As the disease progresses, the contour may become irregular and the renal pelvis and diverticula may become distorted. In the later stages of the disease, the nephrogram is characterized by numerous, sharply-marginated radiolucent areas throughout the renal parenchyma. Its accuracy and reliability however are dependent on the experience of the individuals performing and interpreting the examination. The sonographic characteristics of renal cysts include: 1 a spherical outline; 2 sharply marginated, smooth walls; 3 no internal echoes; and, 4 the presence of through-transmission acoustic enhancement posterior to the lesion consistent with the size of the lesion.
Through transmission may not be observed in cysts that are small. Very early in the course of the disease as early as weeks of age , the renal parenchyma may appear normal with the exception of one to several small mm cysts. Variation in the size of the cysts is common. The central renal sinus echoes may be distorted by larger cysts later in the course of the disease.
Highly echogenic interfaces with posterior shadowing that r epresent calcification may be present in the cyst wall. Septa commonly are found in cysts. Polycystic kidney disease is most easily diagnosed using ultrasound. We recommend using a high frequency transducer 7 MHz or higher to better visualize smaller cysts allowing diagnosis of this disease earlier in life. PKD has been diagnosed as early as 4 weeks of age using ultrasound. The older the cat, the larger the cysts allowing easier detection. All affected cats must have at least one parent that is affected autosomal dominant trait.
Treatment of renal failure resulting from PKD is similar to that of chronic renal failure of any etiology and should be directed at slowing the progression and reversing the consequences of renal failure. No diet or regimen of phosphate restriction has been studied as to its effects on cystogenesis or on preservation of renal function or renal histology. There are three main complications of PKD in people: infection, hemorrhage, and hypertension. Renal interstitium or solitary cysts may be infected. In contrast, infection of a cyst may result in no clinical signs other than fever.
These techniques are only available at referral institutions, and the diagnosis usually is based on failure to respond to antibiotics and lack of appropriate changes in the urine. Ultrasound may be helpful, but identification of a single infected cyst can be difficult or impossible. Infection must be treated with appropriate antibiotics, but in people it has been shown that not all antibiotics can permeate cyst walls. In people, lipophilic antibiotics seem to have the best cyst penetration. In people, cyst puncture studies have shown therapeutic concentrations in cysts for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin.
Hemorrhage in people usually occurs in kidneys with cysts that are very large or in large kidneys. Hematuria also may occur after trauma or strenuous exercise. Usually, hematuria is self-limiting. In people, hypertension appears to adversely affect prognosis. Large cysts may compress renal vessels.
Reduction in cyst size potentially results in decreased systemic blood pressure, improved prognosis, and decreased pain. This can be acheived by cyst aspiration and sclerosis of the cyst wall. Surgical deroofing of the cyst also may be helpful. Studies in cats demonstrating changes in systemic blood pressure, reduction in pain, improvement in renal function, or increased survival time following cyst decompression and or sclerosis are lacking. If offspring or relatives are available for study, these animals should be examined by ultrasound. It is important to emphasize to an owner that this is a late onset disease, the cat may live many years before demonstrating clinical disease, and breeding of affected cats has great potential to produce PKD-affected offspring.
Our definition for polycystic kidney disease is multiple cysts in both kidneys. We may have to alter this definition for ultrasound because we have recognized mature Persian cats ultrasonographically with a single cyst or multiple cysts in one kidney. These cats may have more cysts but the cysts could be smaller than the resolution ability of the equipment used. We suspect these cats are positive although they do not meet the above definition. We have recognized at least one cat with a single cyst that has produced positive offspring. Re nal cysts in the general cat population are uncommon.
A study is now being undertaken to evaluate non-Persian or Persian related cats that are renal healthy and determine the percentage of these cats that have cyst s within their kidneys. This may help us determine the significance of a single cyst or cysts in one or two of the kidneys of a Persian or Persian related cat. The quickest way to eliminate this heritable problem is to neuter or spay these individuals to remove them from the breeding population. If one of these individuals is an extremely valuable cat within the cattery then an alternative to consider is to breed that cat to a PKD negative cat and try to maintain the positive genetic traits that the breeder has.
It is important that breeders and veterinarians work together to recognize PKD, and develop PKD free breeding programs. This will improve the genetic health of the Persian and Persian related cat breeds. During that period of time the use of ultrasound which is noninvasive and highly accurate may help identify affected cats and reduce the incidence in the Persian population. Imaging of canine osteoarthrosis: past, present and future Diagnostica per immagini: ieri, oggi e domani.
Osteoarthrosis typically is a slowly progressive, degenerative condition that most frequently involves the highly moveable, or diarthrodial joints. The terms degenerative joint disease and osteoarthritis have also been used to described this condition as synonyms. The etiology of osteoarthrosis can be difficult to determine as it is usually secondary to some type of trauma.
This includes an abnormal force on a normal joint or a normal force on an abnormal joint. The pathologic changes consist essentially of: 1. The alterations in the synovial membrane are ordinarily very slight in comparison with those in the cartilage and bone of the joint ends. It is especially likely to show hypertrophy where it reflects off the bone. Osteophytes are a characteristic abnormality of osteoarthrosis. They develop in areas of the joint that are subject to low stress. They are usually marginal peripheral although they may become apparent at other locations within or around the joint.
They appear as characteristic bony outgrowths. Marginal osteophytes appear as new bone around the edges of joints. They develop initially in the periarticular regions covered by the synovial membrane.
Lilian Johannson (65), Rimini (Italy)
Osteophytes may also occur in the central central osteophytes areas of the joints, where remnants of articular cartilage still exist. On radiographs these osteophytes can be misinterpreted as evidence of intraarticular, loose osseous bodies. Periosteal and synovial osteophytes may develop from the periosteum or synovium membrane and termed buttressing.
Osteophyte formation can develop at the site of bony attachment of the joint. Joint space narrowing has been a well accepted indicator of articular cartilage degeneration in people. The assessment of joint space narrowing is considered more accurate on weight bearing radiographs. This radiographic change has limited use for evaluating the joint in the dogs.
IMAGING The selection of the appropriate diagnostic imaging study is determined by the anatomic structure to be evaluated, and the type of information sought. With the advent of newer imaging modalities, both anatomic and functional information about the musculoskeletal system can be determined with increasing diagnostic accuracy and anatomic resolution. Survey and contrast radiography, though replaced in some areas by newer imaging modalities, continued to be readily available, cost effective, and accurate tools in the evaluation of joint disease.
It is recommended that survey radiographs proceed any special imaging study. The range of imaging technologies available to the veterinary practice and referral centers has increased considerably in recent years. The aim of imaging an affected joint is to document the signs of degenerative change in the joint and also to demonstrate the cause of the abnormal joint mechanics that may have initiated the degenerative changes.
Changes that can result in secondary osteoarthrosis include direct damage to cartilage, causes of joint instability, and any conditions subjecting the joint to abnormal directional forces. Trauma, whether overt or chronic and low grade in nature is the main local factor that may induce osteoarthrosis. The net effect of these changes is to hasten the loss of cartilage loss. Characteristics of osteoarthrosis that may be identified by imaging techniques include: 1.
Survey radiography has been the main stay of assessment of osteoarthrosis. Plain film radiographic findings of osteoarthrosis include a symmetric joint space narrowing, osteophytosis, subchondral sclerosis and bone cysts. Weaknesses in plain film radiography of osteoarthrosis include heavy reliance of osteophyte formation, and sensitivity to early changes in articular cartilage, and poor discrimination of periarticular structures. Furthermore, soft tissue structures, including synovium, ligaments, and muscular tissue, which are commonly involved with osteoarthrosis are inadequately imaged on plain film radiography.
Survey radiography is an excellent method for imaging bone and joints but is a poor method for ima ging specific soft tissue structures. The subchondral bone plate appears radiographically as a thin, radiopaque strip parallel to and adjacent to the joint space. The subchondral bone surfaces and the articular margins should be well defined and clearly distinguishable from the homogenous, trabecular bone pattern of the rest of the epiphysis.
The periarticular areas, where ligaments and tendons attach, should have relatively smooth cortical outlines. The joint space appears as a radiolucent area between adjacent subchondral bone plate surfaces. It should be noted that joints are almost always evaluated in a small animal patient that is not weight bearing. Therefore, to evaluate the joint space as a uniform width is very difficult. This provides information on intra-articular structures. Arthrogram can be used to evaluate articular cartilage, the joint capsule, and joint mice or free osseous or cartilage bodies.
Cartilage fissuring and fragmentation such as what occurs with osteochondritis dessicans are best demonstrated with positive contrast arthrography and are identified with contrast material infiltrates beneath the articular cartilage. Synovial proliferation may take the form of thick, irregular synovial outline or a small mass lesion within the joint capsule. This eliminates superimposition of tissues allowing the clinicians to better visualize osseous structures which are difficult to assess with comventional radiography.
Computed tomography represents a digital reconstruction of the cross-sectional anatomy of an object. It is able to define soft tissue and bony alterations that are undetectable with conventional radiographs because of excellent contrast resolution, cross-sectional display, and its abil-. The elimination of superimposed structures thereby decreasing the complexity of the image is a further advantage and the more complex the anatomy of the joint the more likely that it is additional information will be provided by this technique. CT may play and important role in detecting nonuniform joint space narrowing.
In osteoarthrosis loose bodies may result from pieces of articular cartilage that become detached and float freely within the joint. These can be demonstrated on CT arthrography. CT in a axial plane can allow detection of very small osteophytes. Subchondral sclerosis is another feature of osteoarthrosis, generally seen after loss of articular cartilage. Subtle new bone formation and bone lysis are better identified on CT scanning images when compared with conventional radiography because of their better physical density discrimination, the ability to manipulate the grey scale of the digital image and the elimination of overlying structures.
