These conclusions might be deemed plausible if there was cited from Celtic literature any story — any story, that is, the Celtic or, more specifically, Irish origin of which rests upon a sounder foun- dation than mere assumption — in which, as in Tydorel and Sir Gowther, a woman who is barren and longs for a child is visited, during the absence of her husband, by a supernatural being while she is in a garden or an orchard under a tree.
Not only, however, is no such story cited, but in an early Irish tale which deals with the theme of Robert the Devil, the orchard scene has no place. It is evident, also, that the similar scene in Tydorel derives from the same source or from some version of it. The universal popularity of these Apocryphal Gospels throughout the Middle Ages is attested not only by the many versions of them in the vernacular, but by the wide use made of them generally, 10 and nothing is more natural than that such a feature as this orchard scene should have passed from them into profane literature.
Whether in the case of Tydorel and Sir Gowther the borrowing was direct, as I am inclined to think was true of the latter, 11 or whether the episode had already become traditional and been carried from story to story per ora virutn, to be caught finally by a poet who gave it literary treatment, cannot be settled definitely, and no one cares ; we can say decisively, however, that Celtic literature had nothing whatever to do with the origin of the orchard scene. Ogle University of Vermont 10 Cf.
Paris, La Litterature frangaise au Moyen Age, 5th ed. XXXV , pp. So the Ps. Strecker, Neue Jahrb. XI , pp. Haenisch, in Morris' edition of the Cursor , E. For the use of it by later writers, among them Jacobus a Voragine and Vincent de Beauvais, cf. Tasker, op. According to Miss Ravenel, op. Sir Gowther is the result of a fusion of elements drawn from Robert le Diable and the Lai de Tydorel, and she apparently accepts the conclusion of Professor Kittredge in regard to the provenience of the orchard scene. The earlier travellers tell us that in the more primitive houses there were no windows, the only light coming from the open door or the opening in the roof above the hearth.
Cushing passed on her way from Inin to Tolosa there was no glass. Sometimes there was an iron grating, but usually she found only chinks cut in the wall to admit light. When the shutters were closed the room was perfectly dark and when opened thoroughly chilled.
Adams, Familiar letters of John Adams and his wife. New York, , p. Cushing, vol. This was without glass but had a wooden shutter to keep out the damp air. The sitting- room of a venta where Bryant stopped in was so lighted but the sleeping rooms were dark. Frequently in the vent as, mules and other animals were kept in the same room as the guests, and during the greater part of the period we are studying, the stable, even in the cities, was usually found under the same roof as the living rooms.
Arthur Lee was much disgusted during his short visit to Spain in at finding the living rooms over the stables. I went into the stable, and saw it filled on 5 Ibid. Trent and George Heilman, Boston, Alexandre Dumas, Impressions de Voyage, Paris, , vol. This absence of glass in the windows was noted also by Gautier. Henry Swin- burne, Travels through Spain in the years and , London, , p. Digitized by Google 46 The Romanic Review both sides with mules belonging to us and several other travellers, who were obliged to put up by the rain.
I am now within 28 leagues of Madrid and I have lodged every night in the house with the mules who have been the companions of my journey. Cushing, like Ticknor, once dined in the same place as the mules. In one of her letters she writes of a venta between Burgos and Madrid : 11 Adams, Works, vol. Swinbum, p. Other travellers had similar experiences on this route.
This was much the most comfortable place that the house afforded, and here we sat down to a most miserable dinner, which scarcely sufficed to appease our hunger for the remaining four hours of the day, in which we were to continue on the road. Just as we were finishing the dessert, a demure, staid-looking borrica marched up to the table, and stood close at my side, waiting with all possible patience for its expected share of the fruit" 17 Even when Wallis was in Madrid in the ground floor of the largest tavern was given up to the mules. Gautier writes of a posada in Castilla la Vieja : 17 C.
Other Americans and the well known English traveller, Richard Ford, give similar accounts. Other Americans make similar statements. Cf ibid. Cette disposition architectural se reflete invariablement dans toutes les posadas espagnoles, et pour aller a sa chambre il faut passer derriere la croupe des mules. Consequently we find that not a few of the American travellers mention filthy conditions encoun- tered. The first floor was nothing but the ground covered with straw trodden into mire; on the second floor, which was never swept or washed, smoke, soot, dirt and vermin were everywhere.
