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Illustrated by Thomas Hodge and Harry Fumiss. Heathcote, the Hon. Marshall, C.

Heathcote, Miss L. Dod, H. Wilberforce, H. Lawford, Spencer W. Gore, R. Sears, Herbert Chipp, E. Pleydell-Bouverie, and A. Illustrated by Lucien Davis, C. Newton, and from photographs. Riding and Polo. Watson, the Earl of Onslow, G. Anderson, and-J. Moray Brown. Illustrated by G. Giles, J. Stuart Allan, and Frank Dadd. Coursing and Falconry. Gerald Lascelles. Charlton, R. Moore, G. Lodge, and Lancelot Speed, and from photographs. Tebbutt, T. Maxwell Witham, the Rev. Whymper, R. Alexander, and from photographs. Dent, Sir W. Conway, D. Freshfield, C. Mathews, C. Pilkington, Sir F.

Pollock, Bart. Willink, and Mr. Justice Wills. Illustrated by H. Pollock, F. Grove, Camille Prevost, E. Michell, W. Armstrong, and Egerton Castle. With illustrations from photographs. Illus- trated by S. Dadd, and from photographs. Big Game Shooting. By Clive Phillipps-Wolley, W. Oswell, F.

Jackson, F. Selous, Sir Samuel W. Heber Percy, W. Buck, and St. George Littledale. Wolff, H. Willink, and from photographs. By Sir Edward Sullivan, Bart. Seth-Smith, C. Watson, R. Pritchett, Sir George Leach, K. Knight, the Rev. Middleton, H. Horn, G.

Illustrated by R. Pritchett, and from photographs. Archery, By C. Hawkins Fisher, the Rev. Eyre W. Hussey, the Rev. Bedford, J.

A Sport and a Pastime

Balfour Paul, and L. Illustrated by reproductions from engravings, prints, and photographs. Dancing, By Mrs. Illus- trated by Percy Macquoid, and by reproductions from engrav- ings, prints, and photographs. Senior, A. Harms- worth, and Sir H. Gore- Booth, Bart. Napier Hemy, R. Pritchett, and W. Broadfoot, R. Boyd, Sydenham Dixon, W. Ford, Dudley D. Pontifex, Russell D. Walker, and Reginald H. Rimington- Wilson. The Poetry of Sport. Illustrated by Charles Brock, A. Thorburn, Lucien Davis, and numerous reproductions from engravings and prints. Is Sport a Fitting Subject for the Poet? His good swerde he drewe out than And smote upon the wylde swyne Like to an eagle in his kingly pride What shall he have that kild the Deare?

I Here, kenneld in a brake, she finds! The best of hunters, Pan. When Bucks a hunting go. Then to the master him they brought The net is waiting ready His gun went off, and shot his dog. But a stick and nothing more. E, Brock. Brock And numerous illustrations in text. A Booke! Where's your great Horse, your hounds, your set at Tennis?

Your Balloone ball, the practice of your dancing, Your casting of the sledge, or learning how To tosse the pike ; all chang'd into a Sonnet? Ford The student who has thought it worth his while to make a careful study of the criticisms, past and present, relating to poetry can hardly fail to arrive at the conclusion that there is scarcely a single subject treated by verse-writers that has not alternately been condemned as unsuitable and approved as suitable for poetical treatment.

Styles of poetry become the fashion and are discredited with almost as sure regularity as fashions in dress ; and it is rather amusing to mark the con- temptuous epithets hurled at those who refuse to be guided by the designers of metrical fashion-plates. We have for some years been passing through an epoch, now fortunately well nigh over, which has done much to bring about that maximum of verse- writers and minimum of verse-readers so often deplored of late years. It is important not to fall into a similar error, and because we have been cloyed with too much vapid sweetness, say that this style has not its fitting place and use.

At the present time, when education is not a possession of the few, it is obvious that such verse-writers will be in excess of the require- ments of their audience. Most women and many men pass at one time through a sentimental phase ; but, whilst correct writing and the power of metrical expression are acquirements possible to many ; power, imagination, and genius are rare : thus the more fashion tends to encourage the former acquire- ments at the expense of the latter gifts, so much the more are we likely to be overdone with mediocrity ; and hence will result a want of manly instinct and an effeminacy of style and thought which nearly concern our present subject.

