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Tithe to tithe is to share to tithe is to care Dear Student, As Orthodox Christians, we care about our faith and our church. One way. Log in Registration. Search for. Un galego en Irlanda a galician In Ireland. Size: px.

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Start display at page:. Download "Un galego en Irlanda a galician In Ireland". Nelson Stewart 2 years ago Views:. View more. Similar documents. Fry Phrases Set 1. No way A number of people One or two How More information. More information. No way A number of people One or two How long More information. For More information. Outside the More information. Key to icons. Motte: earth mound with steep sides Activities The Normans are famous for their castles. A Norman castle was not really a single More information. Mary was born in and was one of More information.

Objective: God is all Powerful! The Trinity is a mystery. Even great theologians don t completely understand it, and some scholars spend their whole lives studying it. And one of More information. This More information. You can each take More information. Bible Time More information. Bible Time for More information. Then God spoke and Creation came into being. God formed everything: Creation Week God called all that He had created good. God in His own time decides that He is going to create something wonderful: something which will eventually cost Him More information.

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Here are some of the More information. The Bishop of Vizeu was Jorge da Costa, who had been created cardinal of Lisbon in and who as cardinal protector of Portugal resided in Rome from about that date till his death in Text: MS. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the National Archives at Lisbon, Coll.

Text: Printed. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos , pp. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, , I. Although not directly referring to the bull of January 24, , this work throws light on the relations existing between King Emmanuel and the Pope at this date. Achille Ratti, prefect of the Vatican Library, has kindly collated it with the Vatican text. A Portuguese translation of this bull, preserved in the National Archives at Lisbon, reads "certas Ilhas chamadas Antilhas". Lasamillis is probably a mistake for "Las Antillas". Rebello da Silva, Corp. Julius, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the venerable brothers, the Archbishop of Braga and the Bishop of Vizeu, health and apostolic benediction.

We, therefore, who strive with intense desire to foster peace and concord between all persons, especially between those whose royal office renders them conspicuous, not having certain knowledge of the aforesaid, but favorably disposed to these petitions, do by these apostolic writings enjoin Your Fraternity that you or either one of you, if so be do proceed to approve and confirm by our authority the aforesaid agreement, convention, and compact and everything set forth in the said instrument relating thereto, and all that has followed thereupon with the consent of both kings, decreeing it to possess perpetual authority, and supplying all and singular defects if perchance any should be contained therein.

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, on the twenty-fourth day of January, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord, , in the third year of our Pontificate. November 3, In March, , Leo X. A letter from the king to the pope, dated June 6, ,1 set forth the Portuguese successes in India, and especially in Malacca, the great emporium of the spice trade, captured by Albuquerque in Like Julius II. Thus it appears that Pope Leo X. For the present bull permitted the Portuguese, following the eastern route, to acquire lands from the infidels, even though these lands were situated more than half-way around the globe.

See also the description in Goes, Chronica do Rei D. Alanoel, pt. In regard to the Order of Christ, see Doc. This bull had revoked the papal grants to Portugal in so far as they might be interpreted as giving her exclusive claim to the Indies. As early as the rumor was current that the Moluccas lay within the Spanish demarcation, and in the autumn of that year the Portuguese ambassador in Spain was much disturbed by King Ferdinand's project of an expedition to seize those islands for the Spanish crown.

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Bullarum Collectio Lisbon, , pp. References: Contemporary and early writings. Manoel , Pt. References: Later writings. Roscoe, Life of Leo the Tenth , I. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. On the back is the endorsement " Registrata apud me Ja: Sadoletum. Dudum siquidem a felicis recordationis Nicolao papa V.

Romanis pontificibus, predecessoribus nostris, emanarunt diverse littere, tenoris subsequentis. In the bishop was Pedro Vasques. In its bishop was Diogo Pinheiro. Et nihilominus, legitimis super hiis habendis servatis processibus,10illos quos censuras et penas per eos pro tempore latas eos11incurrisse constiterit, quotiens expedierit, iteratis vicibus, aggravate procurent. Leo, bishop, servant of the servants of God. For an abiding remembrance. Reichel, Canon Law , II.