The Maragato women he found more nasty than squaws. He found the houses there and in Vizcaya larger and more convenient than those in Galicia, Castilla, or Leon, but the public houses were much the same. The inn at Briviesca was a large one with twelve good beds, but the house was, like all others he had seen, smoky and dirty. Others, too numerous to mention here, found similar conditions. I felt an unexpressible desire to get out of the house and procure other lodgings as soon as possible. Cushing pre- sents a picture of an inn at Inin, the same in construction but much cleaner.
Bryant, p. T Monroe, Diary MS. A friend of his had told him at San Sebastian that he would not find luxury at the inns on his journey to Madrid but that he would find great cleanliness. After a fruitless search for clean, respectable furnished lodgings, he decided to rent a house, and himself furnish the rooms needed. Conditions encountered by numerous other travellers seem to have been quite as wretched.
Townsend, vol. On y trouve plusieurs autres auberges, dont les prix son! Inglis, Spain in , London, , vol. Erving, with people he knows to be honest, and whom I find uncom- monly neat; which, you will observe, are the two rarest virtues in Spain. In each there are accommoda- tions but for half a dozen persons and those of such a description as would do no credit to our smallest country towns. Wallis complains of poor accommodations in the capital nine years later.
The latter says the hotels of Madrid have the reputation which they deserve of being the worst to be found in any of the large capitals. The filth, especially, made a very disagreeable impression on him. This was so great that he generally preferred staying in the carriage when they vayamos? Mire usted, nos darin en primer lugar un mantel y servilletas puercos, vasos puercos, platos puercos y mozos puercos sacaran las cucharas del bolsillo donde estan con las puntas de los cigafros.
Wallis, Spain, p. Le Vert it was possible to find an excel- lent casa de huespedes when she was in Madrid in Ticknor, Travels , p. Wines, Two years and a half in the navy, Philadelphia, , vol. Swinburne, pp. Irving in was much disgusted with the squalid inn at Granada as he was with the Spanish posadas in general.
I am now so sur- rounded by dirt and villainy of all kinds that I am almost ashamed to dispatch a letter to your pure hands from so scoundrel a place. He adds that there are several very decent lodging houses, and some inns, one of which is not excelled for capacity in room and entertainment in any other 28 Swinburne p. Horner, Medical and topographical observations upon the Mediterranean , Philadelphia, , p. Scenes in Spain, p. He finds the streets badly paved and dirty, in fact the whole city in a dilapidated condition generally. In the fifties a very good hotel called the Fonda de la Alameda is frequently men- tioned.
As early as it had what was then a luxury in Spain, good baths. In it was called one of the best hotels in Spain. Judging from their descriptions, it was, in this respect, the city par excellence of Spain. Allen in had never seen a cleaner city. While not as enthusiastic in speaking of the accomodations afforded travellers as in speaking of the cleanliness of the city in general, the American traveller seems to have carried away with him a favorable impression of the few hotels mentioned.
The American Consul told Noah that because of the lack of suitable accommodations the supercargoes of vessels generally lodged in the houses of the consignees and that at one time he had forty in his house. Horner, p. He found the streets badly paved, extremely filthy and filled with bad odors. So overrun were they with swarms of rats that the late pedes- trian was exceedingly troubled.
Townsend corroborates these statements about ten years later and describes the improvements which took place after Count O'Reilly became governor. Dix in found very good lodgings, and Warren in considered the Fonda de Europa the best in the country. The inns of the smaller towns and the country ventas, however, he found generally filthy up to the end of the period we are studying. The landlady of the posada at Alcala la Real reminded Vassar in of a Dutch housewife for cleanliness.
Its well swept tiled floor he considered worthy of Hol- land. Le Vert seems to have found most of the posadas and other places where she stopped in fairly neat. Allen on the contrary, describes the inns in general as very dirty. Taylor, p. Ticknor, Life, vol. Byrne, vol. Arthur Lee found the inns of Castilla la Vieja teeming with vermin in 17 Laiborde, vol. Letters to Cleveland Herald, by H. Larra, p. A year in Spain, vol. Borrow, vol. Digitized by Google American Travellers in Spain 57 as full of fleas as if it were under an Egyptian curse.
