Time spent as a prisoner of the humans left his soul fractured and his beast far too close to the surface, making him dangerous but useful. When he accepts Lexa as his pupil he has no way of knowing the novice has the power to bring him to his knees.
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Nature worship - Celestial phenomena as objects of worship or veneration | bobolytuda.tk
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Forest Spirit. Marc Van Pelt. Also, the sun is usually considered as male and the moon as female. Exceptions to these generalizations, however, are notable: the prevalent worship of the sun in hot, arid ancient Egypt and in parts of western Asia; the conception of the moon as a man who frequently is believed to be the cause of menstruation among many hunting and gathering societies as well as certain pastoral and royal cultures of Africa; and the conception of the female sun ruling northern Eurasia eastward to Japan and parts of North America.
In many state cults of ancient civilizations, the sun plays a special role, particularly where it has replaced an old god of heaven e. In Africa ancient Egypt was the main centre from which solar deity concepts emanated. The solar religion , promoted by the state, was concerned with the sun god Re Atum-Re, Amon-Re, Chnum-Re , the sun falcon Horus , the scarab Chepre, and a divine kingdom that was determined by the sun e.
The sun religion reached—by way of Meroe, a sun sanctuary until the 6th century ce , and the upper Nile—as far as western Ethiopia e. In Asia the sun cult culminated in the religion of Mithra of Persia. In Indonesia, where the descent of the princes from the sun also is a feature, the sun often replaces the deity of heaven as a partner of the earth.
In Peru the ruling Inca was believed to be the sun incarnate Inti and his wife the moon. A sun temple in Cuzco contains a representation of Inti as the oldest son of the creator god. The sun, within a polytheistic pantheon, often is revered as a special deity who is subordinate to the highest deity, usually the god of heaven. The sun not infrequently is considered female—Shams of some Arabs, Shaph of ancient Ugarit in Palestine, Sun of Arinna of the Hittites, as well as the female Sun of the Germanic peoples.
Siberian people such as the Taymyr Samoyed whose women pray in spring to the sun goddess in order to receive fertility or a rich calving of the reindeer or the Tungus worship sun goddesses. A sun-moon god exists among the Munda in India Singbonga ; a sun-moon earth pair, partially seen as bisexual, exists in eastern Indonesia; and Nyambe the sun among the Lozi in Zambia is represented as united with the moon goddess as the ruling pair.
The sun sometimes is viewed as a coordinate or subordinate attribute, or hypostasis, of the highest being. This may possibly occur because of a partially weakened influence of a stronger solarism in areas of older indigenous peoples, such as those of The Sudan, Burkina Faso , Nigeria, northern East Africa , and Australia. The sun in some religions is conceived as a purely mythical being, cultically recognized in sun dances such as those of prairie-dwelling Native Americans and in various celebrations of the solstice.
These rites may be either survivals of an earlier local cult of a sun deity or influences of such a cult. The moon is often personified in different ways and worshiped with ritual customs; nevertheless, in contrast to the sun, the moon is less frequently viewed as a powerful deity. It appears to be of great importance as the basis of a lunar calendar but not in more advanced agrarian civilizations. The moon, infrequently associated with the highest god, is usually placed below heaven and the sun. In tropical South America , the sun and moon are usually purely mythical figures.
Between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer, the moon is predominantly female. Only some remainders of ancient hunting peoples view the moon as a male being. In the few significant male moon gods, such as both Khons and Thoth in Egypt, Sin-Nanna in Babylonia, and Chandra in India—in contrast with the female Selene and Luna in the Greek and Roman culture—a more ancient substratum may be present. Where the moon is considered as male, he often determines the sexual life of the woman, especially among the indigenous people of Australia.
The phenomenon of the moon that attracts all people is the sequence of its phases. The waxing and waning of the moon crescent is often interpreted as gaining or losing weight eating, dieting. Thus, the Taulipang in Brazil believe that the moon is first nourished well and then inadequately by his two wives, Venus and Jupiter. Where the moon is viewed as female, the phases represent pregnancy and delivery. Elsewhere, people see childhood, maturity, and dying as the phases of the moon: the first crescent is thus the rebirth or the replacement of the old by a new moon. The appearance of the crescent or the full moon is sometimes celebrated by a rest from work, and some attempt to participate in the waxing and waning of the moon by analogous magical rites.
Girls with small breasts stand in the full moonlight in the Salzburg, Austria, area ; persons who desire the shrinking of a tumor point to the waning moon; and newborn children often are exposed to the waning moonlight, or they and anything else needing health or permanence are symbolically dyed white as if washed by moonlight. Nearly everywhere connections between the moon phases and the rhythms of nature the tides and humans menstruation are recognized.
During this period the moon is believed to be defeated in a battle with monsters who eat and later regurgitate the moon; or the moon is viewed as having been killed by other heavenly beings and later revived. The period is a time in which people, if possible, do not engage in a new enterprise. The halo of the moon is also viewed as a bad omen among many peoples. Moon spots are regarded as testimonies of a battle with heavenly opponents. The most popular animal figure recognized in the features of the moon, the rabbit from Europe to America , presumably earned this role because of its fertility.