One of the primary advantages of MR is its ability to acquire images in any desired anatomic plane. Magnetic resonance imaging is characterized by great inherent contrast, excellent spacial resolution, and exquisite anatomic display. MR imaging reliability shows the whole spectrum of osteoarthrosis and its changes much more accurately and earlier in time.
MRI requires the patient lie motionless for at least several minutes, and therefore general anesthesia is usually required in veterinary patients. One of the most promising applications of MRI is the early detection of articular cartilage destruction. Its main indications are to visualize cartilage structures and to establish diagnosis. It can demonstrate diffuse cartilage thinning and even small focal cartilage defects can be detected. Thickened trabecula produced by excessive stress and subchondral lesion are also an early finding in osteoarthrosis that can be noted the magnetic resonance imaging.
Small subchondral cysts can also be visualized. One of the most characteristic features of osteoarthrosis on imaging studies is joint space narrowing that is nonuniform, due to uneven loss of articular cartilage. MRI is excellent at revealing loss of articular cartilage. Ulceration and cartilage loss can also be demonstrated early and clearly with MRI. MRI allows the detection of small subchondral cysts no visualized on conventional radiographs. These can be shown on MRI, as there is often an accompanying joint effusion.
MRI has proven to be extremely accurate in the diagnosis of meniscle tears. MRI clearly demonstrates ligamentous abnormalities clearly and accurately. Sonography has been used to evaluate ar-. Due to limitations such as its inability to look beyond a bony margin restricted assessibility and only a small part of the cartilage surface can be visualized. It offers high sensitivity for detecting early disease, and the ease of evaluation of the entire skeleton or region, making it an ideal tool for screening cases of obscure or acult lameness.
Scintigraphy also offers and easily quantified method for determining the activity of a bone lesion, thus allowing assessment of the significance of radiographically identified lesions of questionable activity, and monitoring of lesions and responsive therapy. Scintigraphy is very sensitive but nonspecific method for assessing joint lesions. In evaluating a painful joint, comparison with the opposite side is helpful, as variations occur in the relative intensity of uptake in joints compared with that in surrounding bone and soft tissue.
Scintigraphy may be a valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of early osteoarthrosis. It can demonstrate increased bone uptake of the radionuclei and can reveal the presence and extent of the disease. In the early stages of osteoarthrosis increased uptake is due to osteophyte production; in advanced stages it is related to subchondral ebernation; however scintrigraphic changes are nonspecific, this imaging modality is of use only as a screening method in diagnosing osteoarthrosis.
The two main indications for ra d i o nu clei bone scanning as far as osteoarthrosis is concerned is to detect and evaluate the extent of articular involvement in various forms of joint disease and evaluate bone pain of any cause in the presence of normal radiographs. The major use of radiographs with and without contrast for evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is the diagnosis of ileus. Other uses in which radiographs are still useful include gastric position, foreign bodies, gastrointestinal wall integrity, infiltrative wall disease especially with severe or chronic disease because mild or acute disease may cause no changes other than histologic.
Knowledge of the normal appearance and anatomy of the GI tract is very important otherwise it is difficult to recognize what is abnormal. Failure to decrease technique will result in overexposure. Tranquilization may be helpful to aid in positioning, but is not required. Compression radiography can also be used in combination with contrast procedures of the gastrointestinal or upper and lower urinary tract. Cases for compression should be selected based on the area of interest and the size of the animal. The region of interest must be a compressible area.
For example, this technique could not be used on structures underlying the rib cage. Cats and small to medium size dogs are more readily examined. This technique has been used on giant breeds with success. Compression can be used with any position, although lateral recumbency is most common. This technique provides for evaluation of the size, shape, location, and opacity of a specific organ, without the degree of superimposition of structures seen on survey radiographs.
Indications include a suspected abnormality on survey abdominal radiographs, which is inconclusive due to superimposition of structures. Compression radiography of the abdomen provides additional information in cases, which helped with diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic options. The equipment necessary is minimal and consists of varying sizes of wooden or plastic Lucite or Plexiglas stirring spoons or paddles.
Any rigid radiolucent material may be used. The size of the compression surface should be based on the area of interest. Ideally the compression surface should be 1. The field size should be collimated to include only the region of interest. This will improve image quality and decrease personnel exposure by decreasing scatter radiation.
It is important to recognize that compression of the animal will decrease the subject thickness, therefore exposure factors should be adjusted accordingly. The animal can be mea-. Radiography of the gastrointestinal tract is indicated in cases of foreign body ingestion, vomiting, regurgitation, abdominal pain, abdominal distention, weight loss, anorexia, and abnormal abdominal palpation.
Standard survey abdominal radiographs include a ventrodorsal and either a left or right lateral recumbent view. The determination of which lateral radiograph is obtained is often personal preference. There are differences in the appearance of various organs, such as the kidneys, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract, between the right and left lateral recumbent radiograph. This varied appearance is particularly noticeable in the gastrointestinal tract, which is dependent on gas to provide contrast for visualization of the mucosal surface. Fluid and gastric contents are extremely mobile and tend to move to the dependent portion of the stomach during postural changes.
Gas will rise to the non-dependent portion of the stomach. For example, in right lateral recumbency gas accumulates in the fundus, and in left lateral recumbency redistribution to the pyloric region occurs. Gas within the gastrointestinal tract serves as a negative contrast media. Specifically, the change in positioning of the animal for the opposite lateral abdominal radiographs will allow for the redistribution of gas already present in the stomach, small, and large intestines.
The position of gas in the stomach changes in the following manner. If the animal is in left lateral recumbency gas will be present in the py-. Conversely, if the animal is in right lateral recumbency gas will be present in the fundus. It is important to realize that the amount of gas will have and effect on which portions of the stomach will contain gas. In a severely gas distended stomach, gas may be in all portions of the stomach on both lateral abdominal radiographs. Even in these situations the location of the pylorus can be determined. The right lateral recumbent radiograph is recommended in determining gastric dilatation from gastric dilatation with volvulus.
Even in cases in which ileus is detected it is often helpful to gain additional information to help with surgical planning and prognosis. The fluid filled pylorus is an area, which can be misdiagnosed as a cranial abdominal mass when the right lateral recumbent radiograph is taken. When the left lateral abdominal radiograph is obtained the pylorus will be filled with gas.
This technique may not always be useful if there is minimal air within the gastrointestinal tract. Air can be introduced via and orogastric tube and is especially useful in disorders of the stomach. This technique also helps localize the colon in the abdomen. Preparation of the patient include survey radiographs which should always precede contrast studies.
Survey radiographs allow evaluation for subsequent adjustment of technical exposure settings for the contrast study.
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The animal should be fasted 12 hours before radiography. Cleansing enemas should be done the night prior and hours before the procedure. Contrast procedures should always be individualized. If a patient has acute abdominal pain or there is a potential for time delay which may make a difference the enema and fasting should be overlooked. Many drugs affect motility and these drugs should be discontinued for an appropriate interval before any contrast study is done. Contrast agents include negative room air and positive barium sulfate suspension which is micropulvarized.
If perforation is suspected an organic iodinated solution like Iohexol should be used. Other equipment includes mouth gag and an orogastric tube. Gastrograms are most often used as part of an otherwise standard upper GI series the small bowel evaluation follows the introduction of a positive contrast media. Films are taken immediately to evaluate the complete stomach, before it starts to empty. Fasting the animal prior to ultrasonography also improves the results of ultrasound examination. Complete ultrasonographic examination of the GI tract includes evaluation of wall thickness and layering, evaluation of luminal contents, and quantitation of peristaltic function.
In the normal dog, the gastric wall is 3 to 5 mm thick when the stomach is moderately distended and may be slightly thicker when the stomach is not distended. Gastric rugae can be recognized in the fundus and body of the stomach, and their thickness also depends on the degree of gastric distension. The normal thickness of the small and large bowel wall is 2 to 3 mm when measured during bowel relaxation.
Ultrasonography allows differentiation of the layers of the GI tract, which alternate in echogenicity. Under optimal conditions, five separate layers can be identified. Examination of the layers of the stomach and bowel may be helpful in determining the severity and location of pathologic processes of the GI tract. The ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal lumen depends on its contents. In a collapsed state the bowel lumen appears as a hyperechoic core "mucosal stripe" surrounded by a hypoechoic halo of bowel wall.
When fluid is present in the bowel lumen, an anechoic area is present between the walls of the bowel that appears tubular in long axis views, and circular in short axis views. Gas within the GI lumen causes a highly echogenic interface with distal acoustic shadowing. The presence of a foreign body can also be suggested by ultrasonographic abnormalities in the surrounding gastrointestinal structures. The identification of bowel distension with fluid or gas may signify obstruction and should prompt a careful search for foreign material that may be causing the obstruction.
Linear foreign objects are often associated with bowel wall thickening and plication, which can be identified on ultrasonographic examination. In addition, we have observed cecal inversion in a dog and ileocolic intussusception in a cat, both of which were apparent ultrasonographi-. The sonographic appearance of an intussusception in a transverse plane has been described as a "target lesion" or as the "multiple concentric ring sign," reflecting the concentric layers of bowel wall within the intussuscepted segment.
On longitudinal scan an intussusception has the appearance of a thickened segment of bowel with an excessive number of layers that alternate in echogenicity. Changes associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia are most often focal but can also be diffuse, especially in the case of canine gastrointestinal lymphoma.
