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Pages The Rinderpest Cordon of — The Invention of the Red Line, — In Search of the Red Line. Back Matter Pages Written in response to a growing crisis in German political circles over whether colonies should be maintained. The author argues that British infrastructure development in the African colonies draw German trade from German companies.

Any non-pursuance of a colonial expansion policy would make Germany the laughing stock of the world. Der Tropenpflanzer 19, no.

First part of a major review article on the economic significance of the German colonies in Oceania, written during World War I in response to the confiscation of German colonial property not only in the colonies occupied by Japan, Australia and New Zealand, but also in response to the capital confiscated in neutral countries. Reviews the products of the German colonies in Africa and the colonies in the Pacific and shows how the loss of the colonies has created problems for local supply of spices and raw materials. Expresses the opinion that Turkey then an ally of the Germans might be able to assist.

Shows the level of German capital investment in Samoa and New Guinea and compares it favourably with the German investment in the African colonies. Provides a statistic for the German government subsidies to the administration and development of the colonies of New Guinea, Samoa and the acquired Micronesian territories as well as a table summarising the government earnings from these colonies.

A summary of the history of acquisition and development of the colonies until is given. Second instalment of a major review article on the economic significance of the German colonies in Oceania, written during World War I. Most raw materials and produce is discussed at length, with special attention given to phosphate. Final instalment of a major review article on the economic significance of the German colonies in Oceania, written during World War I. Continuation of the discussion of individual types of raw materials and produce. The main emphasis of the paper is on the copra industry providing data on establishment costs, management costs, production returns and the like.

The rubber industry had just commenced since when the war broke out. A brief description of the agricultural experimental work is given. A discussion on population and the provision of paid labour concludes the paper. Annual report of the activities in German Micronesia, with a review of the economic situation, the health status the conjunctivitis epidemic has receded , education system and enrolments. On Saipan and Yap hospital facilities were extended. An account of the Sokeh's uprising and subsequent punitive action on Pohnpei is also included. Reinecke, Dr. Favourable review of the salient points of the annual report on the development of the protectorates issued by the Reichstag.

Discusses the implications of the new customs tariffs for German New Guinea on the future of trade. The German colonial office had directed that the colony of German New Guinea and the island territory had to pay for itself, and that subventions would be limited. Among them, subventions for the New Guinea-Singapore Shipping line were not renewed. The paper argues that the copra duty is particularly unfair.

Seidel, A. Overview of the economical and political situation of Guam based an American reports. Sprigade, P and Moisel, M. Volkens, Georg. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 20, no. The argument is advanced that white administrators would always be required. The budget also contains an allocation of RMk 20, for a new administration building on Pohnpei, as well as RMk 10, for the dissemination of the German language. Fritz is praised as a 'shining example' with his personal involvement in public education. Warnack, Dr. Review of the trade of the German South Seas possessions in Wilkens, Th.

Item on the trade of the Marianas in , summarising information published in the Deutsches Kolonialblatt. Winkler, C. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 28, no. Summary item on the development of trade in New Guinea and the Islands Territory.

Article excerpt

The trade volume for increased over , with imports of RMk , exceeding exports of RMk , Western food items and ammunitions decreased, largely due to the reduction of the police troops in Micronesia. The Australian share of the trade increased mainly in the construction materials sector. The preference by the locals for freshly minted currency, particularly 1 Mark pieces, is highlighted. It is reported that individual chiefs would possess sums of up to Mark 10, , all in 1 Mark pieces, which led to a shortage in circulating coins.

Zitelmann, Franz Carl. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 21, no. The report contains statistical data on trade, shipping, population. Comments on the effects of government employment by the naval administration and the concomitant reduction in agricultural production. Der Ostasiatische Lloyd 24, no. General description of the economic indicators and statistics of Guam for the financial year ending 30 June The data are embedded in the text. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 6, pp. Article demonstrating the volume of trade with the colonies and its importance for the economy of Hamburg.

Der Ostasiatische Lloyd 14, no. Editorial arguing that the acquisition of the Carolines and the Marianas from Spain was of great economic importance. German Micronesia's position in the North Pacific, combined with the new shipping routes to be developed after the opening of the Panama canal were seen as great opportunities. Further, the population decline of the Pacific islands was seen as beneficial, as the Pacific Islander population could be replaced by emigrants from Europe and China, which would create sizeable markets for German products.

