The epistle is nonetheless widely rejected by the vast majority of Protestants. Main article: New Testament apocrypha. Main article: Authorship of the Bible. Main article: Synoptic Gospels. Main article: Authorship of Luke—Acts. Main article: Authorship of the Pauline epistles. Main article: Authorship of the Johannine works. Main article: Language of the New Testament. Main article: Development of the New Testament canon. Main article: New Testament manuscripts. Main article: Biblical criticism.
Further information: Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible. Main article: Syriac versions of the Bible. Main articles: Vetus Latina and Vulgate. Main article: Coptic versions of the Bible. Main article: Bible translations. Main article: Biblical authority. Further information: Nativity of Jesus in art and Passion play. The text of the famous "Hallelujah" chorus in G. Acts provides information that makes it possible to identify Luke, the author of the Gospel, as the doctor who travels with Paul and to identify Mark as someone close to Peter and Paul.
This 'canon consciousness' suggests that the book of Acts was composed at a later date than is typically thought; this theory is supported by the first attestation of the book around CE. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name 2 Thess. In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters Gr. Brown agrees that the references to the Jerusalem temple's destruction are seen as evidence of a post date. A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing.
Werner Georg Kummel. Abingdon Press. Redating the New Testament. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Baker Reference Library. Ada, Michigan: Baker. See excerpt at: "The Dating of the New Testament".
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Retrieved 17 February The Book of Revelation revised ed. Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans. Free Inquiry. The First Edition of the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press. In Kloppenberg, John S. Resources for Biblical Study. Against Marcion, Book IV. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 10 May The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church.
Schaff, Philip [c. Eerdmans Publishing Company. The Gospel according to Luke, Vol. Anchor Bible Commentary series. New York: Doubleday. St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians 2nd ed. In Aune, David E. The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. The Letters of Paul: Conversations in Context 5th ed. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox.
Philadelphia: Fortress. Hebrews 1—8. Word Biblical Commentary series, Vol. Dallas, Texas: Word Books. Church History, Book VI. Oxford University Press. They looked to see whether the ideas and writing style of a piece conformed with those used by the author in other writings, and they examined the text for any blatant anachronisms, that is, statements about things that could not have existed at the time the alleged author was writing like the letter reputedly from an early seventeenth-century American colonist that mentions "the United States" - Arguments of this kind were used by some Christian scholars of the third century to show that Hebrews was not written by Paul or the Book of Revelation by John the son of Zebedee.
Modern scholars, as we will see, concur with these judgments. To be sure, neither of these books can be considered a forgery. Hebrews does not claim to be written by Paul it is anonymous , and the John who wrote Revelation does not claim to be the son of Zebedee it is therefore homonymous. Are there other books in the New Testament, though, that can be considered forgeries?
Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic. Coniectanea Biblica, New Testament Series 9. Lund: Gleerup. Revelation , 3 volumes. Word Biblical Commentary series. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson. Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies 5 2 : — Conflict and Community in the Corinthian Church. Archived from the original on 28 November Robert Carter and Brothers. Bible Research. In Aune, David. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
The Controversy Stories in the Gospel of Matthew. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. The four Gospels that eventually made it into the New Testament, for example, are all anonymous, written in the third person about Jesus and his companions. None of them contains a first-person narrative 'One day, when Jesus and I went into Capernaum Most scholars today have abandoned these identifications, and recognize that the books were written by otherwise unknown but relatively well-educated Greek-speaking and writing Christians during the second half of the first century.
Oxford University Press, US. In fact, contrary to what you might think, these Gospels don't even claim to be written by eyewitnesses. The Gospels of the New Testament are therefore our earliest accounts. These do not claim to be written by eyewitnesses to the life of Jesus, and historians have long recognized that they were produced by second- or third-generation Christians living in different countries than Jesus and Judas did, speaking a different language Greek instead of Aramaic , experiencing different situations, and addressing different audiences.
Jesus, Interrupted. New York: Harper Collins. Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. The Historical Figure of Jesus. The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. InterVarsity Press. The Gospels in Context. Barnes' Notes on the New Testament. Kregel Publications. The Johannine Literature. Sheffield Academic Press. Emmaus Road Publishing.
Early Christian Writings. Retrieved 15 January The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Easton's Bible Dictionary. Oak Harbor, Washington: Logos Research. A Marginal Jew. Who Wrote the Gospels? Altadena, California: Millennium Press. Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield. New Testament Introduction. Leicester, UK: Apollos.
Marshall, Acts , pp. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles , pp. Michaelis, Einleitung , pp. Filson, Three Crucial Decades , p. Dibelius, Studies in the Acts of the Apostles ; [ full citation needed ] R. Knox, Sources of the Synoptic Gospels ; [ full citation needed ] R. Williams, The Acts of the Apostles ; [ full citation needed ] E. Grundmann, Das Evangelium nach Lukas , p.