What has sport to do with those delicate emotions which it is the poet's duty to bring before us? No doubt he did not consider Byron a poet, yet would doubtless have not objected to sharing a fraction of that hunting verse- writer's popularity. The present time when the more thoughtful are beginning to realise the fallacy of this exclusiveness seems a peculiarly suitable one to place before the public a work from which they will be able to judge for themselves how many great writers in the past looked on this matter.

Such a one was Homer ; and it is the very rarity of this versatility that has made his work not only immortal, but so full of charm to men, in all times, and of well nigh all dispositions. It must be borne in mind that many songs and ballads included in this collection were never meant to reach the standard of poetry ; some are included for their wit, some to mark the changes of thought and manner, and others are little more than curiosities, valuable, as cracked china, for their age or ugliness.

Want of manliness has been in many verse- writers the one thing lacking to give their gift of true metrical expressiveness the power which alone can appeal to the healthy mind.


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A few hours daily spent in the hunting-field, or in some other manly sport, would have enabled them to see how diseased and one-sided were many of their views of life. If it is necessary for men of ordinary ability to keep the body in perfect health, how much more important must it be for one whose imagination is apt to take the bit in its teeth and bolt out of the region of common sense!

Our greatest poets were men of action, not drawing-room pets, stringing out sweet-sounding platitudes for the sake of acquiring reputation. The poet The Society pet should of all men be the last to despise or neglect those instincts which are planted in men for the perfecting of the body. This word is meant doubtless to express a disposition in which the love of nature and of animal life and of joy preponderate ; and Robert Buchanan, in applying this term to the late Hon. Roden Noel, gives a happy illustration from his work, I bathe and wade in the pools, rich wrought witfi flowers of the ocean, Or over the yellow sand run swift to meet the sea, Dive under the walls of foam or float on a weariless motion Of the alive, clear wave, heaving undulant under me!

In these lines the poet and the sportsman meet. The delight of action, the healthy body fighting for a mastery with nature, a combat that is play, yet a play that leads to the perfecting of the player. And is not this the essence of sport? A fight with diflficulties, in which battle some part or quality is slowly strengthened and improved. Hand and eye become more steady ; the muscles and nerves are braced to fresh power ; courage, calmness, and patience are exercised and developed. This is sport in its true sense, whether it be practised for the development of our own bodies, or the bodies of those lower lives that serve us.

Surely the man who holds that this field of sport lies outside the poet's boundary must have a low opinion of poetry itself. The view has been taken only from one side, a fault which may be observed in well nigh every introduction to modern editorial work. Thus some poet long neglected is dragged into the daylight, and the genius and attractiveness of his work held up to the admiration of those who are sufficiently cultivated to appreciate it.

It is right to be some- what sceptical about such revelations ; for as a rule time judges truthfully, and the poor poet's writings are too often but dragged from their graves to be re- buried in a more elaborate coffin. It may be well, therefore, in this case to conclude with a few remarks which are more often to be found only between the lines. Sport is a fitting subject for poetry, but not by any means one of the highest subjects. We should have been forced to come to this conclusion even if it had not agreed with our previous opinions.

After having gone carefully through the works of between two and three hundred writers of verse, we find the theme, though often referred to, not dwelt upon for long by the true poet, and in the exceptions to this rule the poems often suffer. One reason may be that those writers who depended upon their work were seldom wealthy enough to come personally in contact with the pleasures of country life ; but there is more than this. Sport is a pastime, and if dealt with too seriously is apt to play games with the poet, to make him appear comic when he has no intention of being so.

It has been our endeavour to avoid as far as possible the poems where this defect is prominent, but some will doubtless strike the reader in the following collection. But even in these, when we take them from beneath the microscopic lens of higher poetic criticism, much may be found that is delightful to the sportsman, interesting to the student, and pleasing to the lover of poetry both in thought and metre.

