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Volume 32 Issue 1 Jan , pp. Volume 31 Issue 4 Jan , pp. Volume 30 Issue 3 Jan , pp. Volume 29 Issue 1 Jan , pp. In fact, if the dots are holes, we have the punched-card machine long ago produced by Hollorith for the purposes of the census, and now used throughout business. Some types of complex businesses could hardly operate without these machines. Adding is only one operation. To perform arithmetical computation involves also subtraction, multiplication, and division, and in addition some method for temporary storage of results, removal from storage for further manipulation, and recording of final results by printing.

Machines for these purposes are now of two types: keyboard machines for accounting and the like, manually controlled for the insertion of data, and usually automatically controlled as far as the sequence of operations is concerned; and punched-card machines in which separate operations are usually delegated to a series of machines, and the cards then transferred bodily from one to another. Both forms are very useful; but as far as complex computations are concerned, both are still embryo.

Rapid electrical counting appeared soon after the physicists found it desirable to count cosmic rays. For their own purposes the physicists promptly constructed thermionic-tube equipment capable of counting electrical impulses at the rate of , a second. The advanced arithmetical machines of the future will be electrical in nature, and they will perform at times present speeds, or more. They will be controlled by a control card or film, they will select their own data and manipulate it in accordance with the instructions thus inserted, they will perform complex arithmetical computations at exceedingly high speeds, and they will record results in such form as to be readily available for distribution or for later further manipulation.

Such machines will have enormous appetites. One of them will take instructions and data from a roomful of girls armed with simple keyboard punches, and will deliver sheets of computed results every few minutes. There will always be plenty of things to compute in the detailed affairs of millions of people doing complicated things. In fact, every time one combines and records facts in accordance with established logical processes, the creative aspect of thinking is concerned only with the selection of the data and the process to be employed, and the manipulation thereafter is repetitive in nature and hence a fit matter to be relegated to the machines.

Not so much has been done along these lines, beyond the bounds of arithmetic, as might be done, primarily because of the economics of the situation. The needs of business, and the extensive market obviously waiting, assured the advent of mass-produced arithmetical machines just as soon as production methods were sufficiently advanced.

Jahr , "The needs of business, and the extensive market waiting, There are, however, machines for solving differential equations - and functional and integral equations, for that matter. There are many special machines, such as the harmonic synthesizer which predicts the tides. There will be many more, appearing certainly first in the hands of the scientist and in small numbers.

If scientific reasoning were limited to the logical processes of arithmetic, we should not get far in our understanding of the physical world. One might as well attempt to grasp the game of poker entirely by the use of the mathematics of probability. The abacus, with its beads strung on parallel wires, led the Arabs to positional numeration and the concept of zero many centuries before the rest of the world; and it was a useful tool - so useful that it still exists. It is a far cry from the abacus to the modern keyboard accounting machine.

It will be an equal step to the arithmetical machine of the future. But even this new machine will not take the scientist where he needs to go. Relief must be secured from laborious detailed manipulation of higher mathematics as well, if the users of it are to free their brains for something more than repetitive detailed transformations in accordance with established. A mathematician is not a man who can readily manipulate figures; often he cannot. He is not even a man who can readily perform the transformation of equations by the use of calculus.

He is primarily an individual who is skilled in the use of symbolic logic on a high plane, and especially he is a man of intuitive judgment in the choice of the manipulative processes he employs. Ein Plan der Superindustrialisierung. Only then will mathematics be practically effective in bringing the growing knowledge of atomistics to the useful solution of the advanced problems of chemistry, metallurgy, and biology. For this reason there will come more machines to handle advanced mathematics for the scientist.

Some of them will be sufficiently bizarre to suit the most fastidious connoisseur of the present artifacts of civilization. The scientist, however, is not the only person who manipulates data and examines the world about him by the use of logical processes, although he sometimes preserves this appearance by adopting into the fold anyone who becomes logical, much in the manner in which a British labor leader is elevated to knighthood. Whenever logical processes of thought are employed - that is, whenever thought for a time runs along an accepted groove - there is an opportunity for the machine.