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Corpus Juris Canonici, Decretal. A short while ago, divers letters of the following tenor were issued by our predecessors, Popes Nicholas V. Here follow the bulls of June 18, a part of which is printed above, Doc. And none the less, observing the legal process to be followed in these matters, let them be careful, as often as it shall be expedient, to harass again and again those who it shall appear have incurred the censures and penalties imposed by them in accordance with circumstances.

Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Peter's, on the third day of November, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord, , in the second year of our pontificate. Ratification by the Emperor, February 27, This was the purpose of Columbus's fourth voyage , and of several other Spanish expeditions, planned or undertaken in the following decade. The King of Portugal kept jealous watch of these enterprises and his protests caused at least one projected expedition of this kind to be postponed.

Harrisse, Discovery of North America , p. For an account of early attempts to find a western passage to the Spice Islands see J. See also Algs. The belief that the Moluccas lay within the Spanish area was entertained by the Spanish government as early as Letters to King Emmanuel from the Portuguese ambassador, Sept. A translation of the former letter is in Guillemard, op.

The text of the second letter is in Algs. The Spanish argued that, on the contrary, such petition should come from the Portuguese. MacNutt , Santarem, Quadro Elementar II. In consequence of Portugal's opposition, the Emperor postponed its departure, but in he promised the Cortes of Castile that it should be despatched as soon as possible and that he would not surrender the "Spicery" or come to any other agreement respecting it that was prejudicial to Castile.

If possible the questions were to be decided by the end of May, Before that time neither party was to despatch a trading expedition to the Moluccas. The treaty was ratified by the Emperor on February 27, The original ratification signed by the emperor at Vitoria, February 27, , is in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. The protocol is in the same archives, gav.

The protocol is printed in M. The articles are translated in E. Blair and J. Robertson, Philippine Islands , I. Diplomatic documents: Navarrete, op. See also A. Leonardo de Argensola, Conquista de las Islas Malucas , lib. Stevens, New Collection of Voyages and Travels , vol. Guillemard, Life of Ferdinand Magellan ; O.

Pastells, , II. He befriended Las Casas in his controversies with the Council of the Indies and presided over the Cortes of which petitioned Charles not to surrender the Spice Islands. In , the year before his death, he was created cardinal. He was a member of the Council of the Indies both before and after its reorganization in , and at one time owned land and Indians in the West Indies.

In he was a president of the Cortes. A brief biographical notice of him is in M. In president of the Council of the Orders. He rose rapidly in favor, and after the death of Gattinara he and Granvelle were Charles's most influential ministers. Merriman, , P. Por testigo, Go. Dada en Vitoria, a xxvii.

First,26 there shall be appointed by each one of the parties to this treaty three astrologers and three pilots and sailors for the determination of the demarcation, which must be made according to the terms of the said treaty. These men must assemble, and they shall assemble, by the end of the month of March first following, or before that time if possible, at the boundary line of Castile and Portugal, between the cities of Badajoz and Elvas, in order that by the end of the month of May next following, of this present year, they may determine, in accordance with the terms of the said treaty, the said demarcation--taking a solemn oath as soon as they have assembled, and before attending to anything else, in the form prescribed by law and before two notaries one for each side with public declaration and testimony, swearing in the presence of God and the blessed Mary, and upon the words of the four Holy Gospels, upon which they shall place their hands, that, laying aside all love and fear, hate, passion, or any interest, and with regard only to securing justice, they will examine the rights of the two parties involved.