Humour and wit are also by no means lacking ; but this subject will be treated more fully later on. In such a collection as this, which to all intents and purposes involved the breaking up of new ground, or rather of ground which had for long lain fallow, it is necessary to appeal both to the reader and critic for a certain amount of leniency. We have endeavoured to make use only of the earliest editions from which the extracts have been re- produced verbatim et literatim, and as far as possible have arranged the pieces according to date. In certain cases, how- ever, where these dates are supposed to be known, they have been rejected either because the evidence on which they have been accepted does not seem trustworthy, or because, from certain allusions to sport, or from the peculiarity of type or paper used, they are obviously inaccurate.

The dates at the foot of the poems are of the editions used. Pastimes, on the other hand, or amusement in the exercise of speed and skill, are as old as the life of animals. Beasts hunt for food, no doubt deriving much enjoyment from the exercise, and early man does precisely the same thing. Still, the hunt among savages is not so much sport as a form of industry.

Bread being quite unknown, the males of a party of Australian blacks are not the bread- winners, but the food -winners. They stalk and spear emus and kangaroos, they spear fish, or hunt honey-bees, not for diversion, but as we dig and plough.

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Still, they have sportive competitions in running, leaping, dancing, in throwing spears at marks, with the boomerang, and at a kind of football. Similar was the condition of the Red Indians, and of other non-cultivating races, who neither tilled the soil nor kept domestic cattle. To all such peoples sport was business. Therefore, strictly speaking, they were not sportsmen any more than our fishing population. Sport, as distinct from pastime, can only begin when supplies of food are secured by way of tillage, and by the milk and flesh of sheep, goats, and kine.

There is still occasion to slay dangerous animals, big game, lions, bears, and tigers ; and venison is still desirable. The Assyrian monuments show us the king spearing lions, or shooting wild beasts with bows and arrows ; the Egyptian wall-pictures and reliefs exhibit the pursuit, not only of lions, as by Rameses II.

On the bronze blades of Mycenaean daggers B. On the Mycenaean daggers, too, men, guarded under enormous shields, pursue and spear lions. Sport, in fact, has begun, and, with war, is the chief occupation of the nobles. Man retains the hunting instinct of the animal long after hunt- ing or fishing has ceased to be his only way of gaining a livelihood. About early Greek sport, our only authorities, of course, are the Iliad and the Odyssey.

Homer draws many similes from the pursuit of the lion, usually undertaken by bands of armed men, who surround the beast with a circle of spears. This, however, was mainly the work of a banded peasantry, moved less by sporting instincts than by the necessity of the case, since the lion preyed on their herds. Boar-hunting was the diversion of princes. In the Nineteenth Book of the Odyssey we hear how Odysseus, as a young man, went to see his cousins, the sons of Autolycus, and how, at early dawn, they pursued the boar in the glades of Parnassus.

The hounds run foremost on the track of a boar, the beaters follow after, and behind them the young princes. The great boar lies in a thick tangled cover, unpierced by the wet winds or the sun's rays ; he hears the footsteps of the hunters, the yell of the hounds, and he leaps out, all bristling, and stands at bay with eyes of flame. Odysseus rushes in foremost, spear in hand ; he is gashed in the thigh by the boar's tusk, but drives the lance into the right shoulder of the beast, which falls and dies.

Then the cousins of Odysseus staunch his blood with such a magical song as Jeanne d'Arc would not suffer to be chanted over her wound beneath the English wall. More famous is the descrip- tion of the hero's dog, Argus, which, while it was young, no wild beast could escape in the woodland deeps, and men led it forth to chase wild goats and hares. Thus the Homeric Greeks had collies which snarled and snapped at strangers near the farm- houses ; little dogs for society ; and tall deer-hounds like Argus.

In the haunted isle of Circe Odysseus fares up through the wild wood alone, and meets in the forest path a tall-antlered stag coming down to the burn to drink, for the heat of the sun is upon him. The hero strikes it on the spine with his spear, and the stag falls blaring in the dust. Odysseus binds its feet together with withes, slings it over his shoulders, and carries it to the ship, leaning on his spear. The rest gather round and admire it, so royal a stag it is, and then they cook it.