It is readily possible to construct a machine which will manipulate premises in accordance with formal logic, simply by the clever use of relay circuits. Put a set of premises into such a device and turn the crank, and it will readily pass out conclusion after conclusion, all in accordance with logical law, and with no more slips than would be expected of a keyboard adding machine.

The machines for higher analysis have usually been equation solvers. Ideas are beginning to appear for equation transformers, which will rearrange the relationship expressed by an equation in accordance with strict and rather advanced logic. Progress is inhibited by the exceedingly crude way in which mathematicians express their relationships.

They employ a symbolism which grew like Topsy and has little consistency; a strange fact in that most logical field. A new symbolism, probably positional, must apparently precede the reduction of mathematical transformations to machine processes. Then, on beyond the strict logic of the mathematician, lies the application of logic in everyday affairs. We may some day click off arguments on a machine with the same assurance that we now enter sales on a cash register. But the machine of logic will not look like a cash register, even a streamlined model. A eBrain. Thus far we seem to be worse off than before - for we can enormously extend the record; yet even in its present bulk we can hardly consult it.

This is a much larger matter than merely the extraction of data for the purposes of scientific research; it involves the entire process by which man profits by his inheritance of acquired knowledge. The prime action of use is selection, and here we are halting indeed. There may be millions of fine thoughts, and the account of the experience on which they are based, all encased within stone walls of acceptable architectural form; but if the scholar can get at only one a week by diligent search, his syntheses are not likely to keep up with the current scene.

Selection, in this broad sense, is a stone in the hands of a cabinetmaker. Yet, in a narrow sense and in other areas, something has already been done mechanically on selection.

The personnel officer of a factory drops a stack of a few thousand employee cards into a selecting machine, sets a code in accordance with an established convention, and produces in a short time a list of all employees who live in Trenton and know Spanish. Even such devices are much too slow when it comes, for example, to matching a set of fingerprints with one of five millions on file.

Selection devices of this sort will soon be speeded up from their present rate of reviewing data at a few hundred a minute. By the use of photocells and microfilm they will survey items at the rate of thousands a second, and will print out duplicates of those selected. This process, however, is simple selection: it proceeds by examining in turn every one of a large set of items, and by picking out those which have certain specified characteristics. There is another form of selection best illustrated by the automatic telephone exchange.

You dial a number and the machine selects and connects just one of a million possible stations. It does not run over them all. It pays attention only to a class given by a first digit, and so on; and thus proceeds rapidly and almost unerringly to the selected station. It requires a few seconds to make the selection, although the process could be speeded up if increased speed were economically warranted.

If necessary, it could be made extremely fast by substituting thermionic-tube switching for mechanical switching, so that the full selection could be made in one-hundredth of a second. No one would wish to spend the money necessary to make this change in the telephone system, but the general idea is applicable elsewhere.

Take the prosaic problem of the great department store. Every time a charge sale is made, there are a number of things to be done.. The inventory needs to be revised, the salesman needs to be given credit for the sale, the general accounts need an entry, and, most important, the customer needs to be charged. A central records device has been developed in which much of this work is done conveniently. The salesman places on a stand the customer's identification card, his own card, and the card taken from the article sold - all punched cards.

When he pulls a lever, contacts are made through the holes, machinery at a central point makes the necessary computations and entries, and the proper receipt is printed for the salesman to pass to the customer. But there may be ten thousand charge customers doing business with the store, and before the full operation can be completed someone has to select the right card and insert it at the central office.

Now rapid selection can slide just the proper card into position in an instant or two, and return it afterward. Another difficulty occurs, however. Someone must read a total on the card, so that the machine can add its computed item to it. Conceivably the cards might be of the dry photography type I have described. Existing totals could then be read by photocell, and the new total entered by an electron beam. They must move quickly.