Of the three above-mentioned lawyers, he who is named first in the commission shall take charge of assembling all the other deputies of his side, in order that greater care may be exercised in the negotiations. Further, during the said period and up to the end of the said month of May, next following, neither of the parties to this treaty shall despatch expeditions to Molucca for purposes of trade or barter. If only the question of possession is determined by the [two] said lawyers, without their being able to determine that of ownership, as aforesaid, then what still remains to be determined of the said ownership, and likewise of the possession of the said Molucca, shall, in accordance with the terms of the treaty, remain in the same condition as before this present compact.

All of the above must and shall be investigated without any prejudice to the rights of ownership and possession of either side, in accordance with the said treaty. Each notary shall write the actions taken by his side; and the other, after having confirmed and collated them, shall sign them. They renounced all laws and rights of which the said parties or either of them may avail themselves to violate the foregoing, or any part or parcel thereof, and for the greater security and stability of the aforesaid they swore before God and Holy Mary, and upon the sign of the Cross, on which they placed their right hands, and upon the words of the four Holy Gospels, wheresoever they are most largely written, on the consciences of their said constituents, that they, jointly and severally, will keep, observe, and fulfill all the aforesaid, and each part and parcel of it, really and in fact, renouncing all deception, mental reservation, and subterfuge, and they will not gainsay it at any time or in any manner.

Under the same oath, they swore not to seek absolution from our most Holy Father, or from any other legate or prelate, who can give it to them, and even though he shall, proprio motu, give it them, they will not make use of it. Likewise the said representatives, acting in the said names, bound themselves under the said penalty and oath, that within the twenty days first following, reckoned from the date of this agreement, the parties will mutually exchange the confirmation and ratification of this said agreement, written on parchment, signed with the names of the said lords, their constituents, and sealed with their hanging leaden seals.

Of all the foregoing they authorized two copies of the same tenor, both alike, which they signed with their names and executed before me, the said secretary and notary public, whose name is written above, and before the undersigned witnesses--one copy for each party. And whichever copy is produced it shall be as valid as if both should be produced, which were made and executed in the said city of Vitoria, on the day, month, and year aforesaid.

As witness, Francisco de Valenzuela. As witness, G[regori]o Casgas. It is written on three leaves of paper, with this on which is my [notarial] sign, and I gave a copy to each of the said persons. Therefore, in testimony of truth, I made this my sign here, which is thus. And we desire and are content that it shall be observed and fulfilled, just as it stands, in the same manner and as completely as if it had been made, agreed to, and concluded by us.

Given in Vitoria on the twenty-seventh day of the month of February, in the year of the nativity of Our Savior Jesus Christ, In fulfillment of the terms of the treaty of Vitoria,1 the "junta of Badajoz" was held on the Spanish-Portuguese frontier between Badajoz and Elvas from April 11 to the end of May, , when the Spanish commissioners voted against its further continuance.

In the case on possession neither side would act as plaintiff. In the case on ownership its failure was, indeed, inevitable; for in the then existing state of knowledge it was impossible to prove the fundamental question of the length of an equatorial degree, and hence to locate the line of demarcation or determine the longitude of the Moluccas.

The conference having ended, diplomatic negotiations were resumed; and it was not till the lapse of nearly five years that the dispute was terminated,3 in a manner altogether different from that which was at first proposed. The most important stages in this negotiation, up to , are indicated in the following draft of a treaty, which was probably drawn up at Seville,4 and was not concluded.

It has not, it is believed, been printed or translated hitherto. References: See references to Doc. For accounts of the conference, see A. His powers to conclude a treaty with the Emperor, dated Oct. A brief notice of his instructions, Mar. Many of his letters and papers relative to the Molucca negotiations are m the National Archives at Lisbon.

Santarem, Quadro Elementar, II. Yten, que bolviendo las naos que agora sean enbiado por parte de su Magestad15 primero que se determine la dicha posesion o propiedad, que se mande ver la despensa que hizieron, y, si lo que traxeren valiere mas, aquella parte que mas valiere se ponga en deposito y secresto para se entregar a aquel por quien fuere juzgada la posession e propriedad.

