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Kasatrian towards Pantai Siung, a well known recreational beach. But the problem is: How to determine where the boundaries of the units lie? The critics turn to two means: First, what is the literary genre or pattern of each unit. That will help to mark off the borders. Second, what is the Sitz-im-Leben, or original life situation of each passage. For different situations may call for different patterns of writing. Here is a concrete example of Form Critical work.
Peter replies that He is the Messiah, the son of God; 2 Jesus tells them to keep quiet about it; 3 He then predicts His own death and resurrection to correct their false notions about the Messiah , and Peter objects to His death; 4 "Get behind me , Satan". Fuller thought that units 2 and 3 were invented by the Church: Jesus had not really taught that He was the Messiah, but the Church later, being embarrassed, invented scenes in which the question came up, but He told people to keep quiet about it.
As to the predictions of His death and resurrection, the Church invented those too, for when He really died and rose, the Apostles acted as if they had never heard any such thing. If in this way the critics could eliminate units 2 and 3 they cannot , then they say we could read the truth minus the fakery: Jesus asks the Apostles who they say He is. We can easily refute the attempts to eliminate units 2 and 3: for details, see Wm. We add that the same Fuller today has given up on Form Criticism, and says it is "bankrupt" in "St.
Luke's Journal of Theology, 23, , p. Even R. Brown admits in: R. Brown and J. Meir, Antioch and Rome, Paulist, , pp. Redaction Criticism studies the editorial work of each Evangelist, while Form Criticism studies the first two of the three stages mentioned above. Thus R. Group A has no text from Jesus to support their claim, so they make one up. Group B does the same. Again, the same Bultmann said ibid. Really, it can be useful, but at first so many did not see its limitations, and acted as if they had "assured results of science" as they called them. They built one insecure thing on top of another, like a house of cards.
Now some, not all, are waking up, and throwing out the baby with the bath. John P. Meier, in A Marginal Jew Doubleday, repeatedly charges creativity, yet never gives a shred of evidence that such things happened, though he is most meticulous in demanding evidence for so many other things. He seemingly thinks the Christians were not interested in the truth even though that was vital for their own eternal fate.
They also used much the criterion of "Double dissimilarity or irreductibilty. The consequence of inspiration is inerrancy in affirmation, i. The part in italics is not strictly wrong, but very misleading. It can give the impression that we are not really sure what Jesus did or taught. What the Biblical Commission actually said is this my translation from the Latin as found in Catholic Biblical Quarterly, 25, July , pp.
Their English translation is on pp. This is not at all true, as we can see, for example, from the fact that the Council itself added a footnote on this very passage, referring us to several earlier Magisterium texts which insist there is no error of any kind in Scripture. For further data on this, and on the Instruction of in general, cf. The Instruction, while admitting that Form Criticism is legitimate and at times helpful, warns: "Certain followers of this method, led astray by the prejudices of rationalism, reject the existence of a supernatural order and the intervention of a personal God in the world as taught by revelation properly so called, and the possibility and actual existence of miracles and prophecies.
Others start with a false notion of faith, as if faith does not care about historical truth or is even incompatible with it. Others deny, as it were in advance, the historical value and character of the documents of revelation. Others, finally, think little of the authority of the Apostles as witnesses of Christ, and of their role and influence on the primitive community, while they extol the creative power of this community.
All these things are not only opposed to Catholic doctrine but also lack a scientific foundation, and are foreign to the right principles of historical method. What we have been saying about Form Criticism is only preliminary. The really basic way to establish the historicity of the Gospels is to come next. Literary Genre in general: Genre means a pattern of writing.
For example, if we today read a modern historical novel about the Civil war, we expect a mixture of history and fiction. The main line of the story will be history, and the background descriptions will fit. But there will be fill-ins, such as word for word discussions between important characters of the period. We do not, because of the fictional elements, charge the writer with ignorance or deception. No, that is the way such a novel is supposed to be written, and understood. There are as it were rules by which we read it. The key word is assert or claim.
The writer claims and asserts that the main line is historical, but he does not assert that the fill-ins are historical. There are many other genres in English, mostly inherited from Greece and Rome with rather little change. So long as we read things in that great culture stream, our natural adjustments, made since we are natives of this culture, do well for us. But if we move into a very different culture, such as ancient Semitic, then we may not take things for granted.
