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You make a fool of yourself and give the impression that romanians hate to read books about history, but they want to be perceived as knowledgeable persons by stealing articles from gaming sites. I say it again, the romanian propagandists do not know the history of the Roman Empire, they are just spreading propaganda without having the slightest idea about what they are talking. They want to be perceived as "latins" without giving a damn about the history and civilization of the Roman Empire.

Vezi G. Forni, "Il reclutamento delle legioni da Augusto a Diocleziano" , ff. Cary, H. Scullard : Istoria Romei editura ALL, - paginile , , English translation: In the 2nd century AD, the transformation started at the level of the army personnel in the time of Caesar or Augustus was finished. The lack of recruits draftees from Italy was so serious that only the praetorian cohorts [guards of the emperor] were supplied form this source [recruits of italian origin].

The legions and the auxilliary troops were composed almost in majority from provincials [recruits originating from the non-italian provinces of the empire]. The permanently [established] military camps favored the recruitment at the local level , which became a common situation in the time of Hadrian, including the recruitment of the sons of legionnaires which lived around the camps "ex castris".

The army became composed in vast majority from provincials [non-italians], and the barrier between the legionnaires and the auxilliary troops [always composed of non-italians] decreased gradually, but the army was not yet "barbarized". From Hadrian to the Severans, the western provinces [Gaul, Spain, etc. See G. To do that, he thought about more and more loyal legionnaires from Rome. From the data provided by the italian historian Giovanni Forni and cited in the book written by the american historians M. Cary and H. Scullard, only 0.

The italians had lost interest in fighting and dying for the empire, so the legionnaires were recruited mainly from the imperial provinces, not from the Italian Peninsula. All their propaganda is like a giant puzzle and their assumptions must "fit in place", regardless if they are true or not from a historical point of view. The giant puzzle represents the formation of the romanians from italian romans, so all the things said by the propagandists must fit "nicely" into this scenario.

They are like artists that create a tapestry with a fanciful theme tailored from their fantasies, not like historians that try to discover the truth about the past using scientific methods. That's why they must not be taken seriously, they are "artists", or more precisely con artists. Nobody says that romanian is not a romance language, but the fact that it is like that, does not imply an italian origin for the romanians.

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The colonists brought by the romans were mostly latinophones speakers of latin , but they were not for the most part from the Italian Peninsula. And the army veterans that settled in Dacia after finishing their military service were also mostly non-italians, because the roman army of that time was majoritarily non-italian.

English translation: Considered after the regions or provinces from which they arrived, most of the colonists seem to have been coming -- and this is normal -- from the regions surrounding Dacia. An important number came from Illyricum the western part of the Balkanic Peninsula , from Moesia Superior and Inferior provinces on the right bank of the Danube , and from Thracia. The inscriptions from that gold mining region show names that were representative for dalmatians [ We must add that the number of colonists of thracian and illyrian origin was also increased by the soldiers of the same origin, which had their garrison in Dacia and which, after finishing the military service, settled here.

Thereby in Dacia, there were colonists that belonged to the tribes of "thracian archers", "thracians roman citizens", "bessi", "illyrians", "dalmatians".

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We discover also colonists that arrived from far away. Some were from Asia Minor [present-day Turkey], from its various cities and provinces. The tavians, which made for themselves a collegium [association] in Dacia, were from the town Tavium, province of Galatia. Others came from Bithynia, others from Caria, others from Paphlagonia, others from as far as Coele-Syria [southern Syria]. They brought with them their revered gods, as was for example Glycon, the god worshipped in the town Abonotheisos from Paphlagonia, or Jupiter, to which they added also the name of the town of origin, being thus named "Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus", meaning the one worshipped in Heliopolis, "Jupiter Optimus Maximus Prusenus", worshipped in Prusa, "Jupiter Erisenus", worshipped in Erisa, etc.