Joseph Barnabas. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press. New Bible Dictionary. Church History. Our Greek Gospel of Matthew was certainly in existence at the time Papias wrote, for it is quoted in the epistle of Barnabas. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 19 November Introduction to the New Testament.
New York: Anchor Bible. An Introduction to the Study of Paul. The Acts of the Apostles. A Stylometric Study of the New Testament. Paulist Press. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Zahn, S. Introduction to the New Testament, Vol. International Critical Commentary. Green, E. Word Biblical Commentary, Vol. Word UK Ltd. Dialogue with Trypho.
Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. Cambridge University Press. Ancient Christian Gospels. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International. Fortress Press. Retrieved 16 August The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Israel in the 1st century AD. Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem Matt. The Text of the New Testament. Eerdmans Publishing.
Introduction to the New Testament, Volume 2. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Gamble: " 1 Marcion's collection that begins with Galatians and ends with Philemon; 2 Papyrus 46, dated about , that follows the order that became established except for reversing Ephesians and Galatians; and 3 the letters to seven churches, treating those to the same church as one letter and basing the order on length, so that Corinthians is first and Colossians perhaps including Philemon is last. Origin of the New Testament.
Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Chicago: Chicago University Press. First Apology. Chapter In McDonald, L. The Canon Debate. Section 8. M; Sanders, J.
Turning Points. Baker Academic. In de Jonge, H. M eds. The Biblical Canons. Leuven University Press. The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. Social Science Research Network. In Perrone, L. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium Leuven: Leuven University Press. Harvard Theological Review 87 4 : — The Canon of Scripture. Intervarsity Press. De Civitate Dei.
Oxford: Clarendon. The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson. Idris; Skeat, T. London: Trustees of the British Museum. Though see now Nongbri, Brent In Bagnall, Roger S. The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Case for Christ.
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Chapter Three, when quoting biblical scholar Bruce Metzger. Christian Century. Archived from the original on 4 June A Feminist Companion to John, Vol. Retrieved 17 October See note on that page.
Currents in Biblical Research. In Cross, F. A Textual Commentary on the New Testament 2nd ed. German Bible Society. The School of St. Matthew and Its Use of the Old Testament. Uppsala and Lund; Marcus, Joel Edinburgh; Smith, D. Moody Philadelphia: Fortress; and Barr, James London: SCM. Early Versions of the New Testament. The Early Versions of the New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In Elwell, Walter A. Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Books. New Testament Theology. Catechism of the Catholic Church. After this rate any thing of the will of God may be evaded; it is but saying, that it was the will of God indeed then, but not now.
The thing is false. It was then, as much as now, the ordinary way of persuading to use rhetorical phrases and rational demonstrations.
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Although now this be the ordinary method of persuading men of learning and capacities, yet for the generality of people it is not so. Nay, it is one thing to study a decency in words, another to study a gaudery of phrase. It is an old and true saying, Verba sequuntur res : Words will follow matter, if the preacher be but of ordinary parts. In the study of words we have but two things to attend:. All other study of words and phrases in a divine is but folly and vanity. We ought to use our reason in our preaching; but reason works two ways:. Again, it is one thing to use our natural reason, ex abundanti, as an auxiliary help to illustrate and confirm what is first confirmed by Divine revelation; another thing to use it as a foundation upon which we build a spiritual conclusion, or as the main proof of it.
And of power: by this term also some understand the power of working miracles; but it is much better by others interpreted of that authority, which the word of God preached by Paul had, and preached by faithful ministers still hath, upon the souls and consciences of those that hear it. As it is said, Matthew , Christ taught them as one having authority.
And it is said of Stephen, Acts , They were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit by which he spake. So the gospel preached by Paul came to people, not in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance, 1 Thessalonians : and was quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart, Hebrews And thus every faithful minister, with whose labours God goeth along in the conversion of souls, yet preacheth in the demonstration of the Spirit and of power.
Nor indeed call those miracles, by which Christ and his apostles confirmed the truth of the doctrine of the gospel, though they were a mighty proof, be, in any propriety of speech, called a demonstration; which, properly, is a proof in which the mind fully acquiesceth, so that it no longer denieth or disputeth the thing so proved, but gives a firm and full assent to it: the miracles wrought by Christ himself never had that effect; the Pharisees and the generality of the Jews believed not that Christ was the true Messiah and the Son of God, not withstanding his miracles.
Nothing but the inward powerful impression of the Spirit of God, persuading the heart of the truth of gospel principles, can possibly amount to a demonstration, bringing the minds of men, though never so judicious and prepared, to a certainty of the thing revealed, and a rest, so as they can no longer deny, resist, dispute, or contradict it. Faith properly signifieth our assent to a thing that is told us, and because it is told us. If the revelation be from man, it is no more than a human faith. If it be from God, and we believe the thing because God hath revealed it to us, this is a Divine faith.
