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This update covered not only the inclusion of the Paris Agreement long-term temperature goal in the rating system, but also a data update to reflect the most up-to date, country-level, emissions data, and the introduction of new rating categories. For further information on how the methodology update affects our rating system click here. We include raw data from over 40 studies see list of studies in table format in Annex. Additionally, we take into account the following sources:.

Comparability of effort

A few studies are excluded, either if they are too old or not all data inconsistencies could be clarified see Annex. Independently of the differences in emissions scope i. This is due to the fact that the underlying models often use different data sources for historical emissions. The differences can be substantial, especially for countries where the share of non-CO2 emissions is high.

For two thirds of our countries, differences are not very large and we do not use this method. For the countries where we do find large discrepancies, this is usually the case for just a few studies e. This happens mostly for developing countries with large data uncertainty in the historical data.

Calculation of the factor to differentiate between insufficient and 1. A commitment in the upper part of the Fair Share range for one country implies that other countries have to reduce to below the upper part of the range in order to compensate and to jointly meet the required global emissions pathway. The maximum of country A does not generally reflect the same burden-sharing approach as the maximum of country B, and the sum of all maxima would be above the level required to stay on a 1. In a next step, the 1.

We apply the relative level of the global Fair Share range that corresponds to the 1. The table below shows, which studies have been considered and which have been included in the data harmonisation exercise. Method to rate level of effort.

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Figure 1. Others have made unconditional commitments, and some have not clearly stated whether their commitment is conditional or not. We always rate the unconditional commitment by default, but we also show the conditional commitment in the figures. If a government only provided a commitment that is conditional, we rate it one category lower than an unconditional commitment of the same stringency.

If a government only provided a commitment that is conditional and is at the border of two categories, we rate it in the lower category. In such cases, more information and clarity on the conditionality of the commitment or an additional unconditional commitment could improve the rating. If a country is at the border between two categories and if the details of the commitment were not available or if the assessment required us to make many additional assumptions, we rate it in the lower category.

In such cases, more information could improve the rating. If a country is at the border of two categories and its intended accounting methods for the LULUCF sector are not specified in detail in the NDC, but could make a substantial difference in the target emissions levels according to our assessment, we rate it in the lower category. The removal of a previous pledged contribution is interpreted as an intent to proceed with unconstrained emissions.

This is not in line with a fair contribution to global emissions reductions.


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Countries that have submitted an NDC, but have failed to include an emissions reduction target, we rate taking into account their history of commitments under the UNFCCC, their current policy emission projections and other relevant circumstances in the country. Taking all published sharing approaches into account For each country and year we show the ranges that result from seven specific effort sharing categories summarised in Figure 3, based on the definitions used in the IPCC report chapter 6 of WG III.

Equality: emissions per capita converge to, or immediately reach, the same level for all countries, e. Chakravarty et al. This is essentially a combination of mitigation potential and capability. Staged: a suite of studies have proposed or have analysed approaches where countries take differentiated commitments in various stages. Categorisation to a stage and the respective commitments are determined by indicators using many equity principles, e. Detailed methodology. Input data We include raw data from over 40 studies see list of studies in table format in Annex. Harmonisation to base year Independently of the differences in emissions scope i.

Annex: List of studies used in the analysis. Agarwal, A. Global Warming in an unequal world, a case of environmental colonialism. The Greenhouse Development Rights framework. The right to development in a climate constrained world. Equitable access to sustainable development: Contribution to the body of scientific knowledge.

Berk, M. Options for differentiation of future commitments in climate policy: how to realise timely participation to meet stringent climate goals? Climate Policy , 1 4 , — Bode, S. Equal emissions per capita over time - A proposal to combine responsibility and equity of rights for post GHG emission entitlement allocation. European Environment , 14 5 , — Burden sharing in a greenhouse: Egalitarianism and sovereignty reconciled. Applied Economics , 38 9 , — Contraction and convergence: an assessment of the CC Options model.

Climatic Change , 91 3—4 , — Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

Towards a New Political Economy of Climate Change and Development

Criqui, P. Grenoble; France.

Climate and Environmental Justice (ENGLISH)

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change , 18 4 , — The Triptych approach revisited - A staged sectoral approach for climate mitigation. Energy Policy , 36 , — Den Elzen, M. The FAIR model: A tool to analyse environmental and costs implications of regimes of future commitments. Environmental Modeling and Assessment , 10 2 , — Regional abatement action and costs under allocation schemes for emission allowances for achieving low CO2-equivalent concentrations. Climatic Change , 90 , — Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes.

Energy Policy , 33 16 , — Climate P , 6 5 , — Edenhofer, O. The economics of low stabilization: Model comparison of mitigation strategies and costs. Global Triptych: a bottom-up approach for the differentiation of commitments under the Climate Convention. Climate Policy , 4 2 , — The effect of different historical emissions datasets on emission targets of the sectoral mitigation approach Triptych. Climate Policy , 10 6 , — Regional GHG reduction targets based on effort sharing: a comparison of studies.

Climate Policy , 14 1 , — Distribution of emission allowances under the Greenhouse Development Rights and other effort sharing approaches. Sharing the effort under a global carbon budget. Jacoby, H. Massachusetts; USA. The services provided by GIZ draw on a wealth of regional and technical expertise and tried-and-tested management expertise.


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