They need not be transferred far, but merely into position so that the photocell and recorder can operate on them. Positional dots can enter the data. At the end of the month a machine can readily be made to read these and to print an ordinary bill. With tube selection, in which no mechanical parts are involved in the switches, little time need be occupied in bringing the correct card into use - a second should suffice for the entire operation. The whole record on the card may be made by magnetic dots on a steel sheet if desired, instead of dots to be observed optically, following the scheme by which Poulsen long ago put speech on a magnetic wire.

This method has the advantage of simplicity and ease of erasure. By using photography, however, one can arrange to project the record in enlarged form, and at a distance by using the process common in television equipment. One can consider rapid selection of this form, and distant projection for other purposes.

To be able to key one sheet of a million before an operator in a second or two, with the possibility of then adding notes thereto, is suggestive in many ways. It might even be of use in libraries, but that is another story. At any rate, there are now some interesting combinations possible. One might, for example, speak to a microphone, in the manner described in connection with the speech-controlled typewriter, and thus make his selections.

It would certainly beat the usual file clerk. Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of systems of indexing. When data of any sort are placed in storage, they are filed alphabetically or numerically, and information is found when it is by tracing it down from subclass to subclass. It can be in only one place, unless duplicates are used; one has to have rules as to which path will locate it, and the rules are cumbersome. Having found one item, moreover, one has to emerge from the system and re-enter on a new path.

It operates by association. With one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in accordance with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain. It has other characteristics, of course; trails that are not frequently followed are prone to fade, items are not fully permanent, memory is transitory.

Yet the speed of action, the intricacy of trails, the detail of mental pictures, is awe-inspiring beyond all else in nature. In minor ways he may even improve, for his records have relative permanency. The first idea, however, to be drawn from the analogy concerns selection. Selection by association , rather than by indexing, may yet be mechanized. One cannot hope thus to equal the speed and flexibility with which the mind follows an associative trail, but it should be possible to beat the mind decisively in regard to the permanence and clarity of the items resurrected from storage.

It needs a name, and to coin one at random, "memex" will do. A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory. It consists of a desk , and while it can presumably be operated from a distance, it is primarily the piece of furniture at which he works.

On the top are slanting translucent screens, on which material can be projected for convenient reading. There is a keyboard, and sets of buttons and levers. Otherwise it looks like an ordinary desk. The matter of bulk is well taken care of by improved microfilm. Only a small part of the interior of the memex is devoted to storage, the rest to mechanism. Yet if the user inserted pages of material a day it would take him hundreds of years to fill the repository, so he can be profligate and enter material freely.

Most of the memex contents are purchased on microfilm ready for insertion. Books of all sorts, pictures, current periodicals, newspapers, are thus obtained and dropped into place. Business correspondence takes the same path. And there is provision for direct entry. On the top of the memex is a transparent platen. On this are placed longhand notes, photographs, memoranda, all sort of things. When one is in place, the depression of a lever causes it to be photographed onto the next blank space in a section of the memex film, dry photography being employed.

There is, of course, provision for consultation of the record by the usual scheme of indexing. If the user wishes to consult a certain book, he taps its code on the keyboard, and the title page of the book promptly appears before him, projected onto one of his viewing positions. Frequently-used codes are mnemonic , so that he seldom consults his code book; but when he does, a single tap of a key projects it for his use.

In fast allen Texten kommen diese Informationen vor, die eine situative Einbettung erlauben. Auch geht es hierbei um Fragestellungen, die nicht dazu verleiten sollen, Einzelheiten aus dem Text herauszusuchen. Schaltstellen sollten durch entsprechende Symbole oder durch entsprechende Hinweise in der L1 oder der L2 kenntlich gemacht werden. Sie basiert auf der Idee von Robinson Die Geschwindigkeit des Rezeptionsprozesses wird durch die Zielsetzung, das Inter- esse und den Schwierigkeitsgrad gesteuert.

Es ist aber zu beachten, dass die Bedeutung der jeweiligen Stichpunkte bekannt ist bzw. Die Lernenden sollen diese dann wieder erstellen. Diese Stichpunkte dienen der Erstellung eines Paralleltextes. Die Kontrolle kann entweder gemeinsam in der Gruppe stattfinden oder durch Softwareprogramme geleistet werden. Zu hoffen, dass die Lernenden ihre Lesefertigkeiten gleichsam automatisch erlernen, hat sich in der Praxis als nicht realistisch herausgestellt. Dies ist u. Bibliographie Alderson, J. Charles Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem?