Wall thickening is more. The loss of the normal layered appearance of the gastrointestinal wall reflects infiltration of neoplastic and inflammatory cells, necrosis, edema, and hemorrhage. Examination of the pylorus in a transverse plane shows an evenly thick hypoechoic ring representing the muscularis surrounding the pyloric lumen. In six dogs with CHPG that were examined ultrasonographically the thickness of the pyloric wall was greater than 9 mm and the thickness of the muscular layer was greater than 4 mm.
Alla visita clinica si rilevano lesioni eritematose, ulcerative o proliferative delle gengive, degli archi glosso-palatini della lingua, della mucosa vestibolare, del palato duro, del faringe e delle labbra White, Johnessee. Occasionalmente sono presenti anche parodontite, tartaro, lesioni odontoclastiche erosive FORL e linfoadenopatia regionale. Dal punto di vista istopatologico possiamo distinguere due tipi di stomatite cronica erosivo-ulcerativa: il primo caratterizzato da un denso infiltrato di linfociti e plasmacellule nella sottomucosa Fig. Questo trattamento infatti ha dato e continua a dare ottimi risultati solo nel caso in cui i denti vengano estratti correttamente ed anche ogni singolo frammento di radice venga rimosso.
Infatti in presenza di radici o frammenti di radici ritenuti nelle ossa mascellari persiste la flogosi cronica attiva, responsabile della sintomatologia acuta. Bibliografia Hennet P, Trattamento delle stomatiti croniche del gatto, Summa Harbour DA et al. Vet Rec, Jan 26; 4 Harley R et al. Clin diagn Lab Immunol Jul;6 4 La stimolazione degli adrenocettori alfa2 iperpolarizza tali neuroni impedendo il passa ggio dello stimolo attraverso il cervello anteriore ed il sistema limbico 5. Gli effetti cardiovascolari sono da ricondurre alla stimolazione di recettori sia centrali che periferici.
A livello coronarico esplica un effetto vasocostrittivo Gli effetti respiratori sono riconducibili ad una diminuzione della frequenza respiratoria senza significative diminuzioni della PO2. Prima della procedura in ogni paziente si sono r egistrati: frequenza cardiaca, frequenza respiratoria, colore delle mucose, tempo di riempimento capillare, volume del polso periferico, temperatura rettale e, quando possibile, pressione sistolica Nihon Kodhen Lifescope 14, Nihon Kodhen Co. Le valutazioni sono state eseguite da personale medico estraneo allo studio che ha utilizzato due scale visive a punteggio modificate.
La temperatura non ha subito variazioni significative. Le maggiori diminuzioni percentuali della frequenza cardiaca si sono riscontrate in pazienti in cui era presente una tachicardia iniziale dovuta ad eccitazione emotiva, e comunque i valori a 15 minuti si sono rivelati sempre fatta eccezione per i 3 pazienti bradicardici clinicamente accettabili. Alla luce dei risultati ottenuti, la metodica di somministrazione e il dosaggio da noi utilizzati sembrano garantire sicurezza anche in presenza di gravi patologie pregresse o concomitanti, patologie che di solito rendono la sedazione del paziente non esente da rischi.
Ringraziamenti Gli autori ringraziano le dottoresse Maurella, FerreroMerlino e Vasconi per la collaborazione tecnica e la signorina Federica Ferro per la ricerca biblio grafica. SAP R. Alpha-2 agonist as anesthetic adjiuvants. North Am. Small Anim. JAVMA Fans and rest of the world for the treatment of osteoarthritis FANS contro resto del mondo oppure FANS e resto del mondo nutraceutici, condroprotettori ed altro.
As a class, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are defined by their mechanism of action, inhibition of cycloxygenase. Recent advancements in the understanding of the relationship between NSAID pharmacologic effects and differences in their primary target, cyclooxygenase, has offered promise in the reduction of adverse side effects to these drugs. The discussion surrounding this promise requires an appreciation of the normal and abnormal actions of the prostaglandin end products, the ultimate target of NSAIDs, the specific mechanism of action of the NSAIDs and a focus on the cyclooxigenase enzymes.
Cycloxygeanses catalyzes the metabolism of arachidonic acid, a fatty acid released from cell membranes by the action of phospholipase on cell membrane phospholipids. Stimuli such as chemical, mechanical or immune-mediated damage activate phospholipases and the subsequent release of the fatty acid. Conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin endproducts occurs in two steps, at two different sites on the cyclooxygenase enzyme.
Arachidonic acid is cyclized and oxidized to the endoperoxide PGG2 at the cyclooxygenase site of the enzyme; this product is then reduced to a second endoperoxide, PGH2 at the peroxidase site of the enzyme. Cycloxygenases are located in virtually all cells except mature red blood cells and PGs are thus ubiquitous throughout the body. Subsequent formation of prostaglandin endproducts from PGH2 depends on the presence of other enzymes. The role of PGs is complex but they often balance one another. Their pharmacologic effects are equally complex, and many of their actions result in relaxation generally PGI and PGE or contraction of smooth or vascular smooth muscle.
PGs contribute to all five cardinal signs of inflammation by causing vasodilation and modulating the effects of other in-. Among the prostglandins, PGE 2 is particularly effective as an inflammagen. PGs are formed in situ and are characterized by half-lives that are short seconds ; thus persistance of their effects requires persistent formation. Their role in the body could be summarized by describing them as protective, providing for normal homeostatic mecahnisms in most tissues.
Thus, in all tissues, they are responsible for hemostasis; in the kidneys, for maintenance of renal blood flow in the presence of adverse conditions, in the gastrotintestinal tract, they minimize the adverse effects of hydrochyloric and bile acids, and they mediate all of the cardinal signs of inflammation. In the gastrointestinal tract, protective mechanisms are mediated by prostaglandin of the E series, and include inhibition of hydrochloric acid secretion, and increased bicarbonate and mucus secretion, epithelialization, and mucosal blood flow.
Although PGs appear to have a limited role in renal homeostasis under basal conditions, their actions are critical in the presence of hypovolemia or hypotension. Antagonism of vasoconstrictive mediators such as norepinephrine, angiotensin II and vasopression results in vasodilation and redistribution of renal blood flow from the cortex to the medulla. Direct effects on the rental tubule stimulates sodium and water excretion and secretion of renin from the macula densa Hart , Rose The result of these effects is to maintain renal blood flow and urine formation.
In contrast to gastrointestinal effeccts, renoprotective effects of PGs become important only during states of hypotension. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs act to block the first step of prostaglandin synthesis by binding to and inhibiting cyclooxygenase conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 Robinson, This action is both dose and drug dependent. The precise site at which cyclo-oxygenase is inhibited is not known. The planar form which characterizes these drugs is thought to facilitate NSAID binding to cyclooxygenase Boynton et al.
Several investigators have shown that some drugs eg, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine also reduce formation of prostaglandin E2 in in-.
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The major therapeutic and toxic effects of NSAIDs has been correlated extensively to their ability to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis Robinson, Their potency as anti-inflammatory agents relates to their relative potency of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis Robinson, which in turn reflects their interaction with cycloxygenase. In the early 's, cyclooxygenase was recognized to reflect a family of enzymes. At least two forms of cycloxygenase were recognized. An inducible form was discovered following the stimulation of mononuclear phagocytic cells mouse macrophage and human monocytes by bacterial lipopolysaacchardes Masferrer , Fu COX-2 was initially discovered because of the negative effects of glucocorticoids eg, dexamethasone on COX-2 transcription Crofford The inducible isoform of the enzyme was named cyclooxygenase 2 to disinguish it from cyclooxygenase I,a constituative form of the enzyme.
The protein structure and enzymatic function of the two enzymes are very similar. Both are integral membrane proteins, but the active site of each sits within the membrane so that it is easily accessed by fatty acid substrates eg, arachidonic acid. The active site of the enzyme is a channel; the channel appears to be more flexible for COX 2 compared to COX 1, suggesting a wider variety of substrates for this isoform Crofford COX 1 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, while COX 2 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane.
The enzymes may use different pools of substrate mobilized in response to different cellular stimuli Crofford The measurement of thromboxane B2 synthesis from platelets, which constitutively express COX 1, following blood coagulation is a specific test for COX-1 activity. In response to endogenous thrombin formation ie, clot formation platelet COX-1 is maximally stimulated to produce thromboxane A2, which is converted to thromboxane B2 Cryer The measurement of prostaglandin E2 production from monocytes and macrophages in whole blood following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide is a specific test for COX-2 activity.
This question might be answered best by providing evidence of selectivity regarding mechanisms of action and toxicity. Premise 1. Subsequent studies revealed constitutive PGs mediated by COX 1 to be largely responsible for basal homeostatic mechanisms, although exceptions exist. Both isoforms of the enzyme are expressed constitutively in the central nervous system and, depending on the species, in selected areas of the kidney. In the gastrointestinal tract, PGE2 mediated by COX-1 is present in all areas of the gastrointestinal tract,and in selected areas, is expressed over 2 fold compared to COX-2 Kargman ,.
Indeed, COX-2 appears to be the isoform mediating repair of damaged tissues with expression being greatest within the first 10 days of damage. COX-2 appears to be responsible for homeostatic mechanisms in selected organs. It is constitutively expressed in the brain and the kidneys. In the brain, expression occurs in selected areas of the spinal cord, where it may be a key mediator of transmission of pain. Expression also increases in response to selected neuronal activity and after seizure activity.
Species differences occur in COX-2 expression in the kidney, which occurs in the renal vasculature of the glomeruli, and in the smooth muscle and endothelium of the interlobular vessels. In dogs, COX-2 is consitutively expressed thick ascending loop of Henle and in the macula densa. COX-2 expression is increased by hypovolemia and by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors such as captopril.