Such are glimpses of sport in the morning of the world — the scent of the dew is on the bracken and the birchwood. But angling, it seems, was rather contemned by these sturdy hunters, nor do we hear much of the use of the bow and arrow in sport. On a gem in the collection of Mr.

Story Maskelyne we see a bare-legged angler, in the kind of sailor's cap usually worn by Odysseus. He is fishing carefully with a light one-handed rod no reel! The description of the golden fish caught in a dream by the old fisherman in Theocritus is very realistic. We are told how the angler struck, how the rod bent, how he gave line, and finally landed his spoil ; but this was sea-fishing, as in the hackneyed tale of Cleopatra's trick upon Anthony,.

The Greeks had hooks with them at Troy, otherwise the men of Odysseus could hardly have found tackle on the desert isle, Thrinacia, where pastured the cattle of Hyperion. The great Latin poets of the best period, such as Virgil and Lucretius, never speak of fishing, at least as the contemplative man's recreation.

Clemens Alexandrinus, however, advises early Christians to wear the effigy of an angler, not of a pretty girl as the heathen use , on their signet- rings. Clemens may have been fond of fishing, or he may only have referred to the Apostles, who mostly used nets, though Peter, when he took a fish with a coin in its mouth, probably employed rod and line.

After the Homeric age, the Greeks, at least in Attica, became a nation of citizens and town-keeping men. Attica was over- cultivated and over-populated 3 the Ilissus, no doubt, was fished out, and ground game became very scarce. There is, on a fine vase in the British Museum, a picture of a hare which has got inside a house, and is making a rush for a window. A man is in the act of throwing a huge stone at it, and a dog is after it ; but we can scarcely call this sport.

Probably he followed them by their singular tracks in the snow. Netting of boars, birds, and hares was very common, and is referred to by Horace. The ancients regarded the use of nets and snares as quite a sporting practice : we cannot expect much of demo- cratic republics- The city life to which the Greeks— at least the Greeks who have left a literature — were so prone made athletics take the room of sport.

This is not the place for a discussion of Greek athletics. Chariot races, foot-races for men and boys, wrestling, throwing the weight, and leaping were the main exercises. Of the times, naturally, we know nothing, and not very much of the distances, while training meant eating enormous quantities of beef. There was a regular craze for athletics, of which the philosophers complain, much as philosophers do still. The Greek physi- cian of the Persian king bragged prodigiously about having married a daughter of Milo, the celebrated bruiser, as we read in Herodotus.

When the Souls choose a new earthly life in the Platonic Vision of Er, the soul of Atalanta chooses the lot of an athlete, because of the honours and rewards. For a boy to be made immortal in an Ode of Pindar, and to see his naked statue set up in Olympia, must have encouraged boundless conceit. A little place like Tanagra must have been unfit to live in where such a boy was swaggering. About all these things the Greeks were extremely boyish, and, as the philosophers thought, abundantly absurd.

No present was more esteemed by a sporting young Athenian blade than that of a gamecock or a fighting quail, and Socrates him- self was a patron of the cock-pit. Though we hear little of it at least before the Byzantine Empire , doubtless there was a great deal of betting— and it would be very strange if the Greeks did not sell matches and races, but always played on the square. They had no cricket, of course, and to recognise golf in Catnbuca or anything else is hasty.

The Phoenicians, in Homer, practised catching ' out i n the country,' and probably would have fielded well ; but we never hear of bats or wickets, while it would be difficult to find a decent pitch in rocky Ithaca. The ladylike Virgil and the sweet Theocritus were obviously fond of the Fancy, and knew what they were writing about.