In: Alderson, J. Reading in a foreign language. London: Longman, Alderson, J. Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aachen: Shaker Verlag, Handbuch des Fachsprachenunterrichts. Chiang, Cecilia In: Everson, Michael E. Research among learners of Chinese as a foreign language. Cohen, Andrew D.

Using verbal reports in Research on Language Learning. Introspection in Second Language Research. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, DeFrancis, John Visible Speech. The diverse oneness of writing systems. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Diao, Lan Strategien beim Lesen chinesischer Texte. In: CHUN 25 , Dohrn, Antje DaF-Didaktik aus internationaler Perspektive. Ehlers, Swantje Lesetheorie und fremdsprachliche Lesepraxis aus der Perspektive des Deutschen als Fremdsprache.

Everson, Michael E. An inquiry into reading strategies of intermediate and advanced learners of Chinese as a foreign language. In: The Modern Language Journal 82 2, Feng, Gary Eye movement in Chinese reading: basic processes and crosslinguistic differences. The Handbook of Asian Psycholinguistics. Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Grabe, William In: Richards, Jack C. Methodology in Teaching. An Anthology of Current Practice.

Guder-Manitius, Andreas Aspekte einer systematischen Vermittlung der chinesischen Schrift im Unterricht Chinesisch als Fremdsprache. Heidelberg: Julius Groos Verlag. Hanley, J. Richard Learning to Read in Chinese. In: Snowling, Margret J. The Science of Reading: A Handbook. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, Heine, L. Lautes Denken als Forschungsinstrument in der Fremdsprachenforschung. Learning to read Chinese beyond the logographic phase.

In: Reading Research Quarterly 32 3, Janzen, Joy Teaching Strategic Reading. Effects of strategies on the learning of Chinese characters among foreign language students. Vom Lesen fremder Texte. Textarbeit zwischen Lesen und Schreiben. In: Fremdsprache Deutsch 2 , Lee, Li-Chun Caroline The application of reading strategies by American learners of Chinese as a foreign language when processing narrative and argumentative texts. Indiana: Ph. Lutjeharms, Madeline Lesestrategien und Interkomprehension in Sprachfamilien.

In: Kischel, Gerhard Hrsg. Hagen, 9. November Aachen: Shaker, Zugriff auf das mentale Lexikon und der Wortschatzerwerb in der Fremdsprache. In: Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen 33 , Vermittlung von Lesefertigkeit. Deutsch als Fremd- und Zweitsprache. Ein internationales Handbuch. Band In: DaF-Szene Korea. Sprachliche Kompetenzen. Konzepte und Messung. Weinheim: Beltz, Ptaszynski, Signe Overgaard Reading in Chinese as a Foreign Language. A study of how reading strategies are affected by instructional methods.

In: CHUN 24 , Robinson, Francis Pleasant Effective Study.


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Schindelin, Cornelia In: CHUN 27 , Shen, Helen Level of cognitive processing: Effects on character learning among non-native learners of Chinese as a foreign language. In: Language and education 18 2, Spinks, John A. Reading Chinese characters for meaning: the role of phonological information.

In: Cognition 76 , B1-B Lesen als Handlung. Lesetheoretische Grundlagen. Die Unterrichtsplanung. Bielefeld: Beltz, Visual Chinese character recognition: does phonological information mediate access to meaning. In: Journal of Memory and Language 37 , Phonological codes as early constraints in reading Chinese: a review of current discoveries and theoretical accounts. In: Reading and Writing: an interdisciplinary journal 10 , In: NeuroImage 13 , Reading depends on writing, in Chinese.

In: PNAS 24, Learning to read Chinese: Cognitive consequences of cross-language and writing system differences. Learning to read across languages: Cross-linguistic relationships in first- and second-language literacy development.