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Pope Pius XII, in his Encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu, of , told us we must study to find what genres were in use in the ancient Near East, and use this knowledge to help understand Scripture. We will look at them as ancient documents, and then put them through the kinds of checking we use on other ancient documents.
First of all we need to know the genre of the Gospels. There is much help from studying what the ancient Greeks and Romans thought they were doing or aimed to do when they wrote history. As we shall see, N. Herodotus, Preface 1: "These are the researches historiai of Herodotus of Halicarnassus Thucydides 1. I have not ventured to speak from any chance information I have described nothing but what I either saw myself, or learned from others from whom I made the most careful and specific inquiry. Polybius 3. As a result, accurate historical research into the subjects just mentioned was not so much difficult as it was impossible in times past But in modern times, the empire of Alexander in Asia and the supremacy of Rome in other places have opened up almost the entire world to sea or land travel Diodorus: 1.
I have been able to obtain accurate information of all the events of the Roman dominion from the national records which have been preserved from an early date I have not tried to get a definite chronology of events before the Trojan War, since no trustworthy table of dates for this time has come to my hands. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1. Flavius Josephus, Jewish War 1. Reply to Apion 1. Livy 7. It is not my intention to bother either to approve or to refute them. Tacitus, Annals 1. I am far from having reason for those.
We can see the purpose in mind: these writers want to record what really happened, the truth. They also, as is clear from the comments cited, especially those from Polybius and Diodorus, that they also want to teach lessons. Modern writers favor both, with less stress on explicitly teaching lessons. In other words, both ancient and modern writers of history want facts plus interpretations.
Ancient writers also liked to include speeches at suitable points. Thucydides in 1. I have therefore put into the mouth of each speaker the sentiments proper to the occasion, expressed as I thought he would be likely to express them, while at the same time I tried, as nearly as I could, to give the general sense of what was actually said. If he could not get even the sense, he would write comments he thought suitable for the occasion. Such were the ideals, the notion of the genre, held by ancient Greek and Roman historians.
How well then were able to live up to the ideal is a different matter. They did not always have the means to get at the facts, as we see some of them admitting. Modern historians however would give a high rating for factuality to several of these, chiefly Thucydides, Polybius and Tacitus. As to the comment of Tacitus that he wanted to write without anger or partisanship, some accuse him of bias against some figures, e. Genre of the Gospels: 1. We have seen what ideals the writers of the ancient world pursued in writing history: facts plus interpretations.
We would expect the Gospel writers in general to try also for facts, plus interpretations for the sake of faith. For two reasons, they would try harder: 1 They believed their eternal fate depended on the facts about Jesus. But in addition, The Jews had a better conception of history than did the Greeks and Romans, in that these latter commonly held that everything moves in great cycles. Trask, Princeton, , pp. The development of history is thus governed and oriented by a unique fact, a fact which stands entirely alone. Luke's Gospel in particular shows great care.
In the opening lines he says he consulted written accounts and eyewitnesses. My study, "Did St. Luke Imitate the Septuagint? A summary of the article is found in Catholic Apologetics Today, Chapter 9. The Problem of Historicism: Before going further, we must face the challenge of Historicism. Unfortunately, not all use this word in the same sense today. We mean it in the sense a history professor would have in mind, that is, the belief that every person and every event is so close to unique that we have little in common with the past, and so cannot be sure of understanding it.
This of course undermines all historical writing, and, obviously, undermines the possibility of getting facts from the Gospels. Historicism developed as a reaction to the excesses of such writers as Bossuet, who in his Discours sur l'histoire universelle said that everything in history is a contrivance of the higher wisdom of God. By knowing these, people could practically control their own fate. Some prominent proponents were Etienne Condillac , John S. Mill and Auguste Comte Vico in his Scienza Nuova 3d ed.
He said that to really know something, one must have made it. Johann Gottfried von Herder in his Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit held similar views, and said each society has its own unique lifestyle, which subtly but inescapably determines the mentalities of those born in it.
Not strangely, some saw the application of these ideas even to the past documents of the Church. Thus John W. O'Malley, S. Indeed, historicism was born out of disillusionment with attempts to discover and expose such plans whether in their sacral or secularized forms By refusing to consider them as products of providence or as inevitable links in a preordained chain of historical progress, decline, or development, we deprive them of all absolute character.