Smith, and then wrote an ode on Hephaestus. This can scarcely have been satisfactory to a young winner, but such was Pindar's way. The best and most authoritative account of classical hunting i. His delight was to be in military and sporting circles, despite his pleasure in the company of Socrates. He begins by proclaiming the lofty origin of sport : Apollo and Artemis are hunters : and he gives a list of sportsmen, as Theseus, Cephalus, and Odysseus, among the heroes. Hippolytus, a mighty hunter, was remarkable for his personal virtue — the Joseph of Greek tradition. Xenophon infers that hunting is a noble branch of education, for the chase as Mr.

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Jorrocks also says is the image of war, and the best training for soldiers. As soon as he ceases to be a child, a man should take to hunting. Dogs he divides into Castorides from Castor , and Alopekides, with a strain of the fox in their pedigree. Hare- hunting occupies Xenophon first. Men hunted on foot and used nets.

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City folks are no sportsmen, Xenophon says, and you may not land dogs on sacred islands. Dusky corries, burn-sides, dells, glens are the best places for hunting. The light-clad pursuer only carries a club in hare- hunting, and had better move in silence. The dogs are tied up, the nets are set, a prayer is made, 'a hunting mass,' to Apollo and Artemis Agrotera, then the cleverest hound is slipped, and so the others.

For hunting fawns and hinds, Indian dogs are used ; the hunters carry light throwing- spears. Lions, pards, panthers, and bears are onlv to be found in foreign parts and in Macedonia, though they were familiar to Homeric Greece. Xenophon ends by a vigorous defence of hunting. Sportsmen are your only good citizens, and even women have attained renown by dint of hunting, as Atalanta and Procris. These are very English reflections. Luke has it.

Sport keeps alive the original, wholesome barbarian in our nature, as it did, he confessed, in the apostle of culture — in Matthew Arnold. The labour and toil of sport endear it to Xenophon, that illus- trious commander, the most English of the Athenians. Horace, we know, preached the same doctrine, but Horace would have cut a poor figure if confronted with a boar at bay, or obliged to crawl through crag and bog after a stag.

Sport is best when most natural, and least accompanied by hot luncheons. The experi- ence of Greece proved that athletics are no substitute for the life of unexpected dangers and sudden resolutions on hillsides and among pards and boars. But the increase of population, as in modern days, narrowed the field of sport, and heightened the enthusiasm for running and jumping, as now for those ex- cellent pastimes, cricket, football, and rowing. Of these foot- ball would have been most to the austere taste of Xenophon. These brief notes on classical sport would be incomplete without some remark on the manner in which ancient hunting reflected itself in poetry.

The poets whose works have reached us were not sportsmen themselves, but would appreciate the charm of the chase, in wild woods and hills, when pursued by Artemis and her maiden band of archers. Details are avoided ; we have no Somervile, no Scott, no Dennys, among the poets of ireece. Detail, particular description, had to wait for the northern and mediaeval poets and romancers. For these reasons our knowledge of classical sport is meagre and general. A more special picture occurs in the passage on the death of the boar, in Mr.

The sporting races, as in Thessaly and Sparta, were not literary : the poets of Boeotia were few, and references to the chase, as a rule, deal in a somewhat conventional way with the characters of the remote heroic age. To one who is only acquainted with the names of some fifty or sixty of these the labour of selection may appear easy, and the fear of omitting anything of interest slight ; but if it be remembered that for every well-known author we have ten but little known, the difficulty of the under- taking will be better realised.

In fact, the limit of research must, in all such cases, be determined by the conscientiousness of the workers. There are about 1,, books to be found in the British Museum ; how many of these contain verse in one form or another is a question that must be left for some future biblio- maniac to discover. We should roughly estimate them between a quarter and half a million, and yet the works of at least a sixth of the older minor poets are not to be found there. It is, moreover, not safe to take for granted that it is easy to decide who is or who is not likely to write on sporting subjects.

The reader would hardly have expected to find a hunting song by Bishop Heber, yet one of the best in this collection was written by him. Verily the ways of poets are past understanding, and the number of verse- writers who can calculate! In making the following collection of extracts we have had three objects chiefly in view — the excellence of the verse, c Digitized by LjOOQ iC j8 the poetry f of SPORT the accuracy of description, and the historical interest.