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Orthographic and phonological processing in reading Chinese texts: evidence from eye fixation. In: Language and Cognitive Process 14 , Wu, Yongan In: Journal of the Chinese Teachers Association 47 1, Autor: Prof. E-Mail: chrismtw ntu. The purpose of this study was to replicate the study conducted by Zahar, Cob and Spada and compare the results with the original study and another replication study using the same design.

The study was conducted with university students who were in their first year of studying English language and literature. The effect of the reading treatment was determined by using a pretest-posttest design. The results of the posttest showed that the participants learned one in three previously unknown words. The credibility of this belief has been confirmed by studies which have demonstrated that during their primary and secondary education, children learn about 3.

On the other hand, direct instruction in the classroom enables children to learn about words per year Nagy et al. These findings suggest that most of the vocabulary is acquired through listening and reading. This implies that reading can greatly contribute to vocabulary development, which has been confirmed in first language acquisition studies Saragi et al. There is now a substantial body of research which demonstrates that L2 learners can also learn vocabulary incidentally while reading for meaning Brown et al. However, these studies have sparked a debate about the effectiveness of reading for vocabulary learning.

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Others point out that these studies lack validity because learning vocabulary from context was not compared with other techniques, which would determine the effectiveness of different methods Raptis However, we should bear in mind that some techniques are quite different and cannot be compared easily.

Moreover, the aim of studies on vocabulary acquisition should not be finding the best way of learning vocabulary, but finding several effective ways which can be combined for achieving the best results. This is especially true if we know that learners have different learning styles and preferences, and one method will not be suitable for all learners. Thus, we should strive to determine which methods enable learners to acquire vocabulary knowledge effectively, and it is up to learners and teachers to determine which methods they will use and how they will combine the recommended ways of vocabulary acquisition.

In addition to conducting new studies, replicating existing studies can help us gain deeper insights and can enable us to make stronger conclusions about a particular phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to replicate the study conducted by Zahar et al. Before the treatment, the participants knew the meaning of Thus, the participants learned the meaning of 2.

The correlation between the frequency of the words in the text and the absolute learning gains was 0. As the effect of frequency of the words in the text was expressed most clearly for the participants with the smallest vocabulary sizes, the authors suggest that the role of frequency is greater for learners with smaller vocabulary sizes. The study design was the same as in the original study.

The results of the Vocabulary Levels Test showed that the participants knew Because of the big differences in their vocabulary sizes, they were divided into three groups: Group 1 knew The posttest revealed that on average, the participants learned 3. The learning gains in this study were slightly higher than the learning gains in the original study, even though the vocabulary sizes of the participants in this study were slightly lower than those in the original study.

How does reading affect vocabulary acquisition? What is the effect of participants' vocabulary size on the acquisition of unknown vocabulary? What is the relationship between word frequency in the text and the rate at which words are acquired? The participants in this study were 94 university students in the first year of their undergraduate degree in English Language and Literature in the Republic of Macedonia.

They had studied English as a foreign language for eight years in primary and secondary school. This age group was selected because it was considered that their vocabulary sizes would match rather closely the vocabulary sizes of the participants in the original study who were learning English as a second language. By excluding the factor of vocabulary size, the effects of age difference between the participants in the original study, the first replication study and the present study could be seen more clearly. The results of the Vocabulary Levels Test, which was administered before the treatment, showed that there were considerable differences in participants' vocabulary sizes.

In order to determine the effect of vocabulary size on the acquisition rate of vocabulary more clearly, the participants were divided into three groups. As in the original study, the participants read the text The Golden Fleece, which is a Greek myth taken from an intermediate ESL reader and contains 2, words. However, the majority of the words appeared from two to five times. The test was designed in the same way as the Vocabulary Levels Test and contained 10 blocks of 6 words Zahar et al.

The participants were asked for their agreement to take part in a study, but the goal of the study was not disclosed. The Vocabulary Levels Test and the pretest were administered one week before the treatment. In the original study, the participants listened to the recording of the text and followed it in their books at the same time.

