The shoulder girdle also provides power and support for the upper extremity throughout and at the extremes of the range of motion. Many shoulder girdle problems stem from overuse injuries such as pitching a baseball or serving a tennis ball that exploit both the power and range of motion of the shoulder girdle. This chapter will review the anatomy of the shoulder girdle and provide an approach to evaluating and treating common shoulder problems. In looking at the arm as a whole, the tremendous range of motion of the shoulder can be thought of as positioning the hand on the outer surface of a sphere.
It is the flexion, extension, pronation, and supination of the elbow and forearm that allow positioning of the hand within that sphere, thus creating the ability to function throughout a huge volume of space surrounding a person. When elbow and forearm function are compromised by pain, injury, or loss of motion, significant disability can result. It allows us to touch, feel, manipulate, and modify our environment. Its cortical representation in the brain is nearly as large as the rest of the musculoskeletal system combined. Unfortunately, because of its constant use and its position at the forefront of human activity, it is frequently affected by trauma and other disease processes.
Nearly all physicians will see patients with hand problems, so some familiarity with these processes and the basic hand evaluation is very important.
The primary function of the lower extremities is locomotion. Any alteration of the function of the lower extremities will result in an alteration in the ability to walk and run. The hip is the most proximal joint in the lower extremity. Alteration in the hip due to disease will significantly affect the biomechanics of gait and place abnormal stress on the joints above and below the hip, which can lead to pain in areas such as the lumbar spine and the knee.
This chapter will discuss the anatomy, biomechanics, and pathology of the knee. The function of the knee is provided primarily by the soft tissue. Therefore, injury to these soft tissue structures will have significant impact upon the stability of the knee. An overview of orthopedics would not be complete without an understanding of the foot and ankle.
Ankle discomfort is seen in medical clinics and on the sidelines of recreational sporting activities. This chapter is meant to familiarize the student of medicine, be it an actual medical student, resident, or practitioner, with the anatomy, diagnostic tools, and some common conditions that affect the foot and ankle. Cardiovascular Medicine. Clinical Genetics. Clinical Neurophysiology. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
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Essentials Of Orthopaedic Surgery by Sam W. Wiesel
Hepatobiliary Surgery. Gastro-intestinal and Colorectal Surgery. Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery. Bariatric Surgery. This concise third edition offers hands-on guidance for identifying and treating the most commonly seen orthopedic problems in children and adults.
Convenient as a study source for medical students, its many photographs and illustrations will also serve as a useful clinical reference for young surgeons, residents, nurs Each of the many topics is covered in depth and is designed to educate medical students and steer them towards formulating excellent diagnoses and treatment plans. As a further aid, multiple-choice questions are included at the end of each chapter, and there is a section devoted to case studies. Jump to. Sections of this page.