Any piece has been included which marks the changes of sport, either in spirit, manner, or costume, thereby enabling the reader to gain considerable information on the subject which he might find much difficulty in acquiring elsewhere. To carry out this object further,, a considerable number of plates copied from little-known ancient paintings and engravings have been included. Before the time of Chaucer there is little or nothing of poetical interest to be found.

It is more than probable that many early writers have received credit for much that was not their own and which they never wished to appropriate. Albans' and attributed to Dame Juliana Berners. Not one word. William Blades for having finally exploded this iridescent bubble. In his introduction to the reprint, , of the 'Boke of St.

Anyway, it is evidently a school-book, so written that a pupil whilst learning to read might at the same time become familiar with the terms of venery. It would be out of place to give more than an extract or two from this doggerel, which is only of value for certain allusions to sport, such as the following description of a greyhound : — A grehounde shulde be heded like a snake, And necked like a drake, Foted like a kat, Tayled like a rat, Sydd like a teme, Chyned ' like a beme.

Albans, i We find here, also, the names of beasts of sport divided into three classes : ist, venery ; 2nd, chase ; 3rd, raskall From which it will be seen that the fox was considered a beast of chase at that time. Foure maner bestys of venery there are : The first of theym is the hert, the secunde is the hare, The bore is oon of tho, the wolff and not oon moo. And where that ye cum in playne or in place, I shall you tell which be bestys of enchace, Oon of thym is the bucke, a nother is the Doo. The fox and the martion and the wilde roo, And ye shall my dere chylde other bestys all Where so ye hem fynde rascall ye shall hem call.

Tke Boke of St. In these cases they rode astride, but when accompanying the men it seems to have been more usual for them to sit sideways in a pillion behind their favourite knights. What the unfortunate horse thought of this latter arrangement history does not relate, but from the engravings the horses seem to have had pretty broad backs, and resemble slightly melted-down cart-horses.

Strutt copy. That hunting and hawking were necessities as well as amusements in these days is also shown in the following lines by W. Vision of Piers Plowman, In this same book are some lines on swimming, perhaps the oldest that have been printed. They point out the importance of learning the art, and it would be well if the same lesson could be impressed more on men and women in our own time : — Take two stronge men and in Temes cast hem. He that never dived ne nought can of swymmyng. Or the swymer that is safe, be so himself like?

There hys felow flete forth, as the flowd liketh And is in dread to drench, that never did swymme. Vision of Piers Plomman, In a time when no man of con- sequence travelled without his hawk and hounds, it would be surprising if we did not come upon a number of such lines as these : — Ne what hawkes sytten on perchen above, Ne what houndes lyggen on the flour adoun. They were, no doubt, suggested by seeing a nobleman and his guests seated at table, their hawks being placed upon perches over their heads, and their hounds lying on the pavement round them. He frequently also rebukes the monks for being better skilled in hunting and hawking than in divinity, and caring more for blowing the horn than the service of God.

It is strange to think that Sydenham Hill and Norwood were at this time the private hunting preserve of the badgers. The Works of Geffray Chaucer, In the present day, when it is often so difficult to find animals to hunt that in despair we are sometimes reduced to following the trail of that quickest of all scents, a drag, it is tantalising to read of such abundance even in a dream.

Our sleep is more likely to be disturbed by the vision of a great blank. This superabundance of game is noticeable in all the old sporting prints ; in the oldest the hunted seemed often to outnumber the hunters, and it must have been a sad trouble to the huntsman of those times to avoid frequent changes of scent, if he ever troubled his mind on the subject, which is doubtful. These pictures must not be taken too literally, for the artists of those times were evidently anxious to get in as much subject-matter as possible, and often introduced two or three separate hunts in the same picture.

It is, however, very evident that in those days game was exceedingly plentiful, and the shorter the run the better pleased were both footmen and riders. Neither were the horses and hounds fitted for a modern burst. What we should term in the present day most unsportsmanlike methods of limiting the victim's chance were employed — traps, nets, and spears, as well as the more deadly crossbow, being freely used.