A recording of the text was not available for the present study, so the text was read aloud by the instructor and the participants followed it in their copies. The reading treatment lasted 30 minutes. The posttest was administered two days after the reading treatment. Mean Standard Range deviation 2, word level The figures in Table 2 show that the first group knew Thus, the first group knew Thus, the number of words available for learning was quite different as well. For the first group, there were only 7. According to these results, the participants managed to learn one in three unknown words, which is one of the highest scores ever in the research on vocabulary acquisition through reading.

The group with the greatest gain was group 2, that learned the meaning of 5. Group 1 had a gain of 3. On the other hand, the group that had The correlation figures and the posttest results show that the effect of the vocabulary size on learning vocabulary from reading is most clearly expressed for learners with the smallest vocabulary sizes and indicate that probably the main reason for the small learning gains were the considerably small vocabulary sizes of the learners in this group. They knew only half of the words at the 2.

As mentioned above, the frequency of the target words in the text ranged from 1 to 15, and the majority of words appeared from two to five times. These figures show that the effect of frequency was the least significant for the group with the smallest vocabulary size, which is in contrast with the results obtained in the original study.

In order to compare the results, we first need to state the similarities and differences between the participants in the three studies. In the original study, the participants were seventh grade students around the age of 12 who were studying English in an ESL context. In the first replication study, the participants were secondary school students, aged 16, studying English in an EFL context.

In the present study the participants were first-year university students, aged 19, who were also studying English in an EFL context. Thus, the greatest vocabulary size was recorded for the participants in the original study. In relation to the first question, in the original study the participants learned the meaning of 2.

The second question investigated the effect of vocabulary size on vocabulary learning. In the three studies, the participants with the smallest and the biggest vocabulary size had lower gains than those in the middle.

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The smaller learning gains of the participants with the biggest vocabulary sizes suggest that if the number of unknown words in the text is too low, readers do not focus on them and do not invest too much effort to infer their meaning as they can easily understand the meaning of the text. In relation to the last question whose aim was to find out the effect of word frequency on vocabulary learning, the results in the three studies show a moderate effect, but whereas in the original study, the greatest effect was found for the learners with the smallest vocabulary sizes, both replication studies show smaller effects for the participants with the smallest vocabulary sizes.

One of the reasons may be the difficulty of the text for these learners. However, this text does not seem quite suitable for investigating the factor of word frequency as there was not enough variability in the frequency of the target words. It has demonstrated that EFL learners can learn the meaning of unknown words from reading.


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Moreover, the results of the study suggest that if there are only a few unfamiliar words in the text, readers will not put too much effort to learn the meaning of the unknown words, which means that texts should be a bit more challenging in order to be beneficial for learners. The findings of the study suggest that if EFL learners read texts at the appropriate level for 30 minutes a day, they may learn more than 1, new words a year, which means that, combined with direct instruction, reading can greatly improve their vocabulary knowledge. Thus, incorporating an extensive reading component in the language programmes would significantly increase the possibility of acquiring a body of vocabulary that would enable learners to become competent users of the respective foreign language.

References Brown, R. Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading- while-listening, and listening to stories. In: Reading in a Foreign Language, 20, 2, Cho, K. In: Journal of Reading, 37, 8, Cunningham, A. What Reading Does for the Mind. In: American Educator, 22, 8- Day, R. Incidental EFL vocabulary learning and reading. In: Reading in a Foreign Language, 7, Dupuy, B. Incidental vocabulary acquisition in French as a foreign language. In: Applied Language Learning, 4, Elley, W.

The impact of a book flood in Fiji primary schools. Grabe, W. Reading and vocabulary development in a second language: A case study. In: J. Huckin Eds. Hafiz, F. Extensive reading and the development of language skills. In: ELT Journal, 43, 4- Hirsh, E. In: American Educator. Learning L2 vocabulary through extensive reading: measurement study. Horst, M. Beyond A Clockwork Orange: Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading. In: Reading in a Foreign Language, 11 2 , Test of a model for predicting second language lexical growth through reading.