In the reproductive tract, functions of COX-2 mediated PGs vary, but studies support that absence of COX-2 activity correlates with infertility in females. COX-2 PGs have important roles in selected tissues eg, kidney and an important role in healing. The perioperative use of COX-2 selective drugs should be done cautiously. Premise 2. In addition to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, COX 2 is expressed in response to cytokines eg, selected interleukins, tumor necrosis factor and growth factors eg, platelet-derived, and epidermal.
Selected anti-inflammatory mediators may decrease or suppress COX 2 expression Smith ; Masferrer Studies have demonstrated that COX 2 expression increases in inflammatory joint diseases, particularly in synovial endothelial cells, whereas it is essentially non-detectable in normal, non-inflamed tissues. Although the preponderance of evidence supports the roll of COX-2 in mediating inflammation, some evidence exists that COX-2 also decreases the inflamamtory response.
Interestingly, COX 2 expression is upregulated in selected carcinomas. Increased phenotypic changes in COX 2 has been interpreted in rat intestinal epithelial cells as an increase in tumorigenic potential. Increased COX-2 expression may be a common mechanism by which cellular phenotype is changed allowing unregulated proliferation. Although COX-2 derived PGs clearly play the dominant role in the generation of inflammation, COX-1 PGs have been found to be upregulated in a number of inflammatory models or syndromes, suggesting that inhibition of COX-1 may be necessary in some inflammatory conditions.
Finally, although the focus of this discussion is the role of PGs in inflammation, many other mediators are responsible for an inflammatory response. Premise 3. Among the toxicities, gastrointestinal ulceration is the most common in humans and animals. A number of studies have attempted to document the clinical relevance of selective cyclooxygenase inhibition to the severity of NSAID induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Additionally, the effects of specific COX-2 drugs eg, celecoxib and rofecoxib were studied.
Others in this category not ranked include carprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, and sulindac sulphide. Compounds that inhibited both COX 1 and COX 2 but with preferential activity 5 to 50 fold preference for COX 2, included celexocib, etodolac, meloxicam and mimesulfide. Thus, tthese compounds have the potential, however, to fully inhibit COX-1 at concentrations that might be considered therapeutic. The third group included compounds rofecoxib, and experimental drugs that inhibited COX-2 with only weak activity against COX 1 greater than 50 fold preference ; one of these compounds rofeoxcib has recently been approved for use in human medicine as a COX 2 selective drug.
The fourth group contained drugs that were weak inhibitors of both COX 1 and COX 2 and included 5-aminosalicylic acid, sodium salicylate, sulfasalazine, toamoxifen, ticlopidine and sulindac. Results revealed marked vari-. Clearly, the risk of gastorintestinal toxicity exists even with relatively COX 2 selective drugs.
The importance of species differences in interpreting these studies is exemplified by a similar study implemented by Ricketts and co-workers using using canine platelets and endotoxin — stimulated macrophage-like cells. These numbers are more aligned with what appears to occur clinically, that is, carprofen and meloxicam as safer drugs compared to aspirin, ketoprofen and meleoxicam.
However, this study also suggests that etodolac is less safe than phenylbutazone and even flunixin meglumine, a finding that contrasts with clinical use of these drugs. Despite this incongruency, these two studies, in two different species, offer guidance regarding the selection of NSAIDs to be used in veterinary medicine. However, as pointed out by comparison of IC50 and IC80 concentrations, selectivity is often lost at higher concentrations, which are likely to occur at therapeutic doses. These two studies also point out the risks of using data that is collected using tissues from species other than the targeted species.
Whereas the human data suggests that carprofen is non-selective in humans, the data in dogs notes just the opposite. Clearly these studies indicate that, although selectivity can be used as a basis for NSAID selection, information regarding COX-2 selectivity in one species can not be used as a basis for selectivity in another species.
Tests of selectivity are useful only as screening devices. Two sources of data are available for consideration regarding the safety of these drugs. Pre-clinical data generated to support safety during the approval process is available on package inserts. Comparison of these data might offer some discrimination among the products regarding relative safety, although the data reflects overdosing a situation that is not commonly clinically relevant. For carprofen, dogs received close to 6 times the recommended dose for a year with no evidence gross or histologic of GI damage; only mild gross GI damage was evident following two weeks of administration at 10 times the recommended dose.
For meloxicam, at 4 times the dose, no lesions were evident at 4 weeks into therapy. A post-market clinical trial offers insight into safety at doses that more appropriately reflect those likely to be used. Reimer and co worksers reported in JVIN , that carprofen and etodolac drugs, when compared to a placebo and buffered aspirin each drug dosed at the recom mended label dose; aspriin at Clearly, this data supports the relative safety of carprofen and etodolac compared to buffered aspirin, suggesting that these are the preferred NSAID products.
Normal cartilage is avascular and tightly adhered to cortical bone. A load-bearing and gliding surface of the joint is formed such that a frictionless surface occurs throughout the range of motion of the joint. The fibrous capsule of the joint contains a layer of synovial cells which are very vascular and serve as a selective membrane precluding passage of molecules greater than 12, MW.
Synovial fluid produced by the cells lubricates and nourishes cartilage. Hyaline cartilage contains a small number of chondrocytes which synthesize the matrix in which they are embedded. The matrix is comprised of collagen fibers interspersed in a well structure manner with proteoglycan PGN aggregates of varying molecular weights MW. Proteoglycans are comprised of glycosaminoglycans encircling a core protein. The PGN complex in turn is bound by a link protein to hyaluronic acid.
Chondroitin sulfate is the principle PGN of mature cartilage with other sulfates keratin, dermaten, etc making the remainder. Chondroitin sulfates are glycosaminoglycans composed of alternating sulfated recidues of a glucuronic acid and a galactosamine. Sources of chondroitin sulfate for commercial purposes include borine trachea, nasal septum and shark cartilage.
Proteoglycans are large molecules which trap water, thus maintaining the gel-like consistency of cartilage and act as an elastic shock absorber. The substrates and energy for these activities are transported to, and waste material from the cartilage by a synovial "pump" mechanism. The initial insult leading to cartilage degeneration may vary ie, injury, congenital malformation, chronic overload, age , but the sequence of events is similar.
The changes occur well before clinical including radiographic signs are evident. The initial lesion in osteoarthritis occurs in cartilage. Chondromalacia softening of the cartilage occurs early in the course of disease. Collagen turnover markedly increases by the chondrocytes; reparation may not yield the appropriate Type II collagen. Ultimately, collagen loss may predominate.
Species differences in the r epair of collagen are likely to exist. Proteoglycans are also lost as DJD progresses. Eventually, PGN synthesis markedly decreases. Hyaluronic acid concentrations also decrease.
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The loss of cartilage matrix is mediated, in part, by proteolytic enzymes such as metalloproteases, including collagenases, stromelysin, and aggrecanase, and lysosomal enzymes released stimulated by interleukin-I or TNF? Interleukins a and 6, tumor necrosis factor and nitric oxide also act as cellular or molecular mediators. Mediators eicosanoids, interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor act to up-regulate catabolic enzymes of destruction while downregulating mediators which inhibit catabolic actions. The catabolic process of cartilage degradation worsens as these enzymes are released.
Chondrocyte death may occur early in the process of DJD. Synovial cells phagocytize the products of degradation and initiate an chemical inflammatory process. Collagen is exposed; fissures develop in the cartilage. Local tissue degradation increases, leukocytes are activated, eventually leading to a viscous cycle of degradation and inflammation. As cartilage continues to bear weight, mechanical destruction and physiological changes continue.
The damaged cartilage can not bear weight appropriately and subchondral bone is exposed to forces that normally would be dampened. Subchondral sclerosis occurs and apposing articular surfaces become eburnated. Cartilage homeostasis is interrupted, limiting access to fluid containing nutrients. Fluid released into the synovial joint may not be efficiently absorbed.
In addition, mediators of inflammation are released by both chondrocytes and synovial cells. The joint becomes painful as a result. Microfractures and fissures allow synovial fluid to penetrate into the bone, with resulting subchondral cyst formation. The damaged cartilage attempts to repair the damage as it occurs by synthesizing new proteoglycan and collagen. Osteoarthritis probably occurs when the catabolic process overwhelms the repair process. The goal of drug therapy for DJD should be: 1.
In addition to drug therapy, dietary management ie, weight control and exercise control should be implemented and surgical options should be considered when appropriate. Disease Modifying Agents. A number of compounds are able to modify the progression of osteoarthritis, most com-. These products help achieve the goals of preventing furher degradation and providing support for the reparative cartilage. Recent efforts in the treatment of osteoarthritis have focused on drugs which favorably shift the balance between degradation and synthesis of cartilage matrix.
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans. It is extracted and purified from bovine tracheal tissues. Normal cartilage matrix is composed of proteoglycan complexes, collagen and water. Side chains of glycosaminoglycans keratin and chondroitin are attached to the core protein of the proteoglycan molecule by a strand of hyaluronate.
Water trapped in between these complexes accounts for the resiliency of cartilage. Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans closely mimic the proteoglycan complexes found in normal articular cartilage. Polysulfated glycoaminoglycans appear to be chondroprotective in both in vitro and in vivo models. In vivo models have included chemically and traumatically induced cartilage damage. Although the mechanisms of these protective actions are not known, chondrocyte proliferation and matrix biosynthesis appear to be important. Collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid synthesis increases.
In addition, proteolytic enzymes such as collagenase, leukocyte elastase, proteases and lysozomes are inhibited,although these actions are likely to be complex. Complement activity is also inhibited; the degree of inhibition appears to be related to the sulfate load of the chondroitin sulfate matrix. Polysulfated glycoaminoglycans appear to have no effect on the ability of interleukin 1 to stimulate metalloproteinase activity in cartilage. PSGAGs appear to prvent or decrease the development of hip dysplasia in dogs predisposed to the defect.