We relativize them. The same attitude at least seems to appear in the words of Avery Dulles, S. The Survival of Dogma, NY , p. Our findings suggest that the Catholic dogmas as presently formulated and understood may be significantly changed The Answer to Historicism: 1. It is not strictly true that every single person and every single event is close to unique.
Many sciences can make very broad generalizations, which do have some exceptions, but yet they hold widely, e. Yes, there is a measure of uniqueness in fingerprints, and in the DNA patterns, but it is still true that there are the large and broadly reaching patterns. Complex facts are those that are entwined with an ancient culture, so that we would need to as it were reconstitute that culture to fully understand.
Even then, needed facts can be recovered at least in some cases, cf. But not all acts are so entwined, e. The charge is made that "there is no such thing as an uninterpreted account. There is some truth in this, but it is not true in all types of cases.
One's eyes and ears report simply what has happened. Again even in more complicated instances in history we can tell the difference between facts and interpretations. For example, the fine Roman historian, Tacitus, says in his Annals 1. We can even see that the language is loaded with the words "seduced" and "bait" which prejudge the case. But Tacitus also reports Annals 1. Anyone there could see and hear that that was the one piece of business. But Tacitus also speculates on the motives of Tiberius, "he only showed signs of hesitation when he addressed the senate.
This was chiefly because of Germanicus, who was extremely popular Tiberius was afraid Germanicus [who commanded a large army] might prefer the throne to the prospect of it. So if we take the time to sort things out, we can at least in many cases make the needed distinctions, and for certain, as we shall see later, we can locate a few simple, uncomplex facts about Jesus, that are such that there is no room for bias in the report, and yet they amply suffice for building the bases we need. Gadamer, Truth and Method Seabury, They both hold that when a manuscript leaves the author's hand it takes on a new life of its own.
We neither know nor care much what the author meant: we look at the new meanings, which are many. Reply: By the use of the method just outlined, plus normal exegetical methods, we can find out what the author meant. The proposal of Riceour is total subjectivism. A very similar development is found in "Deconstruction", favored by some professors of literature.
They would argue that all writing can be reduced to an arbitrary sequence of linguistic signs or words, whose meanings have no relationship to the author's intention or to the world that lies beyond the text. Thus for example, Hamlet would be an impersonal skein of linguistic codes and conventions, the interpretation of which is open to anyone who cares to 'deconstruct' the text and 'complete' it by creating something totally different.
We notice the word "arbitrary". No, usage determines the meaning of the signs and sounds, and people in general can and do recognize them. The most prominent Deconstructionist is Jacques Derrida. His theory rests on the bases just mentioned and also on the nihilistic philosophy of Nietzsche which denies the possibility of discovering truth. Could the Gospel Writers get the needed facts? But even if we allow the estimates to stand, we can still find ample means for the Evangelists to get information.
Now unless we think Clement became Pope as a teenager, he should have been alive and around in Rome when Peter and Paul were there and preaching. For these two Saints died around 65 or 66 A. Hence the letter to Corinth was only 30 years later. Irenaeus preserved in Eusebius, Church History, 5. Irenaeus later recalled what was said. Smyrna was not far from Ephesus, where, according to a strong tradition, St. John spent his last years. We also have a letter of Polycarp to Philippi, which gives much information on Christianity.
Peter had once worked, and where Christians first were given the name Christian Acts We have seven letters of his, written on the way to Rome, which contain much information on Christian doctrine. They would be excellent sources of data. Even if they were not still alive in , yet they surely would have been around in the period where most scholars place the Gospels of Matthew and Luke they put Mark a bit before The text of Quadratus we have is found in Eusebius, Church History 4.
Therefore we do not strictly need to know the names of the writers, though we do have fine evidence, as we shall soon see. About the dates: The reason for putting Mark early is the fact that Mark Therefore, some say, if it had been written after the fall of Jerusalem, Mark would have clarified it. The reasons for the later dates of Matthew and Luke are: 1 They both depended on Mark. Mann, Mark Anchor Bible, Doubleday, , p. Still further, Luke often adds Semitisms which Mark does not have, and sometimes omits Semitisms which Mark does have.