Beschaffung und Verteilung von Saatgut, chemische und technische Untersuchungen kolonialer Produkte. Provision and distribution of seed and chemical and technical investigations of colonial produce]. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 12, no. Article on the report of the Colonial Scientific Committee mentions that Hemp seed sourced from India was shipped for trials to many colonies, among them the Marshalls, Carolines, Palau and the Marianas. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 13, p.

Item on the state of the colonial rubber industry in New Guinea, which at the time was heavily promoted in Micronesia. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 20, p. Statistical table demonstrating the value of the colonies for the economy of the seaport and city of Hamburg.

Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 21, p. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 21, no. Item on the lease of Tinian to the Tinian-Gesellschaft owned by A. Stein and Lotze for RMk pa. The company intends to develop a dried meat market for export to Guam, as the live cattle trade to Saipan cannot be expanded due to market saturation. Der Ostasiatische Lloyd 20, no. Brief summary of the published trade statistics for Written for the expatriate business world in China. News item that the Imperial German colonial office had ruled that the administration of the Islands Territory had the sole authority to permit and license mining in Micronesia.

Deutsches Kolonialblatt 19, p. Item on the state of the colonial rubber industry, which at the time was heavily promoted in Micronesia.

German Colonialism in a Global Age

South Sea Islands]. Koloniale Rundschau pp. Overview of the economy of the German South Sea colonies, with few statistical data. Mentions the impending development of the phosphate mines on Angaur and the changes to land ownership on Pohnpei including the threat of a rebellion. A summary of the copra exports is given. Cash crops of cocoa, tobacco, hemp and rubber are mentioned as new developments.

Statistical table providing a summary of the trade. Item discussing the need to establish loan and savings banks in the German colonies for the advancement of German settlers and their plantations. A call is made for the Imperial Colonial Office to facilitate such establishments. No mention is made of the need for such institutions to be accessible to local, non-expatriate communities. Trade statistics for German New Guinea. Statistical tables on the commerce of the Western Carolines district, including the Marianas. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 31, p. Deeken, Richard. Very positive review of the annual trade figures for German New Guinea including the Islands Territory , commenting on the good prospects for copra exports, as well as the income derived from bird-of-paradise plumes.

Other tropical industries such as cacao, rubber, and mother of pearl were also doing well, while many others were still in developmental stages. An exceptional item among the imports was the new government steamer, the Komet, worth RMk , In addition, coinage worth RMk , was also imported to offset the shortage of coins in the territory due to hoarding by locals. Eckert, Georg. Koloniale Rundschau 27, pp. Fritz, Georg. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 15, pp. Beginning 1 April the district administration leased the Tinian herds to a company formed by Albert Stein, E.

Lotze and Juan de los Reyes for RMk pa lease payment.

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The paper contains the economic balance sheet for the operations Die Handelsbeziehungen Deutschlands zu seinen Schutzgebieten. Berlin: Deutscher Kolonial Verlag. Review of the economic potential of the German protectorates at the eve of the annexation of Central and Western Micronesia. The section on the South Seas reviews the shipping connections, trade balances in New Guinea and the Marshall Islands and the produce derived from plantations there. Statistical tables on shipping volume are included.

Brief summary item on the state of trade with the German colonies. Overview of the activities of the German trading companies in Oceania, written on the eve of the German take-over of the rest of Micronesia. Provides a good overview of the level of activity, which is mainly concentrated on New Guinea. Detailed statistics of the imports and exports of the eastern and western Carolines, the Marianas and the Marshall Islands. Statistical data on the commerce with the German colonies in Detailed statistics of the plantations in the eastern and western Carolines, the Marianas and the Marshall Islands Lists experimental plants used on the islands.

Deutsch-Neu-Guinea, Inselgebiet Anlagen. Detailed statistics of the plantations in the eastern and western Carolines, the Marianas and the Marshall Islands Includes detailed statistics on plants grown for purposes of experimentation by the district office. Detailed statistics of the plantations in the eastern and western Carolines, the Marianas and the Marshall Islands Contains a list of species planted in the Experimental Garden in Pohnpei.

Neu-Guinea Inselgebiet , Ost-Karolinen. West-Karolinen, Palau und Marianen. IV, p. Detailed statistics of the plantations in the eastern and western Carolines, the Marianas and the Marshall Islands. Statistical tables of the amount of currency as well as the overall capital of companies operating in the Eastern Carolines, the western Carolines and the Marianas as well as the Marshall Islands. Legislaturperiode, 1. Session vol. Berlin: Julius Sittenfeld. Lists experimental plants used on the islands. Detailed listing of the trading and plantation companies operating in the eastern and western Carolines, the Marianas and the Marshall Islands.