Yet, results of clinical studies that document the favorable response to the use of PSGAG remain controversial. Deposition of PSGAG in normal and damaged cartilage has been demonstrated after parenteral administration in concentrations high enough to inhibit proteinase activity. Drug that is not retained in cartilage is excreted primarily by the kidneys with minimal degradation of the parent compound. Toxicity is limited in all species studied. One study found coagulation times to be prolonged following adminsitration of high doses. The effect appears to last about 7 hours.
Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia, a presumed immunologically-mediated decrease in circulating platelet numbers, has been reported in human patients receiving PSGAG. However, the drug might be considered in any situation in which the joint has been or will be for example, elective surgery injured. This includes trauma, elective surgical procedures, and arthritis associated with immune-mediated or infectious conditions. However, in horese, conditions with osteochondral defects repaired with more fibrous.
Disease modifying agents including PSGAGs or its precursors see Nutraceuticals, below might also be considered as preventative therapy in animals that are likely to develop osteoarthritis for whatever reasons, including conformation problems. Use of these drugs prior to the development of clinical signs of osteoarthritis is likely to offset the time to the need of NSAIDs. In patients with osteoarthritis, the time to clinical response is likely to be directly related to the severity of disease.
Treatment that is begun before the joint is markedly damaged is more likely to be successful. Care might be indicated in patients receiving aspirin and PSGAGs because of the potential for increased bleeding times. Nutraceutical Disease Modifying Agents. These products represent the newest therapy for treatment of DJD in dogs and cats.
Most compounds those which are likely to modify disease contain glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates extracted or synthesized in various complex forms. These products undero no approval process. A large number of oral disease modifying agents are currently available for treatment of osteroarthritis. Note that no mechanism exist to assure quality control of the manufacture of these products.
However, several products have been used by many veterinarians or pet owners with some evidence subjective of benefit. Those products which contain various forms of glycosaminoglycans aggregates form proteoglycans, the major consituent of cartilage matrix such as glucosamines or chondroitin sulfates appear most promising based on studies that have supported their efficacy. Much of this work has been reported in horses although a large amount of literature supports the use of selected ingredients especially glucosamine in the treatment of OA.
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Presumably, as precursor nutrients, chondrotin sulfates and glucosamines will administered orally are extracted from the serum by chondrocytes and be used to synthesize proteoglycans. Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent for enzymes which form residues important for fibril formation and cross-linkage of collagen fibers for the articular cartilage, joint capsule, tendons, ligaments and bone.
During periods in which cartilage degradation exceeds cartilage formation, the need for precursor molecules may exceed availability and the repair process is inhibited. The availability of orally administered compounds not only increases the efficiency of the ability of the chondrocytes to repair damaged cartilage as is evidenced by increased synthesis, but also leaves less opportunity for formation of inappropriate molecules.
Orally supplemented precursors also may inhibit cartilage degradation. Glucosamines appear to modulate the inflammatory process, perhaps by scavenging oxygen radicals. Cartilage degradative enzymes are also inhibited. These products appear to be safe. In order to take advantage of all the chances to develop new goods and new ways of communication the agency has to acquire new thought patterns. Competition asks the corporates for new interpretative models to increase the effectiveness of the commercial, distributive and marketing strategies. The consumer is first of all a human being and is featured by very complex emotional and mental processes.
Marketing has to take into account this complexity and try to fill the methodological and technical gap. Consumers' emotional dynamics can be monitored as long as the agencies develop new approaches to define their strategies. Development and innovation requires a large view and the knowledgment of all the aspects involved in the agency and its staff's relations. In order to compete successfully it is not enough having a aim anymore, we need also to pay attention to the effects and consequences of our actions on the surrounding system.
The term cognition Keith C. Williams, "Psychology for the marketing", Il Mulino, Bologna , page 29 refers to those mental processes which allow us to give a meaning to our environment and our experience. Therefore these processes are significantly important in the moment of learning and in the perception of events. The perception Keith C. Williams, "Psychology for marketing", Il Mulino, Bologna , page 29 , instead, can be defined as a complex process occurring when people select, organise, interprete stimulus in order to reach a meaningful representation of the world Markin Every day our sensory organs are swamped with billion of stimulus.
We select those we pay attention to and then organise them in order to make the information understandable. Nevertheless the interpreting process is more complex and requires something more than the simple elaboration of the information. We are talking about a dynamic and constant process, conditioned by our beliefs, reasons, behaviours and by what we learnt in the past.
Since our decision-making process is basically affected by how we perceive a product, what a good communication and marketing expert should do is to understand at best these perceptive processes. Perception, in turn, will depend also on the attribute the communicator is able to give to the merchandise. The most part of the research on perception has been taken by the psychologists of Gestalt. For the latter perception is something more than a set of simple and single stimulus put together.
Feelings When we talk about senses we usually refer to the five senses. This link is correct but incomplete. Besides sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell there are other senses which we never take into consideration. We are talking about Keith C. Williams, "Psychology for marketing", Il Mulino, Bologna , pag. Without feelings there is no perception and without perception there is no understanding.
The way our brain organise and interprete information underlines the differenece between feelings, which means collection of information, and perceptions, namely how we organise this information. Every single receptor, like eyes and ears for example, responds to specific stimulus but it does it within limits. This means that actually our sensory system is limited. For this reason, over the years, the development of modern science brought scholars to experiment new tools used to measure stimulus not perceived by man.
Scholar Keith C. Williams in her book "Psychology for marketing" underlines the concepts of absolute threshold and differential threshold. The first one note page 31 is the minimum organs' stimulation requested before a whatever experience. The second one note page 31 , instead, is the minimum organs' stimulation needed to distinguish two different stimulus. Feelings and perceptions Besides sensory data, perception is contioned also by the way these stimulus arrive and by other factors as the past experience and the learning. Even when there are significantly differences between the products, the consumer may get confused.
Confusion is given by they way these products are presented. The aim of the marketing expert is to emphasise these differences which are not immediately evident to the consumer but he also wants to minimise the unfavourable comparisons. In order to make own communicative strategy become effective, the good communicator should understand the complexity of the perceptive process and know the factors which influence the way stimulus are perceived. The selective perception Our sensory organs are swamped with different stimulus all day long but we only perceive some of them.
Our attention only focuses on some of them and the many others are barely perceived or are not perceived at all. Even though it seems impossible to pay attention to specific stimulus every single moment, our attention is dynamic, it moves constantly. It may happen that at the same time a certain activity gets our attention but other stimulus hits our conscience and then keeps us alert on what happens in the surroundings.
What is at the center of our attention in a given moment may suddenly become fringe in the next moment. For that, our perception is very selective. It is very curious to know how this stimulus selection happens. Talking about that, psychologists note page 36 managed to identify several important factors involved in the direction of our actions.
Thanks to their studies we can distinguish: external factors, which refer to the physical features of the stimulus; internal factors, which include our aims and expectations; External factors influencing the attention After a long period of exposure to a constant stimulus, the same stimulus may stop producing a feeling. This process is called habituation. So we can claim we peceive by differentiation. That means our attention is attracted by situations which somehow differ from what we are adapted and used to. So in order to get potential consumers' attention, we can't undervalue some aspects, namely: Intensity and dimension The stronger a light or a sound are more probably we will notice them.
In the same way, big dimensions and bright colors generally draw attention more than small dimensions and off colours do. Nevertheless we must know that increasing the strenght of a stimuls doeasn't mean increasing the consumer's attention. The main external factors used to get the user's attention are the following note page 39 : Position Magazines readers' audience increase when the advertising is placed next to elements compatible with the same advertising.
Contrast This method works when there is a stimulation wich differs from all those we are used to. Contrast always draws our attention. The alternate use of big and small dimensions, bright and light colors or more or less marked shadows are much more effective in advertising than a uniform stimulus. Novelty Whatever differs from we normally expect will tend to get our attention, like a package with a particular shape or a lovely monster. Novelty often tends to lose effectiveness after its second or third repetition, at this point the commercial has to find another idea.
Repetition The same stimulus repeated several times attracts more than one presented only once. Our attention constantly moves from a stimulus to another and the chance a stimulus will get our attention, while our concentration toward another action is waning, is higher if the above stimulus is repeated several times. Movement Our eyes are unintentionally attracted by movement, since this makes part of our body defense mechanism.
Internal factors influencing attention Besides being naturally attracted by stimulus which differ from the others somehow, our attention is also unintentionally influenced by our interests, needs, reasons and expectations. Needs and interests determine all that will capture our attention, so they influence our perception. For example, if we are hungry we more likely pay attention to stimulus linked to food rather than stimulus related to drinks. It also happens that the interests and the goals of a indivudual lead him or her to select useful information in the surrounding environment.
Another factor which plays a important role in the perceptive selection is the expectation or the subjective approach. The readiness may be the result of past experience, known or unknown by the individual. The organisation of perception Everybody has gone to a concert once in a lifetime, I think and I hope. During a concert we don't hear or see different stimulus representing strong and acute sounds, colours or changes in light.
During a concert we hear rhythms and melodies, musicians and instruments. In short, our perception doesn't consist of passive reception of several stimulus but it is rather a dynamic process. These tendencies seldom operate separately and in certain circumstances one may undo another one. Implications for marketing Consumers can try to assess the characteristics of a product by using physical indices like the taste, the smell, the dimension and the shape.