In fact, these practices seem to have more or less continued up to the ' bucks in the fourth vedr. A short poem written by Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, while he was imprisoned in Windsor, strikingly shows this. It was composed shortly before his execution, which took place on January 19, ; and as we read it we can fancy that the sound of the horn must have reached him in his solitude, and that his thoughts had thus been drawn back to the.

With silver droppes the meade yet spred for ruth. In active games of niniblenes and strength, Where we did straine, trained with swarmes of youth, Our tender limmes, that yet shot up in length : The secret groves, which oft we made resound Of pleasaunt plaint, and of our ladies praise. Recording oft what grace eche one had found, What hope of spede, what dread of long delaies : The wilde forest, the clothed holtes with grene : With rains availed, and swift ybreathed horse, With crie of houndes, and mery Wastes betwene, Where we did chase the fearfull hart of force.

Howard Henry , Kakt. This work is of considerable value, and very scarce in a complete form, even the second edition 1 being much prized by collectors. It contains a good deal of verse, some of which will be found in its place. The following is a short example of his style : — Of a Hare complaining of the hatred of Dogs The senting Houndes pursude the hastie Hare of foote ; The sielie Beast to scape the Dogs did jumpe upon a roote. The rotten scrag it burst, from Cliffe to seas he fell : Then cride the Hare : unhappie mee, for now perceive 1 well Both lande and Sea pursue and hate the hurdesse Hare : And eake the dogged Skies aloft, if so the Dog be thare.

When we come to the works of Spenser, we find a great number of allusions to sport, many of which are both interesting and beautiful. Herselfe not saved yet from daunger dredd She thought, but chaung'd fi-om one to other feare Like as a fearefull partridge, that is fledd From the sharpe hauke which her attacked neare And fals to ground to seeke for succor theare, Whereas the hungry Spaniells she does spye With greedy jawes her ready for to teare.

That he descryde and shonned still his flight The fish that once was caught new bayt will hardly byte. Tfu: Faerie Qucency by Edmund Spenskr, Satvre 4 The harniles hunter, with a ventrous eye When unawares he did Diana spie Nak'd in the fountaine, he became straightway Unto his greedy hounds a wished pray, His owne delights taking away his breath, ' And all ungratefull forc'd his fatall death. And ever since Hounds eate their Maisters cleane, For so Diana curst them in the streame. We now come to the time of Shakspeare. His writings are full of scenes taken from various sports, similes drawn from the same source, and endless references to the subject.

The work of selection is made in his case more than usually difficult by the weaving and interweaving of alien subjects ; this, whilst it adds greatly to the interest of the plays them- selves, makes many of his writings unsuitable for quotation in a work of this kind. The extracts that appear of most interest will be found in their place here. It may be mentioned that it is almost impossible to make any arbitrary divisions in this book ; our object has been in this first part to confine attention to extracts which it would be a pity to omit, but which are, nevertheless, obviously incomplete in themselves.

Perhaps at no time in our history did the spirit of sport hold such power as at the close of the sixteenth century. They are more studied then the Greeke, or the Latine. But our own hungry readers may begin to think that we are casting before them too many introductory bones ; and, find- ing them rather tough, are desirous of the more satisfactory extracts awaiting their attention.

If among these some should be found seemingly unworthy of reproduction, a further ex- amination may show the reason for their inclusion. It would have been interesting to make use of the material before us for the purpose of writing a short history on the growth of sport, but it will be obvious that such temptation must be avoided, not only on account of the limitation of space, but also because too frequent notes and comments become, as before said, wearisome. If a work of this kind is arranged with care, it should speak for itself, and, with the help of the illustrations which have been produced by the most accurate and skilful artists of their time , there should be little difficulty in calling up the forgotten pictures of the past — in living, for the time being, in those bygone days when sport was more a necessity and less simply an amusement ; when the wild forest was often as Nature planted it, and if there were few well-trimmed hedges, there were at least no barbed- wire fences ; when a railway was not even a dream of the imagination, and if the horses and hounds were slow, the game was plentiful and varied ; whilst no small part of the huntsman's pleasure was doubtless the thought of the haunch of venison that would be enjoyed on some future day.