Zache, Hans. Wirtschafts-Dienst, Weltwirtschaftliche Nachrichten 9, p. Report on the economic sistuation of Guam, compiled from published US sources. Brief item written by the German consul in Manila dated 4 December on the agricultural production of Guam following the typhoon of 19 October The heavy reliance on imports and the lack of local production acerbated the problem. The coffee harvest is described as very low because the flowers had not set due to the heavy rain.

The livestock populations declined in numbers due to fowl cholera and swine fever. Several horses also died due to veterinary illnesses. Deutsches Handels-Archiv. Brief item written by the German consul in Manila on the economic situation in Guam. Brief item written by the German consul in Manila on the economic situation Guam. Provides a summary of the American administration's budget as well as the statistics for copra exports increased due to the wind thrown nuts by two typhoons and building timber sent to Saipan.

A new hospital as well as a school were erected during the year. Brief item written by the German consul in Manila on the economic situation on Guam. Provides a summary of the American administration's budget as well as the statistics for copra exports reduced due to the wind damage by two typhoons and building timber sent to Saipan. Highlights the increasing intermarriage of Japanese with Chamorro. Summary table of trading companies in the western Carolines.

Overview on the state of the commercial colonial companies during and the dividends paid out , drawing on the companies' annual reports. Nach dem Stande am 1. Januar Treue, Wolfgang. Koloniale Rundschau 33, pp. Paper discussing the nature of the colonial concession companies which were the vehicles used by the German government to administer both New Guinea and the Marshall Islands.

Treue compares the system to that used by other colonial powers such as Belgium and France. Companies-Jaluit Gesellschaft. The Jaluit Gesellschaft was the single most powerful company in Micronesia, controlling the copra production in the eastern Carolines and the Marshalls, and having a stranglehold on the economy of the Marshalls. The company also operated the German mail steamer.

Although not specifically operating in the Marianas, the Jaluit Gesellschaft looms large in German colonial history in Micronesia. This section provides a listing of the annual reports as well as news items on the company's performance. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 3, no.

Brief account of the published annual report of the Jaluit Gesellschaft and its trading performance. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 4, p. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 5, p. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 8, no. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 11, pp. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 12, pp. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 15, p. Deutsches Kolonialblatt 16, p. The items to are all brief summaries of the annual reports and performance of the Jaluit-Gesellschaft and its daughter company, the Pacific Phosphate Co.

Ltd, extracted from the company's annual reports. Jaluit Gesellschaft. Statuten der Jaluit Gesellschaft beschlossen in der constituierenden Versammlung vom December Hamburg: J. It is assumed that the assets of the company were about RMk , The company will issue shares of RMk 5, each. The remainder of the statutes are detailed legal regulations regarding the nature and payment of dividends, the make up and powers of the board of directors, the nature and conduct of the annual general meeting etc.

A map of the German Marshalls is appended. August Hamburg: W. First annual report of the Jaluit Gesellschaft. The reason was the unreliable shipping connections. The Jaluit Gesellschaft owned or operated 60 trading stations during its first year of operations. Although the move was deemed desirable in general, the company lost some funds when the German government changed the currency in the Marshalls from the previously prevalent Chilean and Bolivian Dollars to the Imperial German Mark. Mentions guardedly that not enough trade goods had been sent to the trading stations.

After tax and write-offs the company recorded a loss of RMk 17, The company lost two vessels in , which were replaced by the acquisition of a vessel and a newly built vessel. The company's plantation on Ujelang was breaking even and was expected to turn substantial profits six years from hence. Since October Jaluit had joined the World Postal Union, but all mail had to be sent via Sydney or San Francisco, using sailing vessels as opportunities presented themselves. The company complained about the lack of education of the Marshallese and argued that the situation was not likely to change until the ABCFM missionaries were replaced by European missionaries.

The Jaluit Gesellschaft identified the need for a government physician and stated that it would pay part of the salary once it had turned profits. Directors: F. Board members: H. Robertson, C. Godeffroy, H. Bense, H. Meyer-Delius, R. During and several of the larger islands suffered severely from drought.

