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Interestingly enough Elizabeth Magie actually approached the Parker Brothers in with her original game published by the Economic Game Company. But sadly for Magie, they subsequently declined. She would later approach them again in with an improved version that included some new game mechanics, like higher rents when all three railroads and utilities were owned etc.
Once again the Parker Brothers declined, calling the game "too political" for their company. After he had some success Darrow approached local printing companies to produce more standardized and professionally looking game sets.
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George Parker did, however, encourage her to take out her patent of the game. When Darrow finally approached them with his version the game had undergone some cosmetic changes including the now iconic locomotive symbol, Free Parking, the iconic Red Go Arrow, colored card deeds, Chance cards, and Community Chest card decks and more.
Darrow would approach the Parker Brothers in May of but, like Magie before them, would have his application rejected. This time for different reasons, they believed the game was "too complicated, too technical, and took too long to play". Over the Christmas period of , Darrow's version found some financial success in Philadelphia. News of this reached the Parker Brothers who decided to contact Darrow again to arrange a new meeting and bought the game in They also acquired all other copyrights and other commercial variants of the game to secure its undisputed ownership of its intellectual property.
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As soon as they had full ownership, the Parker Brothers began broad-scale marketing efforts as soon as they were able. They produced and released a standard and Deluxe version of Darrow's game and later released a further six versions with the more expensive ones including a wooden board and brass player pieces. Elizabeth Lizzie J. Phillips was an American engineer, game designer, and a Georgist a 19th Century economic philosophy.
She was born in Macomb, Illinois in and would go on to invent an early version of one of the most popular board games in history, albeit without recognition for many decades.
She was introduced to Henry George who founded the Georgist movement through his book "Progress and Poverty" in the late 's. This would dominate her philosophical thinking for the rest of her life and greatly influence the game that would one day become Monopoly.
The Man Behind the Invention
In the 's she worked as a stenographer but also wrote short stories and poetry, had a go at acting and comedy. She was also an advocate for the women's suffrage in the early 20th Century. By she was working as a newspaper reporter and married in at the age of Despite all this, her greatest work was the creation of the game "The Landlord's Game" and filed her first patent in The idea of the game was to demonstrate the economic ill effects of land monopolism and the potential benefits of the land value tax single tax system or Georgism.
She later moved to Chicago in , formed a games company, The Economic Game Co, with fellow Georgists and self-published her game. An updated version was later also patented by Magie in after her original one expired in In she was heavily critical of the Parker Brothers in a Washington newspaper which prompted the company to publish two more of her games " Bargain Day " and " King's Men " in Magie would later die in Staunton, Virginia in at the grand old age of In short no.
Magie was a Georgist, not an anti-capitalist. Her and Georgist's in general, ideology was one opposed to the monopolization of land ownership and dangers or long-term renting.
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During the time she devised her "The Landlord's Game" very few very wealthy individuals owned most of the land in the United States. This was called " land-grabbing " and Magie wanted to educate people about owning their own property. Georgism, or geoism or single tax, was an economic philosophy built in the principle that people should own the fruits of their labor but any economic value derived from land or natural resources should belong equally to all members of society. In this sense, it can be thought of as pro-capitalist except for any wealth derived from the ownership of land or resources which should be considered as belonging to the people.
It was derived from the writings of Henry George that focussed on the principles of land rights and public finance in an attempt to integrate economic efficiency and social justice.
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Born in , he studied design and mechanical engineering at the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence, and as a stage technician at the city's Teatro della Pergola developed a primitive system to help colleagues communicate. In the s he moved to Cuba and, while working on methods to treat illnesses with electric shocks, found that sounds could travel by electrical impulses through copper wire.
When Meucci's wife, Ester, became paralysed he rigged a system to link her bedroom with his neighbouring workshop and in held a public demonstration which was reported in New York's Italian-language press. In between giving shelter to political exiles, Meucci struggled to find financial backing, failed to master English and was severely burned in an accident aboard a steamship.
An inductor formed around an iron core in the shape of a cylinder was a technique so sophisticated that it was used decades later for long-distance connections. He sent a model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives. When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory - the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell - when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.