However, in some cases, the physical differences, which actually exist among competing products, can not overcome the consumer's sensory threshold. In other cases, even if the consumer is able to differentiate, he or she may be not expert enough to understand what are the differences that will bring satisfaction. This means consumers are not able to judge only according to the physical features of the good. This expert always has to keep in mind that perception is a process which is not determined only by the direct experience but it is also influenced by the past of the individual, his learning and actitudes.
For this reason it is extremely important to carefully analyse the market before embarking on radical changes in the product's strategy. The expert will analyse the attributes of certain market segments and he will identify the variables acting in opposite directions. Moreover, the good marketing man has to be sure his strategy will work in a real purchase situation.
Marketing scholars have recognised the importance of providing a pleasant image to their products, since they realised the subjective experience involves much more than a simple and rational assessment of the sensory data. Indeed, today agencies have understood their business image is truly important in ensuring the purchases, particularly when new merchandise come into play. A enterprise has to spend a lot of time and money in creating a reputation of quality and reliability for each of its branded products.
The concept of perception Perception consists of the selection and the organisation of the sensory data in order to reach a meaningful shape. Perception is influenced not only by the sensory data of the direct experience but also by the past experience, the learning and the actitudes. Quoting Keith C. Williams, author of the book "Psychology of marketing" note page 60 : Attention is a crucial factor in relation to what we perceive.
External factors implied in the control of the attention are the intensity and the dimension of the stimulus, its position, the contrast, the novelty, the repetition and the movement. These factors may be used in the promotional campaigns to draw consumers' attention. Attention is also influenced by the interests of individuals, by their needs, reasons and expectations. In general we perceive what we want to perceive.
Thanks to a better comprehension of the consumers' needs during the purchase phase, the responsible of marketing is able to come up with more appropriate strategy for his products. Perceptive processes organise the surrounding world in objects and groups of objects. A good knowledge about the action of these organisational tendencies, as the one given by the Gestal psychologists, can help the responsible of marketing create an appropriate image of his product and draw consumers' attention on the quality of the product in question.
Simon Sinek worked in the advertising field but at a certian point of his carreer he was full of doubts and started wondering about his reasons, his leadership and his work. His educational and work experience led him to publish several books and to become one of the more requested speakers, as well as consultant in big agencies as 3m, Disney, KPMG, ecc.
Sinek's work allowed a lot of communication professionals to find a innovative approach during all the work phases and to improve the persuasive techniques which help the communication with users. The innovative idea developed by Sinek consists of inverting the custom, that means: starting by the reason. His idea comes from a careful communication analysis: in fact, he claims business focus their communication on "what" they do and, then, on "how" they do it, and they barely dwell on "why". This communicative structure may seem logical, acceptable and easy to understand but it has big limits.
For a leader or an agency, communicating means persuading, creating a emotional impact and getting closer to the other in order to make him or her listen to our story. For that, it is necessary to invert the scheme and start by "why". The pattern "why - how - what", the so called "Golden circle", causes a bigger impact on our audience or interlocutor because it goes along with the working pattern of our brain. In fact, biology comes supporting Sinek's claim. The brain is divided into three main areas: the neocortex, the most external and youngest part of the brain where rational and analytical thoughts are created, it is the language area and corresponds to "what"; the limbic system corresponds to the areas of our feelings, instinctive decisions and our behaviours, these areas have no language skills and Sinke associates them to "how" and "why"; Since the limbic system doesn't have language skills, when we communicate starting by "what" we give our interlocutor the chance to freely interprete what we are telling him.
This happens because we give him a very large set of information: characteristic of a product, benefits, data. In this way we can't be sure he got what we want, on the contrary, we risk that his interpretation will be very far from the message we would like to be transmitted. If we set our communication starting by "why", instead, we address to that brain area which is responsible for the behaviour.
In this way we facilitate the understanding of the message which is immediately linked to a concrete and rational behaviour. So words are transformed in material concepts and stick on the interlocutor's mind. More in detail, if we explain to the user why we have done something, he will have the reason and the rational basis to take his own decisions. How big leaders inspire actions Sinek's thesis refers to successful leaders as well, like Steve Jobs and Martin Luther King. Wright's brothers started by "why", for this reason they have been among the best communicators in the history.
A glaring example of the effectiveness of the pattern "why - how - what" is evident in the comparison between DELL and Apple, two very important agencies that have different approaches and different stories. Which one of the two agencies has a big communicative power, influence its own destiny and is characterised by a strong leadership and big persuasive skills? If your answer is Apple you are on the right track. Now let's see why this is the correct answer. Dell is a important agency that produces computers since ever but lately it is loosing market.
Apple, instead, was born as computers producer as well but it changed over time. It evolved and changed its own communicative style, moving the attention from the product the computer to the reason it produces that kind of computer characterising its brand according to a desirable lifestyle. Among the several agencies which marked the history like no other, Facebook stands out with others. It was born from a well-defined dream and with very shareable mission: giving everybody the chance to create an accessible, open and connected world.
By applying Sinek's method we can improve the level of persuasion of our communication through channels as websites, texts and social networks.
If we adopt the rule "why - how - what" we can transform a simple information in a interesting story to hear, in this way every communication becomes persuasive and effective. Memories are linked to feelings, for this reason people remember why you make a product more easily than how you make it. The globalisation, the advanced technology we have available and the standardisation of the production processes made "how" become the same all over the world, even if the production happens in different parts of the planet.
The case study of Apple allows us to understand how important is for a person being able to share a dream, recognise himself in your challange and in the lifestyle you offer. Therefore, it is necessary to learn how to tell about yourself and to choose the right persons who will do that for you: your business is different from the others, your "why" must be told at best, through the correct words and images.
Is it possible to create communicative models able to anticipate and guide our choices? The danish scholar Martin Lindstrom provides us a broad overview of this new phenomenon which is called neuromarketing. His first approach to this discipline started by a question which became even more decisive in his work note page 2 "Neuromarketing. For this reason Martin Lindstrom started going into the neurosscience field. He hoped the brain activitites' test give a clear answer to the question: how do the consumers behave?
For the neuroscience successful brands manage to stick on consumers' minds by stimulating their affectivity. We don't choose a product only by doing rational considerations, other decisive factors are our desires and primary feelings, as the fear and the emphaty, which are placed under the awareness treshold. The emergent discipline of neuromarketing is definitely kindling marketing professionals' enthusiasm. Nevertheless, it also raises concern in consumers because it makes us believe that the human thought can be considered as a knowable and manipulable mechanism.
Actually, experts can manipulate it and they can do that efficiently and, even more important, without wasting resources. Anyway, Lindstrom claims that neuromarketing is only a tool, that means it is not dangerous in itself, all depends on how we use it. Besides one of the most famous experiments, led by Pepsi-Cola, I report the first italian case conducted by Babiloni, Meroni and Soranzo on the topic. Moreover I talk about the study case defined as the "biggest and most revolutonary neuromarketin experiment of the history", namely the one led by Martin Lindstrom, one of most appreciated scholars in the world.
Hundreds of commercial agents placed a table in malls and supermarkets all over the world and offered two anonymous glasses to who stopped by. Then they asked these people to express a preference, one glass contained Pepsi and the other one Coca-Cola. When the agency got the results the managers were very excited, since more than half of volunteers had preferred Pepsi to Coca-Cola.
By the way, they were also a little bit perplexed because, if things were like that, they should have ran Coca-Cola off their feet all over the world and, instead, it was not like that. That didn't make sense. In Malcolm Gladwell talks about this campaign in its bestseller, "Blink". For this reason, according to Gladwell, Coca-Cola kept being the leader in the market. Nevertheless, in dr. Read Montague, director of the Human Neuroimaging Lab of the Baylor College of Medicine at Houston, resumed the study but, this time, he used the fMRI to measure the brain activity of 67 individuals "Science is culture: Neuroeconomics and Neuromarketing.
He noticed that the results corresponded almost perfectly to the ones of the originary experiment: more than half preferred Pepsi and their brains confirmed that while drinking anonymous glasses. In fact, while drinking Pepsi, even if they didn't know which drink was it, these people's brains had a intense activity in the ventral putamen, the area that is stimulated when we are enjoying a taste. All this was quite interesting so long as they got at the second phase, here a fascinating finding has emerged.
They asked the volunteers to taste the two drinks after telling them which one was Pepsi and which one was Coca. The result was that more than half of them during the interview stated they preferred Coca-Cola. So, during this experiment a important change occured. Two brain areas were busy in a silent competition between rational and emotional thought, and exactly during this moment of uncertainty feelings raised in those who had preferred Pepsi and Coca won. All the positive associations the volunteers made with Coca-Cola - its history, colours, logo, taste, design, thumping advertising, the pure and inevitable emotionality of the brand's "cococality"— inexorably won the rational preference for Pepsi.
Because feelings are the tools our brain use to codify valuable things. A brand that emotonally involves will always win, in any case. The researchers discovered that when participants saw a picture of a Mini Cooper, a small area became active in the posterior part of the brain, the part that corresponds to the recognition of faces. The fMRI had identified the Mini Cooper charm's essence: this car was recorded in participants' brains as a lovely face, "it was a nice little person, as a Bambi on the wheels or a Pikachu with a exhaust pipe" "Neuromarketing.
Brain activities and purchase behaviours. In a study of the University of Oxford, based on a imaging technique called magnitoencephalographic, the neuroscientist Morten L. Kringelbach asked twelve adults to do an activity at the computer, while baby and adults faces were displayed on a screen close by.
Volunteers elaborated the faces in the brain areas normally involved in this kind of activity but all had quicker reactions when they saw a baby face. In other words, participants' brain identified the baby faces as something special. Afterward other curious discovers came. Daimler-Chrysler's researchers show the images of 66 different cars to twelve men, always using the fMRI tool. This time, sport cars stimulated the brain area associated to "reward and reinforcement", according to Henrik Walter, psychiatrist and neuroscientis involved in the experiment.