In addition a measles epidemic introduced by the ABCFM mission vessel decimated and weakened the population. The appointment of a government physician could be arranged during this financial year. After tax and various write offs the company recorded a profit of RMk 73, Many of the company's vessels required repairs which increased the write-offs for vessels. Again, nothing had developed on the issue of establishing a German school operated by German missionaries.

After tax and write-offs the company recorded a profit of RMk 56, Juni One of the vessels chartered by the Jaluit Gesellschaft was stranded leading to the disruption of trading services even though none of the cargo was lost. Director F. Gerdzen commenced an inspection tour of the various trading stations in August and is expected to return in late After tax and write-offs the company recorded a profit of RMk 89, RMk 18, were put into the reserve to finance an expected expansion of the trading network.

Robertson, H. Revidiertes Statut der Jaluit Gesellschaft beschlossen in der Generalversammlung am Various legal regulations regarding the nature and payment of dividends, the make up and powers of the board of directors, the nature and conduct of the annual general meeting etc. A drought in the Gilbert Islands reduced the copra production there.

The western Carolines were visited by typhoons in January and June also leading to substantial losses in the copra production. Financial losses were incurred by the mismanagement malfeasance? After tax and write-offs the company recorded a profit of RMk 6,, which were paid into the reserve fund. Bense, C. Godeffroy, C.

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Scharf, H. Juli The company made a modest profit as the prices for copra were depressed in the European markets. After tax and write-offs the company recorded a profit of RMk 66, The Jaluit Gesellschaft shed some of her trading stations in the Carolines to the competition because the administration of these outer reaches could not be managed easily. Several schooners were fitted with auxiliary engines to allow a more regular communication in view of the prevalent calms in the area.

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  8. At the time the report was written it was unclear whether the Spanish-American war and the events in the Philippines would influence the trade in the Carolines. The only major disruption at the time was the termination of the mail service to and via Manila. After tax and write-offs the company recorded a profit of RMk , The trading stations performed well in the past financial year with the exception of some of the Carolines where the disruption of the mail service was of concern as were uprisings by some of the islanders following the collapse of the Spanish authority.

    The British competition is increasing, attempting to divert some of the trade to Australia. At the end of the financial year the total reserves were RMk , September Hamburg: Gente. During this year the company faced stiff competition and the number of available vessels proved insufficient. A new vessel was ordered, also to be fitted with an auxiliary engine. Now that the Carolines, Palau and the Marianas are in German hands, the Jaluit Gesellschaft anticipates an expansion into those areas. A steamship connection operated by the Norddeutscher Lloyd is already in operation.

    A steamer has been purchased and shall be christened Oceana. RMk , were paid as dividends to the shareholders, RMk 20, were placed into a special write-off account and RMk 43, to the reserves. All island groups suffered from a drought which reduced the copra production. The phosphate guano finds on Nauru are reported, as are the negotiations with a British company having the rights to the phosphate deposits on Ocean I.

    The formation of a joint company Pacific Phosphate Co. RMk 48, were paid as ordinary dividend, and RMk 96, as super dividend to the shareholders. The copra plantations in the Marshalls were extended. In addition, the new system to advance credits to Marshallese if they plant new copra plantations has borne fruit. The new German language school in Jaluit is commented on favourably.

    A contract has been signed with the German government to develop the Eastern Caroline Atolls. Mai The Jaluit Gesellschaft now own a postal steamer, four schooners with auxiliary engines as well as a normal schooner. The postal steamer route has been amended to include Saipan. The Jaluit Gesellschaft intends to send a scientific mission to the Carolines to assess the potential of some islands for tropical agriculture. The trade in weapons has now been forbidden in the Carolines previously mainly conducted by Japanese trading vessels as well as American whalers which has made the region more peaceful.

    The presence of the German navy has also contributed to this. At the end of the financial year the total reserves including special reserve funds were RMk , April In: Schnee, Heinrich ed. II H-O , pp. Encyclopedia entry on the history and economic status of the Jaluit Gesellschaft. Teil I. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 12, no. Teil II. Mensch, Franz and Hellmann, Julius. A directory of all German companies with major overseas trading interests. Contains an entry on the Jaluit Gesellschaft, setting out trading interests, names of directors, financial status, levels of dividends paid.

    Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Jaluit Gesellschaft. A contribution to the history of the Jaluit Company]. Dissertation assessing the role of the Jaluit Gesellschaft in the formation, administration and exploitation of the German colony of the Marshalls. The thesis could draw on archival material which was subsequently destroyed during World War II. In depth discussion of the development of the Jaluit Gesellschaft and the negotiations with the German Government to run the Marshalls through a concession company rather than through direct administration.