Yten, que este asiento sea jurado por anbas partes y aprovado con todas aquellas solenidades y clausulas que para seguridad de tal caso se rrequiere[n]. When the Cortes ended the Emperor went to Segovia. Quanto al postrero, que plase a su Magestad que el asiento que sobresto se fiziere sea jurado por anbas partes y aprovado con todas las clausulas e solenidades que para la seguridad del se rrequiere.

Santarem, Quadro Elementar , etc. In the name of God Almighty. The expedients proposed on the part of the King of Portugal in respect to the affair of the Moluccas, are as follows: 1. That a treaty be made between his Majesty [the emperor] and him to the effect that the right to the possession and ownership of the Moluccas shall be investigated by a tribunal and by lawyers of both sides, in accordance with the treaties already concluded and with the agreement that was reached when an investigation was made on the frontier, without the imposition of a time-limit, but continuing the inquiry until a conclusion is reached between the said lawyers in the manner that shall seem to them right; and if they shall not agree, umpires shall be chosen, who shall determine the question.

If the question of possession be determined before that of ownership, he to whom possession shall be adjudged may despatch expeditions to the Moluccas until the said ownership be determined. Item, that if the ships now despatched on the part of his Majesty return before the said right of possession or ownership be decided, orders shall be given to investigate the expense which they caused.

If their cargo be worth more, the surplus shall be placed in deposit and sequestration so that it may be delivered to him to whom possession and ownership shall be adjudged. Item, that this agreement be sworn to by both sides, and approved with all those solemn forms and clauses required in such cases for security. These are of such importance that they force a man to forget even his own business, much more another's, and because of them he ought to be excused not only for having forgotten the question of the Moluccas, but even for having forgotten other things much more important to his hereditary kingdoms.

Likewise this forgetfulness ought to be excused, as is stated in the other reply, since it appears that the departure of the armada did not affect the reply already made; and the Most Serene King ought not to think on account of this forgetfulness that his Majesty has not and does not desire to have the same solicitude for the former's affairs as for his own.

As to the expedients that he offers, his Majesty is satisfied to have an equal number of lawyers and other persons expert in the negotiation chosen by each side, to investigate the right of ownership and possession according to and in the tenor and form of the treaties made and executed between the Catholic sovereigns and the most serene kings of Portugal. The inquiry shall have no time-limit, but shall be prosecuted until the said persons shall reach a conclusion, in the manner that shall seem to them right.

If they do not agree, umpires shall be chosen to decide the question, and these shall meet in the place they deem most convenient. As to the said Most Serene King of Portugal's request that, until the final sentence regarding ownership or possession shall have been given, neither side shall send expeditions to the Moluccas, this appears contrary to justice and right, and is unfair. But his Majesty will be content to have the deputies regulate this as they shall think best.

As to the King of Portugal's request for the sequestration of the cargo which shall be brought by his Majesty's ships that have already sailed, since this contains the same injury as the preceding expedient, the answer is the same as is given to that. As to the last expedient, his Majesty is satisfied to have the agreement that shall be made in regard to this matter sworn to by both sides, and approved with all the clauses and formalities required for its security. Another memorial of the following tenor was given on the part of the said lord King of Portugal to the above.

These are the articles drawn up in accordance with the reply of his Majesty in order that the agreement for determining the cause on possession and ownership of the Moluccas may be made. Item, that the cause in respect to possession and ownership shall be determined by three lawyers, named on the part of his Majesty, and by three named on the part of the King of Portugal, my lord, and by three astrologers and three pilots or experienced mariners, named by each side. The lawyers shall carry on the said cause without a predetermined time-limit until they shall finally decide and conclude the said possessory cause, in accordance with their just findings.

After the said evidences and witnesses for the said interrogatories and articles shall have been presented and given, the lawyers shall determine the said possessory cause by means of the said interrogatories and articles, and by means of the written evidence and witnesses presented in respect to them, as shall seem just and right to them.