Well, what is the most satisfying thing for men in general? Apparently, the male subjects involved in this study subconsciously thought that to attract women they needed the low bodywork, the turbot and the chrome trim of a sport car. Walter has even taken a step further and explained that exactly as "female birds, that reject males with little plumage and prefer the ones with bigger and more colorful plumage because the lenght and the sheen of a male peacock is directly related to his strenght, virility and social status" "Neuromarketing.
He aims at sharing his methodology through conferences and consultancies.
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His study began in and it lasted about three years. Normally a researcher makes a hypothesis, analyses it and then designs a model to prove it. Finally the experiment will be ready. Lindstrom actually started by some hypothesis based on what he had learnt and observed over twenty years as business consultant for the design of longlasting brands. One of these hypothesis concerned the dissuasive writings on cigarette packets that, indeed, incentive to smoke. Another hypothesis was about the link between sport and religion.
Anyway, Lidstrom took all these hypothesis, did some research and then tested them using the neuroimaging techiniques. Despite these images, it is estimated that a third of the men in the world keeps smoking. Smokers are selectively blind to the dissuasive labels?
Lindstrom tries to answer this question through this experiment "Neuromarketing. The volunteers were subjected first to a questionnaire and a interview, then the scientists monitored their brain with the fMRI technology. The smokers stayed under the scanner for about one hour and in the meanwhile a set of images of dissuasive labels were projected on a screen, one after the other and from all angles.
This area is formed by specialised neurons that become active when we desire something and, once it is stimulated, it requires even higher doses to be satisfied. By the way during the interview the most part of the volunteers said that the labels worked. They claimed that not to hide the shame they felt for what the smoke caused on their bodies, but because they felt guilty for the fact these labels stimulated the desire in their brain, it is just that they didn't manage to establish the difference between the two things.
The more stimulated we are the harder drawing our attention will be. The sense of sight is doubtless a crucial factor in our purchase behaviour but in a lot of cases it is not that important as we have always thought. The senses of smell and the hearing, instead, are surely more powerful than it has always been told. The truth is that images become more effective and memorable when they are matched to another sense, this phenomenon is called Sensory Branding. Almost everybody know the famous and unmistakable ringtone that characterises Nokia phones.
When these devices have been put in the market, the standard ringtone suddenly became popular, especially because it was the first recognisable melody and since then it became viral. We might think this is a benefit for the brand and Lindstrom led this experiment to understand if a characteristic sound, like the Nokia ringtone, can effectively make a brand more attractive. The study involved four different categories: telephones, softwares, airlines and differetnt images of London. Each category matched with a specific sound. They showed the volunteers ten images per each brand and also images that din't match with any specific sounds.
Then they insert the musical part: for the benchmark generic brand there were random ringtones and a Bach's piece. They started by showing the single brands, ten minutes per each, during this time volunteers first hear the sounds and saw the images in different moments and then they saw images and hear the sounds at the same time.
This sequence has been repeated five times in a row and the volunteers were asked to express their preferences for the images, the sounds or the combination images-sounds together by pressing a button. The results highlighted that sounds and images showed simultaneously were perceived in a better way. Consumers' attention raises when they hear a characteristic melody and see a recognisable image at the same time. Therefore they remember more what they hear and see when the logo and the melody are shown simultaneously. Nevertheless, a brand went awfully wrong: Nokia failed the sound test.
Volunteers had positively assessed the images of Nokia phones but the fMRI results showed a negative reaction to the ringtone. Indeed, just hearing that sound canceled all the positive feelings the brain created when the individual had seen the images of the phones. After hearing the ringtone, the volunteer indicated a greater preference for the images that didn't have any link to the ones showing Nokia phones. The ring brought strong negavive feelings which completely warded off the subjects from the brand.
The problem with the Nokia ringtone, according to Martin Lindstrom, was that people started to not stand that sound anymore. Their brain associated that melody to the intrusion, the interruption and a sense of annoyance, despite it had became familiar. Reflections on the neuromarketing The main obstacle for the agencies that are keen to experiment this field is definitely the cost of the tools and the equipment necessary for the readings of the brain activities.
Moreover, business which search for a neuromarketing consultancy don't have the knowledge to verify the quality of the results. Indeed, the most of the marketing responsibles don't have the training yet to assess the reliability of these techniques. Catching the emotional reactions and discovering the deepest purchase mechanisms and the consumer's thought about the brand, for many means a threat.
In fact, that could damage the autonomy and individuality of the consumers. There are a few basic rules to take into account when we talk about neuromarketing and want to carefully study the consumer. These rules say that: We need to use emotions more than reflections. The use of the emotional register opens up the doors of the uncoscious. These are useful at the moment of implanting ideas, fears, concerns and inducing behaviours.
We need to know people better than they know themselves. Thanks to the collaboration of disciplines as psychology, biology and neurology today we know the human being more than ever and better than he does. This means that in most cases our system has a control on the individual greater than the one he exercises on himself. Italian to English: Handbook for the Sport for All. E26G, cofinanziato dalla Regione Emilia-Romagna. La filosofia UISP precede la metodologia orientata alla prassi e alla soluzione di situazioni concrete. Sono parte integrante della filosofia i valori del rispetto di tutti: compagni e avversari di gioco che non sono mai nemici, direttori di gioco e regole create e condivise, adattate a contesti personali, sociali, ambientali.
Queste esperienze di pratiche sportive educano alla vita quotidiana, anche non sportiva, dove sono sempre presenti insieme autonomia e disciplina, cooperazione e competizione. Le azioni in Italia e all'estero sono sempre prioritariamente azioni formative di competenze cognitive, relazionali e didattiche di dirigenti, educatori, animatori e atleti o di ristrutturazione e di allestimento di spazi sportivi , ludici e di aggregazione sociale, sociali ed educativi oppure ancora l'acquisto o la donazione di materiali e attrezzature ludiche e sportive.
Sono quindi state costruite alleanze con ONG professionali con esperienze e presenti nei paesi di intervento. Sono state sperimentate progetti comuni con ONG con la condivisione di obiettivi educativi ludici, motori e sportivi in Bosnia, Palestina, Senegal, Libano. Dopo anni di sperimentazione, era necessario individuare una ONG con orizzonti educativi, anche non sportivi, compatibile con i valori della UISP. CISP ha messo disposizione la sua consolidata rete in Italia e all'estero e, come capofila del progetto, la sua competenza tecnica con il proprio personale dedicato per la progettazione, la gestione e la rendicontazione.
La parola associata ad altre come sviluppo biologico, l sviluppo della specie, sviluppo sociale, sviluppo economico, paesi in via di sviluppo, hanno in comune solo un'epistemologia finalistica. Le declinazioni del concetto sono differenti. E indispensabile partire dai fondamenti: eco sviluppo o sviluppo sostenibile, sviluppo equo-solidale o auto centrato, sviluppo democratico o partecipativo rimandano a teorie che solo in parte sono sovrapponibili e che spesso si escludono.
Naturalmente gli interventi, sopratutto all'estero, possono essere combinati tra loro, tenuto conto tanto della babele delle filosofie sportive dell'organizzazioni che intervongono, quanto dalle biografie dei formatori reclutati, attivi sul campo. Si dice che: - lo Sport educa all'apprendimento di regole di vita propedeutiche al lavoro.
Parliamo in ogni caso dello sport praticato e non di quello spettacolistico, appannaggio di spettatori sportivi seduti.. Lo Sport identifica, inoltre, pratiche diverse che includono lo sport agonistico, dilettantistico o professionistico, lo sport non competitivo, amatoriale o ludico, organizzato e auto organizzato. Ma lo Sport non veicola solo effetti sociali positivi. Lo Sport Popolare aveva come obiettivo l'inclusione nella pratica sportiva delle classi sociali escluse a causa del reddito o della mancanza di tempo o impianti utilizzabili nel dopo lavoro.
Lo Sport Pertutti trasforma in impianto sportivo qualunque spazio pubblico per chiunque voglia fare sport e vuole diffondere giochi e sport di tutti i paesi. Il parco, il fiume,gli spazi verdi, le piazze, la strada, gli spazi urbani. Oggi UISP ha propria sede nazionale a Roma e le sedi a livello provinciale, regionale in tutta Italia per promuovere ed organizzare campionati, progetti, eventi.. Mettere la persona al centro della proposta significa dedicare attenzione e tempo ad ognuno.
Nelle esperienze con le diaspore straniere in Italia e nel contesto internazionale vengono sperimentati codici di culture differenti. Le pratiche corporee sono profondamente influenzate dal tipo di cultura nella quale nascono e si sviluppano. Nelle nostre formazioni utilizziamo come orientamento gli studi ludosofici e le classificazioni di Parlebas e Callois.
Una diversa analisi deve essere fatto per la definizione di sport rispetto al gioco per il contesto nel quale si realizza come fatto sociale. Le nostre esperienze didattiche quindicinali in Medio Oriente, in Sahara e in Bosnia nella formazione ludica e sportiva di animatori ed educatori sportivi si integra e forse estende il perimetro della metodologia dello Sport Pertutti. Vengono condivise le procedure di doppia selezione dei partecipanti ai corsi di formazione.
Vengono discussi esempi concreti correlati alle teorie psicopedagogiche e attraverso il confronto si condividono interventi domestici ed extra domestici. Le parole chiave vengono scritte in italiano e nella lingua veicolare del luogo sopra una lavagna. La composizione dei gruppi vengono cambiati ogni giorno. Il formatore dirime le eventuali controversie non solo con affermazioni confermative, ma utilizzando anche risposte verosimili o non vere da rettificare a seguito di discussione provocata con gli allievi. In ogni lezione viene sottratto qualche attrezzo necessario alla pratica e viene richiesto di svolgere egualmente le istruzioni ricevute.