Zerwick, Graecitas Biblica, ed. A second reason proposed for late dating of Matthew and Luke is the relative clarity of the predictions of the fall of Jerusalem. Luke even mentions an army surrounding the city. In all ancient sieges an army would surround a city. A further proposed reason is this: Matthew shows no knowledge of the debate in which St. Paul became so involved over the law. So, the claim goes, the debate must have been settled by the time Matthew wrote. Paul insisted we are free from the law; but Matthew says 5.
Matthew had a different purpose in writing, to give a basic account of the life and teachings of Jesus. Further, St. Paul did not really undermine the law. He meant that keeping the law does not earn salvation. He insists many times over that if we violate the law, we will not reach heaven: 1 Cor 6.
He sums up his idea in Romans 6. Similarly Jesus said we must be like little children, who do not think they earn the love and care of their parents, but know well then can earn punishment. Papias: He was Bishop of Hierapolis, who, around A. Papias says he inquired from those who had heard the Apostles and disciples of the Lord, especially a presbyter John, who is clearly not the Apostle John, but seems to have lived about the same time as the Apostle. We depend on quotations given by Eusebius, Church History 3. For he had not heard the Lord nor followed Him but later he was, as I said, a hearer of Peter, who according to need gave teachings, but had no intention of giving a connected account of the sayings of the Lord.
Mark, then, made no mistake, but wrote down things as he remembered. He aimed at one thing, that he would omit none of the things he had heard Matthew wrote the sayings of the Lord in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them according as he was able. Justin Martyr and St. It is a mistake to hold that the theory, but one that is understandable, given the obscurity the meaning of Apocalypse Kennedy, Paddison Professor of Classics at the University of North Carolina, in replying to a question about his use of Papias as a credible source, said, "He had studied carefully the second-century evidence for the tradition that Mark's Gospels reflects directly reminiscences of Peter, and had concluded that he would be thoroughly delighted to find such solid evidence for some other ancient historical tradition.
Martin Hengel, highly respected Professor of the New Testament at the University of Tubingen, from which so many leftish positions on Scripture have come in Studies in the Gospel of Mark tr. John Bowden, Fortress, Philadelphia, , pp. Mark followed St. Peter and wrote from his preaching. Anti-Marcionite Prologues: "Mark, who was called stump-fingered, was the interpreter of Peter. After the departure of Peter, he wrote a Gospel in Italy Luke of Antioch in Syria, a physician, having become a disciple of the apostles, and later having followed Paul until his martyrdom Probable date, at least for that on Mark, is between and AD.
The detail that Mark was "stump-fingered' is remarkable. A later forger would be unlikely to know such a detail, and is unlikely to have invented so odd and uncomplimentary a point. Some manuscripts add after the lines on Mark: "When Peter heard it, he approved, and gave it to the Church to be read by his authority.
Irenaeus 3. Since St. Polycarp tell his reminiscences of St. However, both St. Irenaeus and the Prologues definitely agree that Mark wrote from the preaching of Peter, regardless of the timing. Origen, to be cited below, also agrees that Mark wrote from the preaching of Peter. Muratorian Fragment: "The third book of the Gospels is according to Luke.
Luke that physician, after the ascension of Christ, when Paul had taken him along as a companion on the journeys, wrote in his own name. He however had not seen the Lord in the flesh, and so, he began to speak, starting with the birth of John, according as he was able. It dates probably from between and AD. The first part is missing, and so the fragment begins with an incomplete sentence: " Irenaeus: In his Against Heresies 3.
After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, himself handed down in writing the things preached by Peter. And Luke, the follower of Paul, set down in a book the Gospel preached by him. Then John, the disciple of the Lord, who had reclined on His breast, gave forth the Gospel while living at Ephesus in Asia. Tertullian, writing about A. Comments: Some have tried to say these witness are not worth much, that Papias was unrealiable, and all others copied from him.
We have already answered the charge against Papias. As to the claim all copied from one, there is no proof. On the contrary, the Anti-Marcionite Prologue has facts on Luke, while Papias, in what has come down to us, has nothing. Also the Anti-Marcionite Prologue has an odd detail on Mark, that he was stump-fingered, which Papias seems to lack.
Irenaeus too has facts not found in Papias. For example, that Matthew wrote while Peter and Paul were preaching in Rome. Also, as we said above , St. Irenaeus had listened to St. Polycarp who knew St. John personally, and Irenaeus had visited Rome at least once, where he could easily have gathered information, especially on Mark recording Peter's preaching there.
