HN has significant operational reach, and has demonstrated ambition and ability to project influence, employ violence to achieve political ends, and broaden its network well beyond its traditional community in southeastern Afghanistan. In many cases, HN has reconstituted beyond its traditional safe havens in Pakistan and Afghanistan by relying on indirect forms of control.
HN does this in order to evade detection and sabotage by the West, while organizing violence well beyond its traditional tribal and ethnic strongholds. Working Manuscript; Dressler, Jeffrey. Between and Haqqani pledged alliance to the Taliban and supported the group when it captured Kabul in In addition, relations with Al Qaeda in Pakistan and Afghanistan date back to the early s, when AQ was just starting to form.
Though direct links between these two groups are not known, it is suspected that the ISI utilizes both groups to carry out terror operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan. July 19, Accessed July 16, October 5, HN established its jihadist credentials in the s during the Afghan War against the Soviets as a mujahedeen organization. In September , the U. At the time, these targets were two of the most prominent symbols of American diplomatic and military presence in Afghanistan.
In , the Pakistani government ostensibly outlawed HN.
The Taliban’s logic for peace negotiations
When HN attacks are linked to state-facilitated violence, the West has, in select cases obtained enhanced legal authorities to apply military, financial, and diplomatic pressure on both HN and its backers. For this reason, the U. State Department designated HN as a foreign terrorist organization following its attack on the U. Embassy in Kabul. September 29, Accessed July 17, Fountainhead of Jihad: The Haqqani Network. Fountainhead of Jihad: the Haqqani nexus; Skorka, Melissa. Skip to: Skip to content Skip to navigation.
Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America'
Brief Summary of the Organization's History. How does a group organize? Who leads it? How does it finance operations?
How does a group fight? What are its aims and ideologies? What are some of its major attacks? Major Attacks. What is the group's relationship with other militants over time? Key Statistics First Recorded Activity:. Contact Send a message to the Mapping Militants team. How to Cite: Mapping Militant Organizations. Last modified July Overview Brief History. Overview Narrative. Overview Formed Early s Disbanded Group is active. First Attack Jalaluddin Haqqani and his fighters launched an assault against the pro-Daoud governor in Ziruk district of Paktika province, Afghanistan 12 killed, 0 wounded.
Last Attack January 20, Six militants attacked a hotel in Kabul. The Taliban claimed responsibility and the attackers were believed to belong to HN. Updated August Leadership This section describes various leaders, their deputies, and other important officials in the militant organization. Jalaluddin Haqqani unknown -present Jalaluddin is the founder of the Haqqani Network. Badruddin Haqqani unknown - Badruddin was a senior Haqqani Network leader and is thought to have served as the top deputy to his older brother, Sirajuddin.
Afghanistan War Essay
Sangeen Zadran unknown Zadran was the shadow Governor for the Paktika Province, a Haqqani Network commander, and a senior lieutenant to Sirajuddin. Haji Mali Khan unknown to October 1, Khan was the senior commander of Haqqani militants in Afghanistan prior to his arrest, and was responsible for planning and facilitating attacks throughout the Southeast provinces. Name Changes There are no reported name changes for the Haqqani Network. Ideology and Goals Prior to official formation of HN, Jalaluddin Haqqani was a member of the executive committee of Hizb-i Islami, one of the most radical anti-Soviet anti-Daud resistance movements in the region.
Targets and Tactics HN targets Western buildings and organizations, as well as institutions that sympathize with or support foreign officials. Relations with Other Groups Between and Haqqani pledged alliance to the Taliban and supported the group when it captured Kabul in State Sponsors and External Influences HN established its jihadist credentials in the s during the Afghan War against the Soviets as a mujahedeen organization. Maps The project develops a series of interactive diagrams that "map" relationships among groups and show how those relationships change over time.
The user can change map settings to display different features e. Evolving Militant Interactions. Global Al-Qaeda. Indeed, when bin Laden returned to Afghanistan in May from his base in the Sudan after the United States insisted that the Sudanese government expel him , it was Khalis, along with two of his key commanders -- Hajji Abdul Qadir and Engineer Mahmoud -- who first invited him.