An eclipse of the sun or moon—usually interpreted as a battle between the two heavenly bodies or as the dying or the devouring of one of the two—in many religions is met with anxiety, shouting, drum beating, shooting, and other noises. Many Native Americans, the Khoisan in Africa, the Ainu in Japan, and the Minangkabau in Sumatra interpret the eclipse as the fainting, sickness, or death of the darkened heavenly body. In Arctic North America, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit believe that the sun and moon have moved from their places in order to see that things are going right on earth.
The explanation that heavenly monsters and beasts pursue the stars and attempt to injure and to kill them, however, is a view found over a larger area. Noise and shooting are believed to deter the monsters from their pursuit or to force them to return the celestial bodies if they have already been captured. In parts of China and in Thailand the monster is the heavenly dragon; in other Chinese regions and among the Germanic tribes and northern American Indians the culprits are dogs and wolves coyotes ; in Africa and Indonesia they are snakes; in India they are the star monsters Rahu and Ketu; and in South America the beast is the jaguar.
The belief in the darkening of one star by the other in a battle—e. An eclipse may also be interpreted as in Tahiti as the lovemaking of sun and moon, who thus beget the stars and obscure each other in the process. Worship of the stars and constellations in the modern world survives only in a very corrupt or hidden manner. True star worship existed only among some ancient civilizations of and associated with Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia, where both astronomy and astrology reached a high degree of refinement—especially after a Hellenizing renaissance of astronomy—was the origin of astral religions and myths that affected religions all over the world.
Though the view is controversial, Mesopotamian astral worship and influence may have reached as far as Central and Andean America by way of China or Polynesia. Knowledge of the zodiac and the planets and observation of precession extended from the West to South Asia—e. Western Sudan, for example, was deeply influenced by the spirit of ancient Mediterranean and Oriental knowledge of the stars. Apart from areas in The Sudan, northeast Africa , and what is now Zimbabwe Mwene Matapa , not much of Africa has had any considerable knowledge of the stars.
Knowledge of the stars rarely leads to a worship of the stars. True star gods are rare, for example, in large parts of Africa. In Polynesia, where significant knowledge of the stars by the seafaring people and fishermen was learned in regular schools of astronomy, there seldom occurred what can be called true religious worship of the stars.
Knowledge of the stars is still relatively significant among the hunting peoples in the Southern Hemisphere. Economic considerations connected with the rising and setting of the stars, however, surpass their mythological significance by far. The stars are usually considered to be living beings, particularly animals that have been transferred to the sky.
They evidently are taken seriously primarily because they indicate by their rising and setting the appearance of game to be hunted or fruits to be collected. The widespread African interpretation of the constellation sometimes known by the name of Orion as a hunter, as game, or as a dog from East Africa to the lower Congo and in the area of the Niger is most likely a vestige from an earlier hunting period that has survived in agricultural civilizations. In a different form, Orion is still known in Europe as a hunter, in northern Asia as a hunter of reindeer and elk, and in North America as a hunter of bears.
In South America—outside the Andean empires—a whole series of astral beliefs of the ancient hunting culture has been preserved: the concepts of stars and constellations as lords of the animals, as helpers of the hunter, or as animals themselves. The planet Venus has probably experienced its most significant personification in the figure of the Mesopotamian goddess Inanna-Ishtar.
She was viewed sometimes as female and at other times as having aspects of both genders. Through her identification with the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus, Inanna-Ishtar, the queen of heaven, still survives in Roman Catholic iconography —e. African cultures also have been significantly impressed by this planet, not only in the rare figure of a Zulu heavenly goddess who determines the agricultural work of the women but even more as the evening star and the morning star, who are the wives of the moon. This concept was most likely prevalent at a time when the moon-king ideology was widespread in the eastern half of Africa from the Nile to South Africa , perhaps indicating South Arabian influences.
The cluster of stars sometimes known as the Pleiades , six or seven adjacent stars in the constellation of Taurus, is viewed in many parts of the world as maidens pursued by men. The Pleiades are also interpreted as a mother hen with her chicks, especially in Eurasia, where the star Aldebaran, which is located close to the Pleiades, is often included as a part of the constellation. In Africa the appearance of the Pleiades designates the beginning of the agricultural year.
In addition to eastern and southern Africa there is still a smaller area in the western Sudan that retains this belief. It also is called the seam of the heavenly tent or a water stream. As the footsteps of God or the way of God, as the way of the dead, or as a deserted way of the gods, the Milky Way reveals older mythical conceptions , among which is that of the world cosmic tree. Northern Germanic tribes saw in it the splendour of the shields of Valkyrie warrior women. The natural forces of fire and water, which evidently exclude each other, are brought together in a unity of opposites in the worldviews of early archaic civilizations.
Both forces are purifying as well as protective and are viewed by many as being connected with the cosmic powers of the sun and moon. Where they are truly combined, often genetically, fire as the sun is usually male, and water as the moon female. Where the fire is included more into the chthonic earthly sphere, it may also receive a feminine character e. Many of the qualities of water make it appear to be animated; on this basis it is psychologically understandable that water e. Because it dissolves dirt, water is also most suitable for purifying the soul e. Under certain circumstances, even icons have to be washed.
Water also demonstrates destructive forces seaquakes, floods, and storms. The most important mythical-religious facts symbolized by water are the following: the primal matter, the instrument of purification and expiation, a vivifying force, a fructifying force, and a revealing and judging instrument. The conception of a primal body of water from which everything is derived is especially prevalent among peoples living close to coasts or in river areas—e.