Origen, Commentary on Matthew 1. Comments: In 2 Cor 8. Origen seems to mean Luke. The RSV unfortunately says his praise is in "preaching" the Gospel. There is no word for preaching in the Greek, and it would be different from writing a Gospel. We have this text of Origen thanks to Eusebius 6.
It was probably written about AD. To sum up: We have a unanimous tradition, reaching back to around A. Paul, and based his Gospel on the preaching of St. Paul in turn insists strongly in the first chapter of Galatians that he got his basic knowledge of Christ directly from Christ in the Damascus road vision, and that he also compared notes with the other Apostles. And that Matthew wrote a Gospel, or at last the words of the Lord, in Hebrew. We do not have data on the Greek text we now have. Objection: To say that Christians were sincere since they even faced death for their faith does not prove anything: the Muslims and others do that too.
Reply: To die for a faith proves only sincerity, it does not prove they have the facts. We have shown the Gospel writers did have the facts. Some of the writings he left contain contradictions. Six facts from the Gospels: We have seen that the Gospels intended to present facts, that we can tell them apart from interpretations, that they had access to the facts, that they believed their eternity depended on the facts. Now, to reach a conclusion, we look for and find six simple, uncomplicated facts, such that there is no room for bias to create them.
William G. Most
Even pagan history reports on Him. Tacitus, a Roman historian considered by modern historians to be about as good on facts as modern writers wrote Annals, He claimed authority over the law given by Moses Mt. He said He was greater than Jonah and Solomon Mt. He said He was fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah He claimed He could forgive sins Mark 2. The case just cited from Mark 2. He many times over made such a connection, e. The NJBC on p. In Mk the high priests ask Him to come down from the cross.
Are these claims stupid or deliberately fraudulent? Many sects today claim frequent miracles. But none of these are checked. The Catholic Church is very demanding. The shrine of Lourdes has had thousands of seeming cures since the visions of But only a bit over 60 of them have been accepted. Before the acceptance, there must have been a medical certificate of the disease and the statement that it is beyond science. As soon as it happens, a staff of Doctors examines, and the examination is repeated later.
For details, cf. If someone says there can be no miracles, we merely show those that are checked to the hilt by modern science. Sammaciccia, A. Burakowski, F. Kuba Stella Maris Books, Ft. Worth TX , tells of a host and clots of blood kept since about AD, which have been checked by a team of Doctors and biologists, who found it to be part of a human heart, with no preservatives; the blood is Type AB, the same as the blood that came from the chalice, also still to be seen. Even the hardly conservative New Jerome Biblical Commentary admits, on pp.
Some try to say His miracles are much like those of Rabbis and Greeks. On the later, cf. Or they say that Apollonius of Tyana is much like Christ, as seen in his life by Philostratus. But that life was written much after the events. We see Apollonius is just a Pythagorean philosopher, not one who claimed he was sent by God to bring eternal salvation by His own suffering. Apollonius holds many merely philosophical discussions. All of Greece assembles at Olympia to hear him for forty days.
In India he finds dragons 60 feet long whose eyes contain mystic gems. If they were hollowed out they would hold enough drink for four men. He also sees robot tripods that serve meals. His "miracles" are poor. He finds a satyr annoying women, and quiets him with wine He meets a woman who has a son possessed by a demon, which turns out to be the ghost of a man who fell in battle, but had been attached to his wife. When she married three days after his death he became disgusted with women, and so, after death, became homosexual over the 16 year old boy.
Apollonius gives the woman a letter with threats to the ghost And there is more of the same. We cannot imagine a messenger sent from God for just one generation in one small out of the way country. So in Luke 6. He sent them out to preach Mark 3. At the end he told them Mt Go therefore and teach all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and behold, I am with you all days even to the consummation of the world.
Really we would expect a messenger sent by God with a great mission to provide for this. Hence He told them Lk Some Protestants try to say that this text merely means that Jesus identifies with them, as He does with the poor. It is clearly the latter, as those who teach in His name. Again, in Matthew And if he will not hear the church, let him be to you as the heathen and the publican.
Amen, whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven. Their regular meaning was to impose or remove an obligation by an authoritative decision or teaching. These words in the passage cited were spoken to all the Apostles. They were specially spoken to Peter in Mt Albright, a noted Protestant Scripture scholar often called in his last years," the dean of American Scripture scholars", wrote in his commentary on Matthew Anchor Bible, Doubleday , , p.
