it called the Shitatapatra Ushnisha Dharani comes can be included in this category. Anuttara tantras.

The most advanced class of tantra is the Anuttarayoga tantra , which focus on mental transformation and less on ritual actions. These are sometimes further divided into the so-called Father Tantras and Mother Tantras. Anuttaratantra is known in the Nyingma school as Mahayoga.

Befriending the Suttas: Tips on Reading the Pali Discourses

This school also has a collection of tantras of its own, not found in the other Tibetan schools. Textual evidence suggests that some of these texts are in fact Shaivite Tantras adopted and adapted to Buddhist purposes, and many similarities in iconography and ritual can be seen in them. A sadhana is a tantric spiritual practices text used by practitioners, primarily to practice the mandala or a particular yidam , or meditation deity.

Vajrayana adepts, known as mahasiddha , often expounded their teachings in the form of songs of realization. The Dohakosha is a collection of doha songs by the yogi Saraha from the 9th century.


  • Miracles and Dreams (Miracles at Mills Landing).
  • La fabrique des managers (French Edition).
  • Großes Übungsbuch - Deutsch Grundschule (German Edition).

Terma are Tibetan Buddhist texts, hidden to be rediscovered at a later date. Padmasambhava and Yeshe Tsogyal wrote and hid most termas , although texts have also been hidden by figures such as Machig Labdron. The best known terma text is probably the Bardo thodol , or 'Awakening in the Bardo State', also known as the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The person who finds a terma text is known as a terton. Namtar , or spiritual biographies, are another popular form of Tibetan Buddhist texts, whereby the teachings and spiritual path of a practitioner are explained through a review of their lifestory.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Holy texts. See also: Buddhavacana. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Early Buddhist Texts. Further information: Vinaya. Further information: Abhidharma. Further information: Pali literature. Main article: Vimalakirti Sutra. Main article: Avatamsaka Sutra.

See also: Tathagatagarbha doctrine. Main article: Buddhist Tantras. If some of the material is so old, it might be possible to establish what texts go back to the beginning of Buddhism and may include the substance of the Buddha's teaching, and in some cases, maybe even his words. The one is pure idealism and the other idealistic realism. Elaborations on Emptiness: Uses of the Heart Sutra.

A Concise History of Buddhism.

Retrieved April 13, Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana Korean. Retrieved July 6, Translated from the Pali. First edition Charles E. Tuttle Company of Rutland, Vermont and Tokyo, The Buddha within: Tathagatagarbha doctrine according to the Shentong interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga. SUNY Press. Source; [3] accessed: Tuesday May 5, , p. MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Topics in Buddhism. Outline Glossary Index.

Category Portal. It will therefore be more helpful for a coherent and better understanding of the eight divisions of the path if we group them and explain them according to these three heads. According to Buddhism, for a man to be perfect there are two qualities that he should develop equally: compassion karuna on one side, and wisdom panna on the other. Here compassion represents love, charity, kindness, tolerance, and such noble qualities on the emotional side, or qualities of the heart, while wisdom would stand for the intellectual side or the qualities of the mind.

If one develops only the emotional, neglecting the intellectual, one may become a good-hearted fool; while to develop only the intellectual side [and] neglecting the emotional may turn one into a hard-hearted intellect without feeling for others. Therefore, to be perfect one has to develop both equally.

The Noble Eightfold Path

That is the aim of the Buddhist way of life: in it wisdom and compassion are inseparably linked together, as we shall see later. Now, in ethical conduct sila , based on love and compassion, are included three factors of the noble eightfold path: namely, right speech, right action, and right livelihood.

Right speech means abstention 1 from telling lies, 2 from backbiting and slander and talk that may bring about hatred, enmity, disunity, and disharmony among individuals or groups of people, 3 from harsh, rude, impolite, malicious, and abusive language, and 4 from idle, useless, and foolish babble and gossip. When one abstains from these forms of wrong and harmful speech one naturally has to speak the truth, has to use words that are friendly and benevolent, pleasant and gentle, meaningful, and useful.

First Sutta

One should not speak carelessly: speech should be at the right time and place. Right action aims at promoting moral, honorable, and peaceful conduct. It admonishes us that we should abstain from destroying life, from stealing, from dishonest dealings, from illegitimate sexual intercourse, and that we should also help others to lead a peaceful and honorable life in the right way. One can clearly see here that Buddhism is strongly opposed to any kind of war, when it lays down that trade in arms and lethal weapons is an evil and unjust means of livelihood. These three factors right speech, right action, and right livelihood of the eightfold path constitute ethical conduct.

It should be realized that the Buddhist ethical and moral conduct aims at promoting a happy and harmonious life both for the individual and for society.

The Noble Eightfold Path

This moral conduct is considered as the indispensable foundation for all higher spiritual attainments. No spiritual development is possible without this moral basis. Next comes mental discipline, in which are included three other factors of the eightfold path: namely, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. The practice of concentration on breathing anapanasati is one of the well-known exercises, connected with the body, for mental development.

There are several other ways of developing attentiveness in relation to the body as modes of meditation. With regard to sensations and feelings, one should be clearly aware of all forms of feelings and sensations, pleasant, unpleasant and neutral, of how they appear and disappear within oneself.