It is obvious that to have included all his writings on sport would have been beyond the limit of space, even had it seemed prudent. The same omissions in a less degree may be observed in many other cases, as it has been our object only to choose the best from each writer. Digitized by VjOOQ IC 28 THE POETRY OF SPORT The earlier extracts may possibly, on account of their quaint spelling and phraseology, appeal less as poetry to the general reader than those taken from later writers ; but what may be lost on this account will be amply compensated for by the historical interest attached to them ; and, considering the ignorance that is too often shown on the earlier history of this subject, it has seemed advisable to spare no pains to throw, if it be but a few, additional sparks of light on a matter of so great general interest.

So hym byfelle upon a tyde On his huntyng as he cam ryde In a forest allone he was. He sawe upon the grene gras The fayre fressh floures sprynge ; He herd among the leves synge The throstel with the nyghtyngale. Fro her whiche was naked al. And at the last unhappelye This hert his owne houdes slough, And hym for vengeauce al to drough. There over toke I a grete route Of hunters and eke of foresters. Whan we come to the forest syde Every man dyd ryght soone As to huntynge fel to done. The houndes had over shot hym al, And were upon a defaulte yfal.

I was go walked fro my tre And as I went there came by me A whelpe that fawned me as I stoode That had yfolowed and coude no goode. I wolde have caught it anone It fledde and was fro me gone As I him folowed and it forthe went. They two j that make floures growe. Had made her dwellyng there I trowe. The website of writer and paperfolding designer David Mitchell.

As with many other early paperfolds it is sometimes claimed that troublewit is of Chinese origin. I do not know of any evidence to support this view. The book describes how to make and work a version of troublewit made by dividing a sheet of paper into sixths. The introductory sentence reads 'Trouble-wit has not its name for nought, and indeed is a very fine invention, by folding a sheet of Paper, as that by Art you may change it into twenty-six several forms or fashions'.

This source has clearly come to light since , since Kenneway gives the first known mention of Troublewit as being in G Conyers 'Sports and Pastimes: or, Hocus Pocus Improved Edwin Corrie's notes on Recreations with Paper on the Folding Didactics website give further early references as follows:. The first benefited executives and teams that took numbers and translated them into victories.

Now, the power of analytics will appeal to the masses, for whom gambling is going to be so accessible and commonplace that their desire to find an edge will germinate from piles of digits. But the consequences will be noticeable quickly. The venture-capitalist-fueled ad campaigns for fantasy sites that took over sports programming a few years ago are just a tiny hint of the change to come. If sports gambling is widely legal, the gambling industry will suffuse every aspect of sports in the stadiums and on television. The ads at most games will change to ads for casinos that run digital sports books, or for Paddy Power.

The coverage of the games is very likely to be newly saturated with advertisements for these sports books and will even give live odds for different events. He has two doubles tonight. Paddy Power is offering six-to-one odds he hits another. For Passan, this is what will give juice to a game between two teams out of the pennant race in the dog days of summer. But for fans who, like myself, love the quiet, almost somnambulant tone of meaningless August baseball, the new, more insistent bid to get into our wallets during the seventh-inning stretch will be an aesthetic and moral nuisance.

Further, where there is much gambling, other vices tend to collect. The idea of a family day at the ballpark may begin to disappear, as American professional sports comes to resemble the different culture that obtains at racetracks. Now, as a citizen, my objection is more serious. Legalized gambling is being pushed by states that are bumming for more revenue.

Kentucky sees it as an opportunity to plug up its state-pension problems. Call it trickle-down profligacy. Discovering the problem, they are anxious to rake in revenue from the saps they seduce into betting parlors. Legal gambling is a tax on despair and boredom. And increasingly, many states are depending on vice for much of their budget. Will state legislators, facing their next bust, turn to libertarians for arguments in favor of legalizing and taxing sex work? It has a special association with the American frontier.

Frontiers have emergent industry but often lack embedded Protestant preachers and communities. Soon you might be able to place that bet. More articles.