Alla fine del corso viene somministrato un test individuale con domande multiple, vero o falso e libere con descrizione di massimo 5 righe. I compiti vengono consegnati a conclusione delle correzione al formatore docente del corso. Nelle lezioni pratiche vengono sperimentati i giochi inventati dalla classe per vedere se e come funzionano e vengono sperimentati gli sport illustrati dal formatore.
In entrambi i casi sempre con la divisione in gruppi alternati di praticanti e osservatori e discussione successiva. Another development and international cooperation, Unesco, Uppsala, Roger Caillois I giochi e gli uomini. Massimo Davi Pragmatica della formazione. Analisi, indicazioni operative, esperienze per i formatori sportivi Uisp's philosophy comes before the methodology oriented to the practice and the solution at concrete situations. This philosophy sees sport as a educational tool and a political vehicle of communication and cultural transformation.
These values makes part of the philosophy: game partners and rivals are never enemies, rules are created and shared by all, adapted to personal and social contests. This kind of sport experience helps you in the daily life, where autonomy and discipline, cooperation and competion are always together Actions in Italy and abroad are always educational actions aimed at increase cognitive, relational and didactic skills of managers, educators and athlets.
During this actions people are also taught to set up spaces and to manage the purchase or the donation of materials and equipment. Changes in the daily life, whatever kind, always bring new chances and new risks. This Ngo has been doing projects in Palestine from , exactly in Hebron, Jerusalem and Gaza; after that Uisp decided to experiment a new strategy for its educational actions abroad.
Strong and weak points of volunteering have been analysed through the years and now the association perfectly knows that international sport cooperation doesn't coincide with the sport actions that Uisp makes abroad. Therefore, Uisp built alliances with bigger Ngos operating in the countries of interest, went through projects in collaboration with Ngos which shared the same targets in Bosnia, Palestine, Senegal and Lebanon. After years experimenting, Uisp started searching for a Ngo which had the same educational values and the same strategies; Cisp International Committee for the Development of Peoples immediately seemed the right one.
Cisp was born in in Rome, it works in 30 countries and fosters cultural politics events and international solidarity in general. It is enrolled in the register of the Minister of Labour and Social Politics as an institution which carries out activities in favor of inmigrants, as Uisp.
The regional committee of Uisp in Emilia-Romagna made available own educators with experience in Palestine and in Italy and Cisp provided its strong network in Italy and abroad and its technical skills in managing, planning and reporting. To fully understand our experience it is necessary to set the context and the cultural landmarks which lead our actions out of the reality of our association. We want to thank Gian Luca Falcitelli, manager of the project for CISP, and Ada Carafini, manager on the spot, for the patience of adapting themselves to our volunteers needs.
Sport and Development The idea of development refers to a teleological concept which moves up what it will be likely realised at the end of the process Expressions as biological development, development of species, social development, economic development, developing countries, only share the same purposive epistemology. For instance, the biological development, exemplified by the enigma of the sphnix in the myth of Oedipus, is closer to a naturalistic description. Indeed, the theory of the unidimensional and progressive development of Morgan, Comte and Rostow in the social sciences is still a reference point of several issues and international organisations.
They take into consideration more plans of development: basic needs, personal self-fulfilment and eco-development. Our points of reference are the dialectical method of Marx and the ecological method of Morin. These methods analyse development in a no-deterministic way and reduce the changes in nature and society -cyclical time as the case of renewable resources and the irreversible progressions like in the case of entropy- to a dynamic unit.
It is strongly necessary to start from the fundamentals: concepts as eco-development or sustainable development, fair development or self-centred development, democratic or partecipated development are rarely compatible and often exclude one each other. Sport, as all human activities, works in the present, has a history in the past and inclinations of development in the future which all depend on the real practice and on the implicit and explicit values upstream. Our focus is not the development of sport but the sport for development.
This refers to different philosophies and operative approaches: 1 Sport promoted by religious organisations as activity for the free time, then linked to the social entertainment and considered as a complementary action which comes after the restock of essentials goods; 2 Technocratic sport which refers to neutral and impartial technical interventions. For this reason this method inlcude confrontations with locals and a lot of sharing moments.
Of course, interventions may be combined among them mainly abroad due to the different philosophies of the organisations active on the field and the biographies of the recruited educators. Sport as a tool of the human development and the cohesion of communities has also become the focus of different international organisations, like the European Union White paper of Sport, e United Nations UN Office of Sport for Development and Peace, According to the United Nations sport interventions in international cooperation can result efficent in four fields: - Economic - Social - Environmental - Volunteering These fields can also be described as forms of capital: productive capital, relational capital, natural capital, human capital.
In the economic field it can produce a direct growth as concer equipment, clothing and sport plant building. It can also produce employment in the management and supply of sport services. In the social field can unroll different functions to promote desirable attitudes: prevention in the health field, education of citizens to respect the rules, the prevention of delinquency and the integration of vulnerable and underprivileged groups.
In the volunteering field can advance the human and professional development, most of all among young people, in terms of experience of self-training. The social role of sport In all the international papers and in the specialistic literature, sport is always described as something with therapeutic virtues, almost as a panacea for all the ills in the world. All the sport organisations declare their skills to act positively on the education of mankind: from the birth to the death. They say that: - Sport makes you learn rules of life which are preparatory to the work.
Transmit values and prevent deviant attitudes; - Sport educates to consciousness of own body, to competitive and cooperative relations with the others, to conflict management, to acceptance of the defeat, to respect of the authority, to group identity, to social integration of differently abled, inmigrants, drug users and all the minorities; - Sport gets people used to healthy styles of life that bring benefits and fight diseases as diabetes, hypertension, heart and respiratory diseases, obesity, dismorphism, etc.
In any case, we talk about practised sport and not about sport lived as a sitting spectator. So sport is a no-univocal concept Nevertheless, there are different ways of practising sport: agonistic, amateur and professional; no-competitive sport, recreational or playful, organised or self-organised. However, sport doesn't always transmit positive effects.
Historical examples of totalitarian regimes demonstrates taht sport can also be used as a control instrument of the social behaviour through the nationalisation of the masses or through the setting up of sport branches of the military or thorugh the development of fanatical supporters.
Sport is a instrument of reproduction of those stereotypical behaviours that are used to divide the practice into male and female sports, abled and disabled, young and old. Sport replicates the social and technical division of work: board and executive work, intellectual and manula work, productivity of the labourmeasured on the basis of record times. Sport, then, is also used to perpetuate the existent order and social structure and may become another opium of the people. Sport is a social practise and a two-faced instrument, like all the practises and the social tools which reflect the dichotomy between value in use and exchange value of goods of capitalist societies.
Sport and values We live in a complex society where people are constantly influenced by several educational agents -family, school, religion, etc. In this cacophony there is a dominant meaning of sport that looks at it as a special social instrument. Therefore there is always the risk of discrimination of minorities also in the physical activities. Sport transmits values so it is with full rights a educational agent. Through this kind of activity men and women are exposed to role models, vehiculated by instructors, since the childhood.
The child learns about the moral of the society he belongs to through the adult parents, siblings, instructor, teachers and also through the act of playing and doing sport. Sport has a social function in all ages but especially in the one included from six to eleven years old. Motoric activity can captivate during the playful activity thanks to the joy of discovery, the awareness of own body and the consciousness of own progress during a performance. This experience, if repeated more times, strengthens individual and team identification and allows you to repeat in other contexts what you have learnt about the motor activity.
Sharing space, time and rules makes sport and exercise become factors of socialization and resocialization of communicative behaviors that are different from those adopted in other social contexts where, for example, logic-cognitive learning is preferred and the body is disciplined by silence and immobility. Physical education doesn't only renforce basic motor schemes and technical movements but it also helps self-knowledge and cognitive, relational and moral development.
Another sport is possible In the contemporary society Uisp proposes its philosophy and pedagogy about sport, in its evolution from Italian Union for People's Sport to Italian Union for the Sport for all in italian both definitions have the acronym U. In September , always in Bologna, there was the first national congress.
Its focus was the sport discipline in itself. It asked for practising sport in proper and equipped spaces. Parks, rivers, green areas, squares and urban spaces are educator where you can experience sport, change its rules and inventing new ones. Changing the name meant also changing the cultural paradigm.
There was a reorganization of the disciplines, of their regulations and a new kind of education for instructors and managers who worked in the association. The cultural revolution was won thanks to the subscription of 1. Nowadays Uisp has its headquarters in Rome and several branches in all the italian regions; they organise and promote championships, projects and events.
Uisp's championships work like the ones organised by the sport federations, that means by age and sex. The disciplines are: water disciplines swim, diving, rowing, canoe, kayak, surf, sailing , athletics, riding, motoring, motorcycling, baseball, games 15 sector for 75 disciplines , soccer, cycling, dance, eastern discipline 20 disciplines , gymnastics 10 disciplines among which circus activities , ski, ice-skating, basketball, volleyball, skating, rugby, tennis and archery.
In particular, Uisp organise weekly race walkings already imitated by all. People of all the ages, genders and abilities take part in these races and there are different chatrs and prizes for all. It works against doping and sedentary with proposals on healthy lifestyles and it introduces destructured sports in urban spaces for teenagers. It adapts sports to the different physical and psychic abilities and it works for a sustainable sport during its events. Finally it works in projects of international cooperation and responsable tourism. This philosophy doesn't refuses competition but gives priority to the community and to the multisport.
The first one is spontaneous: from innate reflexes of the unweaneds to the games with the own body.