After the possessory cause is determined and adjudged, the side receiving judgment in its favor and victory in the possessory cause, may, from the time of the giving of the sentence, order its fleets and people to the said Moluccas, and carry on its trade and traffic in them, and the other side, against whom sentence shall have been given, shall not be able to despatch any more fleets or people thither, until the question to which side the right of ownership pertains shall be finally determined.

Moreover, the said astrologers, pilots, and mariners shall carry on this cause as long as they shall deem it necessary, without time-limit, but shall prosecute the said cause as is said in respect to the cause of possession. Item, the question whether during the dispute and trial concerning possession either side shall or shall not send his ships and people to the said Moluccas, shall be left to the judges of the cause, who shall make in regard to it what arrangement and agreement shall seem to them right.

What the said learned judges shall decide and ordain in the matter shall be wholly observed by each side without question or hindrance being opposed thereto, and the same procedure shall be followed in deciding whether or not the cargo of his Majesty's ships that shall have departed for the said Moluccas is to be sequestrated. Item, in order that in both these causes of possession and ownership, the deputies and witnesses for each party may conduct the said causes with the more reverence to God and more freely, the lord Emperor and the lord King of Portugal shall take solemn oath on the Holy Gospels in the presence of the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners named by them for this cause-- each lord before his men in the presence of a notary and witness.

Galician Language

In this oath they shall declare that their intention and true purpose is, that their lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners, in deciding these causes for which they are named as judges, shall do what shall veritably seem to them just and true with all despatch, as is declared, regardless of their vassalage or of any other fact that the said deputies may suspect or fear should deter them from doing justice to whichever of the parties that deputed them shall seem to be in the right. Item, that after the said oath has been taken by the said lords in the manner aforesaid, the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners named by each side to judge these causes, should at the place on the boundary line, where both deputations are to assemble, confess themselves, and all receive the sacrament at the same time.

They shall determine, decide, and pronounce judgment upon them, definitively and finally, according to right and justice, paying regard to the treaties, evidence, and testimony, presented by the parties, and observing in the decision of the said causes all that appears to them right and just to whichever side these shall pertain.

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They shall promise likewise under obligation of the said oath to institute the said causes of possession and ownership with all possible diligence, in order to despatch and determine them as quickly as possible. Item, that the lawyers, astrologers, pilots, or mariners who are to be employed in this cause shall be named up to the required number.

The umpire or umpires whom the said lords thus [agree on] shall investigate the said causes, and having heard the representatives of both sides they shall do entire justice, just as by this agreement and treaty it is arranged that the first named deputies should do. The said umpire or umpires whom the said lords shall agree on and choose will likewise take the oath with the formalities already described, confessing themselves and receiving the sacrament.

The decision reached by each of the said persons, or by a majority of the said persons, deputed and named by each of the said lords, both in the possessory cause by the learned jurists and in the cause of ownership by the astrologers, pilots, or mariners, shall be a final decision. After these disagreements are adjusted, which the said umpire or umpires shall regulate, decide, and adjust, giving the final judgment, the said lords shall promise on their royal faith, for themselves and for their heirs and successors, wholly to keep and observe the judgment, and order it to be observed, without any deception or evasion whatsoever, forever and ever; and on the sign of the Cross and by the words of the Holy Gospels, under pledge of all their patrimonial wealth and that of the crown of their realms, which they pledged therefor, etc.

Item, that the deputy first named by each of the said lords shall preside over his deputation just as was stipulated in the former treaty made between these lords. Moreover in order to please the said lord King of Portugal better, his Majesty deems it good to cause the said persons, named on his behalf, to be commanded to perform the oath and ceremony, now asked for on behalf of the said lord King of Portugal, so that in determining the said matter they may proceed in accordance with the said reply. And if no agreement shall be reached between the said persons and deputies of both parties, if the difference shall be between the lawyers, the umpire or umpires who are to be named shall be lawyers, and if the said difference shall be between the astrologers and pilots, the umpire to be named shall be of that profession, and they shall be employed in the said matter in accordance with the reply that his Majesty gave in Segovia, which is incorporated above.