His teaching and disciplinary activities will be similarly guided by the Spirit to carry out Heaven's will. Conclusion from The Gospels: We now see before us a group actually, a church commissioned to teach, by a messenger sent from God, and promised God's protection on their teaching. Now it is not only intellectually permissible, but mandatory, if we have followed the reasoning, to believe their teaching,. Free From All Error, chapter 2 , and can tell us that the Messenger is actually divine.
They can also tell us that there is a Pope, and what authority he has. Special attention is needed here because of the many attacks on their historicity. But we have special evidence for their historicity:. In the first place, it is evident when Mary, arising in haste to visit Elizabeth, is greeted by her as blessed because of her faith But no such reservations were made in the lines just cited from 57, even as to the shepherds and the Magi. We notice too that LG speaks of her "virginal integrity", which surely refers to physical virginity. So her virginity is not just something spiritual as some are claiming.
We mention this devaluation briefly so that you may know how to defend with study and faith the consoling certainty that these pages are not inventions of people's fancy, but that they speak the truth The authority of the Council has not pronounced differently on this:' The Sacred Authors wrote Luke's remark: 'Mary kept all these things, pondering them in her heart' Mary 'who kept these things in her heart' McKenzie on charges by R.
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Brown's The Birth of the Messiah Doubleday, Brown claimed St. Luke built up a few scant bits of information in parallel to OT incidents.
If Luke the physician had been able to study medicine with such success, he would have discovered a cure for cancer The word "houri" has entered several European languages French — , English — with the meaning of an "elegant, beautiful, charming woman". Several translators—like Hilali - Khan , Arberry , Palmer , Rodwell and Sale —have translated the adjective ka'ib in Book 78, verse 33 of the Quran to refer to "wide shoulders and chest".
Ibn Kathir, in his tafsir , writes that the adjective contained in said verse "means 'fit pectorals or breasts'. And the houris can be male and female both. It means the 'fit pectorals or breasts' can be male or female. Abdullah Yusuf Ali , on the other hand, translates said adjective into English simply as "charming, elegant and holy"  —which refers to sensual or physical attributes, though not necessarily chest, pectorals or breasts.
Based on this tropical meaning of both the verb ka'ba and the noun ka'b, the participle ka'ib has often been used, in popular parlance, to denote "a girl whose shoulder and chest are becoming prominent" or "are budding" hence, many commentators see in it an allusion to some sort of youthful "female companions' who would entertain the presumably male occupants of paradise Ibn Kathir mentions Muhammed saying that if his wife was righteous then she will be his wife in Paradise too. Will one be able to do that? In another place, Ibn Kathir emphasizes the literal nature of sexual intercourse in Paradise by another Hadith:.
And when it is finished she will return pure and virgin again. Ibn Kathir relates concerning the following verses: "Verily, the dwellers of the Paradise, that Day, will be busy with joyful things. They and their wives will be in pleasant shade, reclining on thrones. They will have therein fruits and all that they ask for.
Although Ibn Kathir relates the opinion of some companions of Muhammad being reported to have said concerning "will be busy with joyful things" that means in heaven people will be "busy in deflowering virgins" , he continues to relate other alternate meanings. Another companion, Ibn Abass has said that it refers "listening to stringed instruments". While Mujahid said, "Their spouses, will be in pleasant shade means, in the shade of trees. The idea of 72 virgins in Islam refers to an aspect of paradise.
It was mentioned by Daraj Ibn Abi Hatim, that Abu al-Haytham 'Adullah Ibn Wahb narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudhri, who heard Muhammad saying, 'The smallest reward for the people of Heaven is an abode where there are eighty thousand servants and seventy-two houri, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls , aquamarine , and ruby , as wide as the distance from al-Jabiyyah to San'a.
However, regarding the above statement Hafiz Salahuddin Yusuf has said: "The narration, which claims that everyone would have seventy-two wives has a weak chain of narrators. In the same collection of Sunni hadiths, however, the following is judged strong hasan sahih :. That the Messenger of Allah said: "There are six things with Allah for the martyr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the village in Iran, see Huri, Iran. For the French surname, see Houri surname. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage.
Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics. Islam portal Religion portal. Al-Bukhari notes elsewhere that "people have been decreasing in stature since Adam's creation. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.