Jenkins, J. Learning Vocabulary through Reading. In: American Educational Research Journal, 21 4 , Krashen, S. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Nagy, W. Learning Words from Context. In: Reading Research Quarterly, 20 2 , Learning word meanings from context during normal reading.

In: American Educational Research Journal, 24, Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In: McKeown, M. The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition. Nation, I. Learning vocabulary in another language. Incidental vocabulary acquisition from an authentic novel: Do Things Fall Apart? In: Reading in a Foreign Language, 22 1 , Pigada, M. Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study. In: Reading in a Foreign Language, 18, 1, Pitts, M.

Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading: A replication of the Clockwork Orange study using second language acquirers. In: Reading in a Foreign Language 5 2 , Raptis, H. Saragi, P. Vocabulary learning and reading. In: System, 6, Waring, R. At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Zahar, R. Acquiring vocabulary through reading: Effects of frequency and contextual richness.

Author: Nina Daskalovska, Ph.

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Because such approaches fail to consider disparities of grammatical features, they are often ineffective. Just as a doctor needs to diagnose an illness and prescribe a suitable treatment, the teacher must evaluate a grammatical feature and choose an appropriate instruction. To better understand how this may be accomplished, highly disparate grammatical features the definite article and plural noun were taught to adult second language learners, using three different pedagogical techniques: Explicit focus on meaning, explicit focus on form, and implicit focus on form.

According to the results, an empirical method to guide the content of grammar instruction is proposed. Chomsky , , , for example, posited that there is an innate system of syntactic constraints called principles and parameters. While such syntactic theories increase the saliency of the acquisition process, they cannot holistically explain linguistic development. Concerning this issue, Pinker explained that: The principles and parameters of phrase structure specify only what kinds of ingredients may go into a phrase in what order.

They do not spell out any particular phrase. Left to themselves, they would run amok and produce all kinds of mischief. As this statement implies, innate notions of grammar structure alone are not sufficient to explain the formation of language. In addition to aspects of syntax and morphology, language learners must be born with innate notions such as place, agent, and patient, which are used to further regulate linguistic structures and imbue them with meaning Pinker Memory is yet another essential element of the language construction process.

The lexical store may best be characterized as a 'mental dictionary' which holds syntactic, morphological, and semantic information about words and phrases. Short-term memory, also referred to as 'working memory', is yet another essential element of language construction. It temporarily stores input that is to be parsed or, conversely, output that is being constructed. As posited by Baddeley , , the working memory is governed by a central executive which is supported by a visuo-spatial sketchpad and a phonological loop.

The visuo-spatial sketchpad stores semantic information while the phonological loop holds acoustic information that must constantly be refreshed through articulation either saying or thinking the words Cook Levelt , for example, developed a cognitive model explaining the formation of linguistic output Figure 1. According to this model, a semantic representation of an utterance is first developed by a cognitive conceptualizer.

The resulting semantic conceptualization is then programmed into language by a grammatical encoder. Finally, the encoder works to combine and modify elements of the lexicon so that a grammatically correct representation of the semantic concept may be constructed Bock , Pienemann While the conceptualizer implies the presence of semantic constraints such as those hypothesized by Pinker , the encoder implies morphosyntactic constraints such as those hypothesized by Chomsky , and According to the model, elements of a word, phrase, or sentence in working memory come from the lexicon and are organized by the innate construction mechanism.

If information cannot be retrieved lexically, it must be cognitively generated. Such cognitive production is more difficult than retrieval from a lexical store, since the innate language construction device must be more extensively utilized. Exhaustive utilization of the device, in turn, may put burdens on the working memory that serve to limit performance. Since the inception of English as a Second Language ESL instruction, the role of grammar in the pedagogical process has been of central concern. Initially, students learned grammar by translating texts into and from English.

While this instructional method which is referred to as the grammar-translation method allowed students to understand written texts, it did not encourage natural use of the target language. As a result, learners had difficulty gaining communicative competence Celce-Murcia , Huang To address this issue, educators soon crafted and utilized a new pedagogical technique.