As far as Khalis was concerned, he considered Osama the perfect Islamic youth. Bin Laden, along with his four wives and some children, moved into the well-fortified Khalis family compound nine years ago and then to a farm on the outskirts of Jalalabad. But shortly thereafter, Engineer Mahmoud was assassinated, and there were two assassination attempts against bin Laden, too. So Khalis gave him two of his fighting positions in the mountains -- Tora Bora and Milawa. Bin Laden immediately began to customize and rebuild the two: Tora Bora for his family and his key aides; Milawa for his fighters and as a command center and logistics hub.
By the time bin Laden moved to Kandahar" -- then a Taliban stronghold -- "in May of , the two mountain redoubts had been completely refurbished and modernized: they were there, just waiting for him in Some six weeks after the Sept. There they joined forces with the Northern Alliance, an anti-Taliban militia that controlled only 10 percent of Afghanistan but to whom Washington delegated the ground war. The view prevailing among senior American military leaders was that overwhelming air power, suitcases full of cash and surrogate militias could win the war.
The intricacies of Afghan tribal life appeared to elude everyone. In late October or early November, according to Scheuer, American operatives went to see Khalis to seek his support. Didn't anybody know about Khalis's friendship with bin Laden? Or that Khalis was the only one of the seven mujahedeen leaders who remained neutral about, and sometimes even supported, the Taliban?
When Khalis turned the Americans down, Special Forces troops recruited two of his former commanders. They made an unlikely couple: Hazarat Ali and Hajji Zaman. The former, with just a fourth-grade education, was barely literate, a bully and unrefined; the other was a wealthy drug smuggler, fluent in English and French, and a polished raconteur who was lured back to Afghanistan from his exile in France by the United States.
Both were schemers who had come of age on the battlefields of the anti-Soviet war, Ali as a teenager in Tora Bora and Zaman in Jalalabad. Ali had joined the Taliban for a time, then moved north and embraced the Northern Alliance; Zaman had supported neither, and when the Taliban came to power, he chose exile. Ali owed his rise largely to the Pentagon, which ultimately enlisted him to lead the ground battle in the Tora Bora caves; Zaman, a Pashtun leader and member of the Khugyani Tribe, had his own base of support, something that Ali, a member of a minor, non-Pashtun tribal grouping, lacked.
A third militia leader -- less experienced but of more distinguished pedigree -- who would bring his forces to Tora Bora was Hajji Zahir, the year-old somewhat skittish son of Hajji Abdul Qadir, Yunis Khalis's former military commander and one of the three men who had welcomed bin Laden when he returned to Afghanistan. Indeed, as the Americans were recruiting his son, Hajji Abdul Qadir was about to reclaim the governorship of Nangarhar Province, a post he had relinquished when the Taliban arrived, in a power transfer Khalis and bin Laden would help to consummate.
Bin Laden had returned to Jalalabad on or about Nov. Dressed in a gray shalwar kameez, the long shirt and bloused trousers favored in Afghanistan, and his camouflage jacket, bin Laden held a small Kalakov, a shorter version of the Kalashnikov, in his hand. As the crowd began to shout "Zindibad [Long live] Osama," the leader of Al Qaeda moved through the banquet hall dispensing white envelopes, some bulky, some thin, the thickness proportionate to the number of extended families under each leader's command. Bin Laden really didn't have to buy the loyalty of the Pashtun tribal chiefs; they were already devoted to him.
He was, after all, the only non-Afghan Muslim of any consequence in the past half-century who had stood with the Afghans.
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But on that November afternoon, and on the nights that followed it, as bin Laden began to lay the groundwork for his escape from the Tora Bora caves, the elusive Qaeda leader was determined to be absolutely sure. The following evening, or the evening after, bin Laden, according to an Afghan intelligence official, dined in Jalalabad with other Pashtun tribal chiefs from Parachinar, Pakistan, an old military outpost I first visited nearly 20 years before.
Parachinar had been a key staging area for the C. A picturesque town in the Kurram Valley, Parachinar was also Pakistan's first line of defense against any Afghan incursion.
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Beyond it lie only the White Mountains -- and the caves of Tora Bora -- and desolate stretches of no man's land. The last time bin Laden was seen in Jalalabad was the evening of Nov. Under its terms, Khalis would take temporary control of the city until the formation of a newly appointed U. He, of course, made certain that the Eastern Shura, as the government is called, was stacked with men who owed their loyalty to him. Hajji Abdul Qadir, his former military commander, became Nangarhar Province's governor again.