Therefore, both the said parties by virtue of the said powers, delegated from the said lords, their constituents, and incorporated above, declared, in conformity with the said reply, that they will be satisfied, both in the judgment upon ownership and possession and in the method and order to be followed in it, to have the contents of the said reply, which is incorporated above, and of the treaty made by the Catholic king and queen, and King Dom John of Portugal, observed, fulfilled, and performed; and to have the deputies receive conjointly such petitions as shall be given by the parties and to carry on the cause upon them, simply and openly, without clamor or distortion of judgment, only, the truth being known, they shall determine what may be just.

Of all the aforesaid they executed two copies of one tenor, both alike. These they signed with their names, and executed them before me the said secretary and notary public above-written and the undersigned witnesses one for each party. And whichever copy shall be produced, it shall be as valid as if both should be produced, which were made and executed in the said the said day and month and year aforesaid.

Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Saragossa, April 17, Not ratified. Near the beginning of the year , the Emperor Charles V. It was finally agreed to refer the question of the legal necessity for such approval and authorization to the ten leading lawyers of the Emperor's Royal Council. If the lawyers agreed that the necessity did not exist, the King of Portugal promised to abide by their decision. Brewer, , vol. Hakluyt, Principal Navigations , II.

II, and Doc. The articles that refer to the new discoveries follow. In explanation of the third article it may be said that the Mare Parvum was situated off the Barbary Coast. See the article by M. Item, conventum, concordatum, et conclusum est, pro majori stabilitate, et firmitate, dicte presentis confederationis et ut omnis rupture ipsius atque dissidii tollatur occasio, quod via amicabili arbitrorum juris per eos et eorum quemlibet elligendorum facient decidi et determinari, controversiam sive diferenciam, quam inter se habent de et super Malach, et Mari parvo, cabo de Ager, juxta et secundum quod in capitulationibus et confederationibus alias initis et conclusis inter prefatos felicis memoriae Ferdinandum et Elisabeth, Catholicos et serenissimum Portugalie reges, cautum et conventum fuit.

The Emperor's habitual need of money was intensified by his war with France and by his projected journey to Italy for his coronation, and, in Hurtado's opinion, the King of Portugal's unwillingness to endanger his commerce by engaging in the Spanish war would make him the more ready to satisfy the Emperor in regard to the Spice Islands. Navarrete, Col. Transcripts of several of Hurtado's letters written from Lisbon to the emperor, are among the Bergenroth manuscripts in the British Museum. They are mostly noticed in Cal. See also P. Portugal, by Vicomte de Saint-Aymour , p.

Navarrete, op. By a treaty of offensive alliance concluded on Apr. The protest of the Cortes assembled at Madrid in the spring of , was of no avail. Imported spices should be sequestrated, pending investigation, and afterwards assigned to that king from whose lands they were found to have come. If this agreement were proved to have been violated by command of either king, his right should be transferred to the other; the provisions for the punishment of Castilians should not be in force until the Castilians already despatched to the Moluccas should have been notified; astrologers and pilots should be named by both sides to examine the claims of the Emperor and King of Portugal to the Moluccas.

He was to order his royal council to find out whether it could be made without the approval of the pueblos; the treaty of Tordesillas should remain in force save in matters otherwise determined by this treaty; the King of Portugal was to do justice to persons whose goods had been seized in Portugal because they served the Emperor; the Emperor gave the King of Portugal the difference between , ducats and the actual value of the Moluccas; the party violating this treaty should forfeit to the party that observed it any right derived from it, and a fine of , ducats.

If the Emperor violated it, the sale became unconditional.