So as indeed it is impossible that a Divine faith should rest in the wisdom of men. If we could make gospel propositions evident to the outward senses, or evident to such principles of reason as are connatural to us, or upon such conclusions as we make upon such principles, yet no assent of this nature could be faith, which is an assent given to a Divine revelation purely because of such revelation. An assent other ways given may be sensible demonstration, or rational demonstration, or knowledge, or opinion; but Divine faith it cannot be, that must be bottomed in the power of God.
Nor ought any thing more to be the care of the ministers of the gospel than this, as to call men to believe, so to endeavour that their faith may. This will show every conscientious minister the vanity of not proving what he saith from holy writ: all other preaching is but either dictating, as if men were to believe what the preacher saith upon his authority; or philosophizing, acting the part of a philosoplter or orator at Athens, not the part of a minister of the gospel.
Lest what the apostle had seemed to speak before in defamation of wisdom, should reflect upon the gospel, and give some people occasion to justify against it their impious charge of folly, the apostle here something corrects himself, affirming that he and the rest of the apostles spake.
To such, saith the apostle,. But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery; we preach the gospel, where the righteousness in which alone men can another day appear, and be accepted before God, is revealed from faith to faith. It is indeed a sacred secret, a mystery to many men, but it is the wisdom of God, a doctrine directing the best means to the best end of man. Even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: it is hidden wisdom: it was ordained of God before the world unto our glory, the way of salvation for man, which he had from all eternity ordained and decreed; but it lay hidden in the secret counsels of God till the latter ages of the world, when it pleased God to send forth his Son into the world to publish it, and after him to appoint us to be the preachers and publishers of it.
Which none of the princes of this world knew; which Divine wisdom neither Caiaphas, nor Pontius Pilate, nor any considerable number of the rulers of this age, whether amongst the Jews or amongst the heathens, understood, though they heard of it. For had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory; for if they had so known it, as to have believed and been persuaded of it, they would never have nailed to the cross that person, who was the Head and Fountain of it, and the Lord of glory; both with respect to his Divine nature, as to which he was God blessed for ever, and also as Mediator, being the Author of glory to those who believe.
Nor would this ignorance at all excuse their crucifying of Christ, because it was not invincible, they had means sufficient by which they might have come to the knowledge of him, and have understood what he was; so as their ignorance was affected and voluntary. The place where this is written is by all agreed to be Isaiah , where the words are, For since the beginning of the world men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen, O God, beside thee, what he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him.
It is so usual with the penmen of holy writ to quote the sense of texts in the Old Testament, not tying themselves to letters and syllables, that it is mightily vain for any to object against this quotation, as no where written in the Old Testament, but taken out of some apocryphal writings. The sense of what is written, Isaiah , is plainly the same with what he speaketh in this place; the greatest difference is, the apostle saith,. Christ and his benefits are to be understood here, by.
It could never have entered into the heart of men to conceive, that God should give his only begotten Son out of his own bosom, to take upon him our nature, and to die upon the cross; or, that Christ should so far humble himself, and become obedient unto death. God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit; God by his Spirit hath opened our understandings to understand the Holy Scriptures, the types and prophecies of Christ, and what the holy prophets have spoken of him both as to his person and offices.
For the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God; for the Holy Spirit being the third person in the blessed Trinity, and so equal with the Father and the Son,. So as this text is an evident proof of the Deity of the Holy Spirit, he searching the deep things of God, and being alone able to reveal them unto men, so as they shall acknowledge, comprehend, and believe them.
Look, as it is with a man, no man knoweth his secret thoughts, and counsels, and meanings, save only his own soul that is within him; so it is as to the things of God, until God by his Spirit hath revealed them to men, none knoweth them but the Holy Spirit of God.
Approx pp. The Expository Thoughts can be used as a help in family worship, or as an aid in pastoral visitation, or simply as a companion to the Gospels in the private reading of Scripture. Este es precisamente el caso de los comentarios de Charles Hodge. De […]. Material of outstanding worth from Dr Ramsey, Princeton graduate, pastor and missionary. With an introduction by Charles Hodge. Thomas Manton's published expositions are characterised by careful preparation, systematic explanation of the text, rich illumination of its significance and a deep concern for the practical application of the biblical truth to daily living.
This commentary is based upon sound exegesis and marked by simplicity, yet Bonar is always careful to make spiritual application. Manton at his best—full of searching application and sustained spiritual power. An excellent example of expository preaching. There is scarcely a commentary on any portion of the Old Testament quite so profitable as Calvin.
It was not as a learned exegete but as a humble pupil in the school of God that E. Young taught the Scriptures until his death in His commentary on Daniel is not the least valuable part of his legacy to the church.