Bin Laden's Arab fighters had used Jalalabad as a base and as a command center for a number of years, and now they dispersed, loading their weapons and their clothing, their children and their wives into the backs of several hundred lorries, armored vehicles and four-wheel-drive trucks.
Some Taliban fighters followed suit. Others disappeared, removing their signature black turbans and returning to their villages and towns. As the convoy was being readied, bin Laden said his goodbyes: to the Taliban governor; to Mujahid Ullah, Khalis's son; and to scores of the tribal leaders who had received his white envelopes three days before. He was dressed now as he had been dressed then and cradled his Kalakov, even though he was surrounded by some 60 armed guards.
Then he entered a custom-designed white Toyota Corolla, and the convoy sped away toward the mountains of Tora Bora, where he waited for the Americans to arrive. By late November, Hazarat Ali, Hajji Zaman and Hajji Zahir had assembled a motley force of some 2, men -- supplemented by a fleet of battered Russian tanks -- at the base of Tora Bora.
The Afghans were ill equipped and poorly trained. They also lacked the commitment that bin Laden's fighters had. Hidden from view at 5, feet and above in the scores of valleys, forests and caves, the Qaeda fighters not only had the tremendous advantage of the terrain; their redoubts were replete with generators, electricity and heat and copious stocks of provisions.
Snow covered the mountain, and it was bitterly cold. The Afghan fighters at its base grumbled and quarreled endlessly. It was also the holy month of Ramadan, when Muslims fast from dawn to dusk, and some of the Afghans had the irritating tendency to leave their posts and return home to celebrate iftar, the evening meal that breaks the fast. View all New York Times newsletters. Their mutual loathing became so intense that on more than one occasion they and their fighters, instead of fighting Al Qaeda, shot each other's men.
The American bombardment of Tora Bora, which had been going on for a month, yielded to saturation airstrikes on Nov. Hundreds of civilians died that weekend, along with a number of Afghan fighters, according to Hajji Zaman, who had already dispatched tribal elders from the region to plead with bin Laden's commanders to abandon Tora Bora. Three days later, on Dec.
Word quickly spread through the villages and towns, and hundreds of ill-prepared men rushed to the mountain's base. The timing of the call to war was so unexpected that Hajji Zahir, one of its three lead commanders, told journalists at the time that he nearly slept through it. On a map, it was little more than a mile from the bottom of the White Mountains to the first tier of the Qaeda caves, but the snow was thick and the slopes were steep and, for the Afghan fighters, it was a three-hour climb. They were ambushed nearly as soon as they arrived.
The battle lasted for only 10 minutes before bin Laden's fighters disappeared up the slope and the Afghans limped away. He eventually inherits a share of the family fortune. Bin Laden marries for the first time at age 17 to a Syrian cousin. He attends King Abdul Aziz University in Jidda, where one of his teachers is Abdullah Azzam, a Palestinian who played a large role in the resurgence of Islamic religiosity.
After the Soviets pull out of Afghanistan, bin Laden returns to Saudi Arabia to work for the family construction firm. He uses his network to raise funds for veterans of the Afghan war. Bin Laden is expelled from Saudi Arabia due to his anti-government activities. He takes refuge in Sudan. Eventually, Saudi Arabia revokes his citizenship, and his family disowns him as well. Bin Laden declares that Muslims should kill Americans, civilians included, wherever they can find them. On August 7, a pair of truck bombs explodes outside the U. On August 20, U.
President Clinton orders cruise missile attacks against suspected terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum, Sudan, that he says is involved in making weapons. In February, bin Laden appears in public at his son's wedding in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where the Taliban's spiritual leader lives. Four of bin Laden's alleged supporters are convicted May 29 of the bombings of the U.
Following the September 11 terrorism attacks in the United States, the U. As bin Laden calls Muslims across the world to set aside their differences and join in the "blessed and thankful jihad," London-based Arabic-language newspaper Al-Sharq Al Awsat reports, talks of another possible war heat up among U.
Days before the March 19 U. Six months later, messages from al Qaeda and bin Laden surfaced at Arab news organizations. The CIA cited some of the messages as having specific references to recent events, leaving the question of whether or not bin Laden is alive unanswered.
The young bin Laden goes to Afghanistan to help Afghan resistance fighters, known as the mujahedeen, repel the Soviet invasion of the country.