This method, known as the audio-lingual method, prompted students to learn through a process of habit formation. Learners listened and repeated sentences that contained grammatical features and expressions. While this technique encouraged the spoken use of the target language, there was little natural communication. As with the grammar-translation method, students who learned through the audio-lingual method continued having problems with both oral and written forms of natural communication Thornbury pp. Due to shortcomings with prior instructional approaches that were primarily grammar- based, a new pedagogical approach was developed which downplayed the importance of grammar and emphasized learning through natural communicative tasks.

Unfortunately, educators soon realized that learners who acquired a language via this approach could communicate, but had significant problems utilizing correct grammar to express themselves Lightbown , Lightbown In essence, the failure to concretely determine an effective type of language instruction reflects a broader issue that has plagued both SLA research and ESL instruction. Just as models of language acquisition have overstressed the 'universal' nature of morphosyntax, methods of instruction have overemphasized a one-size-fits-all paradigm for teaching grammar. In reality, different forms of instruction are needed to accommodate the highly disparate characteristics of syntactic and morphological features.

Educators cannot use the same type of instruction for each grammatical feature and expect an equally fruitful outcome. To determine what type of instruction is needed, diverse characteristics of grammatical features must be considered. This assertion is illustrated through examination of grammatical features associated with the noun phrase.

Regular plural nouns, which use regular forms such as -s, -ies, or —es e. Lexical plural nouns, in contrast, which require a complete change of the singular noun e. The article has very few morphological variants a, an, the. Unlike the plural nouns, however, it is semantically very complex, and may be used to signify semantic concepts such as: unique objects in our world e.

A man talked to the woman. As grammatical features differ significantly, educators must learn to facilitate acquisition by differentiating instruction. The development of such an approach requires not only a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence acquisition, but a firm knowledge of the pedagogical techniques that effectively utilize these factors. This type of comprehensive investigation is needed before curricula and instruction can be engineered to bring about a desired result. All learners ranged in age from 18 to 21 years. Consequently, both conscious and unconscious forms of knowledge about grammatical features were evaluated within this study.

To examine the effects of grammar instruction on the acquisition process, three grammatical features associated with the noun phrase were chosen: the regular plural e. These features were selected because their morphosyntactic and semantic characteristics are highly disparate. Before treatments were given to the three groups, participants each took a pretest.

The pretest contained two fill-in-the-blank worksheets each having questions - the worksheets were obtained from learnenglishfeelgood. Learners were given as much time as they needed to complete the worksheets. As pointed out by Ellis , untimed exercises such as these are better measures of conscious or explicit knowledge than timed exercises. Following the measure of conscious knowledge, learners were given two images and three minutes to write a paragraph for each.

This task was timed to obtain a better measure of natural ability or implicit knowledge of each grammatical feature. Timing the activity minimized the degree that students could consciously correct errors, ensuring the validity of the measure Ellis To score each test section, correct answers were divided by the total number of answers or the total number of required contexts for the natural writing task.

For the natural writing task, ratings of grammatical errors missing or incorrect forms of the target feature for one of the groups were compared to those of an additional native English- speaking rater to assess reliability. After all the pretests had been scored, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical formula was used to confirm that the distribution of pretest scores did not significantly differ across groups. This suggested that there was no significant difference between the groups at the beginning of the study.

Following the administration of the pretest, three treatments were randomly assigned to three different groups. Each group received an initial lecture using a PowerPoint with examples from the topics covered in Appendix A. Following the treatment, all learners received a handout so that they could review and practice the concepts learned during the treatment Table 1 : Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Explicit Focus on Meaning: Implicit Focus on Form: Explicit Focus on Form: PowerPoint mini-lecture with PowerPoint mini-lecture with PowerPoint mini-lecture with images and semantic maps.

Handout: The main topics of the Handout: Learners see the Handout: Learners see the semantic map are provided but sentence examples presented in sentence examples presented in the information in the bubbles is the mini-lecture. They practice the mini-lecture. They circle all blanked out. Learners must fill in speaking the sentence examples.

They bubbles.