Colonists came also from Gaul Gallia. An inscription mentions a decurion, or like we say today, a town counselor with the name of Ibliomarus, which originated from Augusta Treverorum, in the Belgica province of Gaul. Of the same celtic origin were probably many of the soldiers that were part of the gaulic, spanish or british army corps, which, after finishing their military service, settled in Dacia. A series of military diplomas were found that belonged to these soldeirs, which means they received land here and they settled on it, alongside their families. From these colonists -- civilians and soldiers -- of celtic origin derive the inscriptions that make reference to the revered gods from their places of origin.

Even people from Syria and Africa came in Dacia. An inscription mentions two merchants, Aurelius Alexander and Flavius, syrians, which make a dedication to "Jupiter Optimus Maximus Dolichenus", a god revered in Doliche, town from the Commagene province of Syria. Another inscription shows us that in Dacia existed also the cult veneration of Sol Hierobulos, meaning the saint sun, which was worshipped in Palmyra [central Syria]. He probably was brought along by the soldiers of the army corp troop squad originated from that town, which were garrisoned in Dacia.

Also in Dacia were sent other troops from the same Far East, like the cohorts of commageni, originating from the Commagene province of Syria, or the cohorts of ituraeorum, from the vicinity of Palestine. But there were no colonists from Italy? It seems that too few. In the time of Trajan, Italy had not anymore -- clearly -- a strong surplus of population that could be sent abroad. This is probably why the emperor decided as a rule not to use the population of Italy for colonization purposes. From Italy arrived, especially in the earlier period, functionaries: administrators, assessors tax officers , customs officers and others of the same type.

With the passing of time, especially after the edict proclamation of Caracalla din , which gave the right of roman citizenship to all the inhabitants of the empire, even they [the functionaries] were recruited mostly from the local population. Anyway, we must add this: the fact that the colonists were not from Italy, was not a situation of great importance at that time.

The romanization made great progress: entire provinces spoke latin and -- which is even more important -- the provincials "felt" romans. Let's not forget that even the emperor of that time, Trajan, was not from Italy. So, the fact that [in Dacia] did not arrive colonists from the heart of the empire must not sadden those that wanted us to be as much roman as possible; the romanization process we believe has not suffered, on the contrary, maybe he took advantage from the situation, because, on one part the prolificity of the italians had decreased, and on the other part, it is well known the zealousness devotion developed by those that are recently admitted into a great nation or superior religion.

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There are no better propagandists than the neophytes recent converts. We do not say "roman" blood, because, if we should take the words at face value, true romans, meaning inhabitants of Italy, were too few, as we already saw. Instead of that, [in Dacia] arrived thracians, illyrians, pannonians, orientals, that spoke latin, which is a different thing from a racial point of view.

Also arrived, but in a much lesser number, greeks and members of other peoples that spoke greek. However, all these colonists, taken together, did not exceed in number the autochtonous population, the dacians. It sounds like a Spanish mix, for sure. In fact, it's bizarre how someone can claim that just by going by the sound of the language.

I have never heard anyone think that ta Portuguese speaker is speaking a Slavic tongue when Portuguese is being spoken, ever. I have had speakers of Portuguese from Brazil and Africa who always got told if they were speaking some type of Spanish. That's why nobody should be annoyed if his language seems to sound like language X or Y in the ears of a foreigner. I listened to portuguese when looking at movies that are shown on romanian TV stations. So I was under the impression that portuguese sounded somewhat like russian, but this is half true, it is brazilian portuguese that sounds for me somewhat like russian, because the movies presented on romanian television are all brazilian telenovelas.

I listened to RTP radio from Portugal the other day and it sounded not like russian, but more like bulgarian.

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European portuguese seems more harsh than brazilian portuguese, which is more melodious. But again, this is how european and brazilian portuguese sounds in MY ears, for another person they may sound differently. It must be said that I do not know any of these language european or brazilian portuguese, russian, bulgarian , so it is all about sound and my personal experience in interpreting those sounds. There is nothing to be annoyed with. I am not annoyed if someone says that romanian sounds like language X or Y, it is something normal, it's his interpretation, based on his auditory experience.