    The role of import taxes and levies on the trading competition are discussed as is the fate of the Jaluit Gesellschaft following the restructuring of the administration after The publication of the PhD was forbidden by German Foreign Affairs at the time as it was seen as endangering the collaboration between the Axis powers Germany and Japan.

    Only a small section on Nauru could be published. A summary assessment of the first year of operations of the Jaluit-Gesellschaft. Comments that the trade in the Marshalls is restricted to copra, but that the golden days of the copra trade are over. The vessels of the Jaluit-Gesellschaft, chartered in Hamburg, are sent on a ten- to fifteen-months voyage.

    The article summaries the nature of the bulk copra transport, mentioning that copra can be easily transported and does not easily rot or become mouldy. Occasionally the cargo needs to be mixed and aired. Some loss occurs due to cockroaches and copra beetles. The author recommends catching a fair number of these beetles en route, preserving them in alcohol and selling them as a by-product to beetle collectors in Europe.

    The Jaluit Gesellschaft is mildly accused of inappropriate business acumen when the annual report of the Jaluit-Gesellschaft reports that many stores were out of stock. The British and American competitors seem to make a profit, mainly trading in German goods. That company tried to sell an old schooner to a Marshallese chief, but the sale fell through when the purchaser realised that the newly white-washed vessel was no longer worth any real money. The Imperial regulations promulgated by the Kommissar Dr.

    Knappe are mentioned which stipulated that Marshallese were no longer permitted to buy any trade goods on credit and where all old credits were declared null and void. Several Marshallese were apparently uneasy about this regulation as it suggested that they, as a rule, might be deemed delinquent repayers of loans. The writer recommends that the soon to be established Deutsche-Australische Bank German Australian Bank should extend its range of business to Micronesia. Labour Relations. Brief item on the training of trades people in German New Guinea. The numbers of trained craftsmen is too limited.

    A trade school is proposed, to commence with six Pohnpeians and seven Yapese as pupils. Thilenius, Georg. Globus 77, no. Item discussing the shortage of unskilled labour in the Pacific and the need to import Chinese workers to conduct work that Pacific Islanders were not prepared to do. Also, the author highlights the problems of hiring mixed labour from various island groups and communities, which would lead to conflict based on traditional rivalries.

    The various implications of labour provision on traditional economies are discussed. A discussion of the nature of the local communities in the colonies and their suitability as a labour force for German plantations. Tropical Agriculture and Produce. Der Ostasiatische Lloyd 18, no. Item on the arrival of R. Dachsel as the second German settler on Saipan.

    Gives a brief run-down on the produce derived from farming on Saipan. Plantation statistics for ]. Overview statistics showing the area under cultivation for various crops. Costenoble, Hermann H. Der Tropenpflanzer 12, no. The author responds to a call to share information of experiences made in other colonies to avoid duplication of effort. Comments on his practical experiences in Guam and the Marianas, with detailed discussion on the agricultural significance of soil and soil invertebrates.

    A discussion of fertilisation techniques is included. No specific reference to the Marianas with an exception of a description of his stables on Guam. A good overview of the intricacies of tropical agriculture from a practitioner's point of view. Die Landwirtschaft in den deutschen Kolonien. Overview of the nature and extent of tropical agriculture in the German colonies. Good example of the peripheral treatment of Micronesia and the Marianas in particular in the mid s.

    Der Tropenpflanzer 10, p. He argues that the tree could be cultivated profitably in German South-west Africa. Kolonial-Wirtschaftliches Kommittee.

    Namibia’s Red Line

    Berlin: Kolonial-Wirtschaftliches Kommittee. General discussion of the importance of the colonies as a source of raw materials and as a destination for manufactured goods. The discussion is generic and treats the subject by commodity rather than colony. Der Tropenpflanzer 9, no. Various samples of Kamatchili Pithecollobium ducle bark old, new, from stem and from branches from Saipan were tested for suitability as tanning agents.

    Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Read preview. Hermkes's poem, "The German Farmer in Southwest" 1 Strengthening the feeling of home, strengthening of racial consciousness, protection of the physical and moral entirety, preservation of a healthy German progeny, those are the great national and cultural tasks of the German woman in Southwest Africa. Read preview Overview. Hansen, William W.

    Rosenberg, Dorothy J. Monthly Review, Vol.

    The History of a Veterinary and Settlement Border