But for many romanians, the association of romanian language with slavic languages is something of a blasphemy, which degrade debase the romanian language, a member of the "superior" romance family of languages. This is why they react so violently when someone says that romanian sounds slavic. The "superiority" of the romance languages compared with slavic languages is something that is inoculated in romanians from an early age. Schoolchildren are taught about the situation of Romania being like a "latin island in a slavic sea", which subliminally implies "a civilized island in a barbarian sea" or a "superior language island situated in an inferior language sea".

Of course, this is a remnant of the 19th century latinist propaganda, but the "island" parable is present in most history books written by romanians and probably in all the history textbooks used in school. And then there is another thing, even more important in order to understand why the romanians are so sensitive when their language is associated with slavic languages. The romanian identity was destroyed in the 19th century by the latinists, which did not want a true romanian identity, they wanted a LATIN identity for the romanians. This is why they modified the language, this is why they replaced the cyrillic alphabet with the latin alphabet, this is why they imported so many romance words.

But this would not have been so bad if they stopped at the level of the language. However, they also tried to modify the romanian history, making things up. We can see today that some of their fantasies continue to be present in the minds of some romanians, mainly because the latinist propaganda was prevalent in schools and media, even in the 20th century, even under the communists. But as I said, there is nothing latin in the romanian people and civilization, all the latinity is to be seen in the romanian language with a little help from the reromanization of the 19th century.

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This instrument intends to make use of new scientific lexicographical methods in the field of phraseology, providing an answer to the challenge regarding the research strategies of studying language from the perspective of cultural universals. Although the cross-linguistic similarities of idioms according to their cultural foundations seem to gain ground in today's research, phraseological collections are less convincing. In response to the current situation of the onomasiological cross- linguistic corpus of idioms, our Romanian-English contrastive collection of food idioms and proverbs exceeds the perspective of a simple compilation of phrasemes that are separately treated and alphabetically ordered, but organised as organic elements related to a coherent system.

We consider that, due to the essential position that food idioms and proverbs hold in the reflection of the mechanisms of language expressivity, compiling a Romanian-English collection is very productive. This contrastive collection can be a useful research tool for linguists, anthropologists and for the general public interested in the English and Romanian languages, taking into account their expressiveness and documentary significance, which occasions the spotlighting of some fundamental constructs of the European mentality.

Introduction Bilingual phraseology has been the subject of much practical and theoretical work, generated by earnings in lexicography, language pedagogy, and corpus linguistics. During the past decade, lexicographic research has concentrated on dictionary whose content is informed by corpus-based methods3.

However, despite the advantages that new corpus-based methods afford, they do not solve the most difficult lexicographic challenges. In the next section we discuss some of the outstanding challenges of Romanian-English contrastive collection of food idioms and proverbs with an emphasis on those aspects that we believe deserve continued attention.

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For a cultural collection of food idioms and proverbs Although the cross-linguistic similarities of idioms according to their cultural foundations seem to gain ground in today's research, phraseological collections are less convincing. In response to the current situation of the onomasiological cross-linguistic corpus of idioms, we propose a Romanian-English contrastive collection of food idioms and proverbs. This instrument intends to propose an answer to the challenge regarding the research strategies of studying language from the perspective of the universals of thinking and cultural specificity.

P, McEnery, A. M, Wilson, A.

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Phraseology and Paremiology. Bratislava, pp.


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Europhras What will the intended user of this dictionary be looking for? What will he or she be able to understand? What facts about the word are so important that they must be included in any account of the word, regardless of the intended user? Users must know what they can expect to find in a dictionary, and the compiler must explain the principles of phraseme selection on the level accessible to the user. Despite their heterogeneity, we chose these categories as we believe that they express the relationship between the language and the culture of the people, generating them in the best possible way.

The modern lexicographical theory of functions, cf. Bergenholtz-Tarp8, consideres that dictionaries have to meet the communicative needs as well as the cognitive needs of the users. By satisfying the communicative needs, it is meant to support the solving of problems related to text production, reception, translation, whereas by satisfying the cognitive needs it is meant to help in achieving systematic knowledge about a linguistic phenomenon or a non-linguistic phenomenon or context. Facem ce vrem. Running This Town. We Are What's Up. Pedestrian Requiem Walking While Black.

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