His hostess at Venasque arranged for her son to accompany him as far as Bar- bastro. Warren was impressed with the fact that hotel Vista 'Alegre, at Puerto de Santa Maria was free from pulgas. Such quarters are deserving of notice, if for no other reason than their extreme rarity, as Spanish Fondas are, as a universal rule, the worst provided, and most uncomfortable in the world.
Many similar cases are mentioned by other travellers. Others report similar conditions. Vail writes in that the houses of Madrid are so con- structed that it is difficult to keep them clean and orderly, especially as the climate is favorable to the propagation of vermin. Adams and his party took violent colds during their travels in Spain because of the lack of heat in the houses on the road.
Mesonero Romanos, Panorama Matritense, p. Los Espanoles pintados por si mis mo s, Madrid, , vol. There was no chimney. The smoke ascended, and found no other passage than through two holes drilled through the tiles of the roof, not perpendicularly over the fire, but at angles of about forty-five degrees. On one side was a flue oven, very large, black, smoky, and sooty.
Cushing in remarked that the smoke issued in clouds from small openings cut in the roof for that purpose, from chinks in the walls, and from the open door. Upon the hearth blazed a handful of fagots, whose bright flame danced merrily among a motley congregation of pots and kettles, and a long wreath of smoke wound lazily up through the huge tunnel of the roof above. The walls were black with soot, and orna- mented with sundry legs of bacon and festoons of sausages; and as there were no windows in this dingy abode, the only light which cheered the darkness within came flickering from the fire upon the hearth, and the smoky sunbeams that peeped down the long-necked chimney.
Irving, Journals, vol. Several others paint similar pictures.
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Mackenzie says that Madrid in was so seldom visited by foreigners that it was ill provided for their accommodation. His room at the Fonda de Malta, the best hotel in the capital, had no fireplace. His window never got the sun and it was so cold that there had already been ice. Cushing observed in that the Madrilehos did not know how to guard against the cold and that there were few fireplaces in the city.
In fact she found the fireplace hardly known in all Spain. Wallis, however, was impressed with the fact that fireplaces and other modern improvements were beginning to be introduced that same year in the capital. Dix, p. There was only one in the town and that was in the house of an Englishman. There was none in any of the rooms. There was none short of the kitchen, and what is more, there was but one, as I afterward learned, in the whole town of Barcelona. That had been set up by an Englishman of course. Le Vert found the rooms cold at Cadiz in because there were no fireplaces.
Moreover, he believes that it would be very diffi- cult to transport them into the interior from abroad. This was a small pipe which passed from the kitchen through the room to the roof and at least took off the chill. Vassar, p. This constitutes a chapter in domestic economy un- known to the Penates of the Peninsula — no blazing hearth have they, round which to gather on the chill winter's night They know not the mysterious power of that domestic magnet which draws the whole family circle, from grandsire to grandchild inclusive, within one small concentrated focus of sym- pathy; and unites, in one common bond of unity, the affection of three genera- tions.
Mackie tells us that the brasero is filled with a superior kind of charcoal. This is previously burnt in the open air and stirred until it ceases smoking and until the injurious gases have passed off. When the coals are covered with a layer of white ashes it is brought in. Those sitting around it were able to keep their feet and legs warm but their backs were cold. Le Vert was impressed with the contrast of the brasero to the good coal-fires at home. Adams, Works , vol. Byrne notes this con- trast and is even more critical than American travellers.
Flores sings its praises in his " Cuadro cincuenta y dos, Al amor de la lumbre, of an inter- esting volume called Socicdad de la fi en The hotel where he stopped at Burgos was uncomfortable. As there was only a brasero of charcoals to warm the room he de- good qualities of the beloved brasero better than Mesonero Romanos. It is interesting to note that he uses much the same arguments in defending it against the invasion of the English mode of heating, which he considers inferior to the Spanish, as Mrs.
Byrne uses in speaking of the former which she finds far superior to the latter. Escenas Matritenses, p. Denme la franqueza y bienestar que influye en su calor moderado, la igualdad con que le distribuye, y si es entre dos luce9, denme el tfanquilo resplandor igneo que expelen sus ascuas, haciendo reflejar dulcemente el brillo de unos ojos arabes, la blancura de tez oriental. Y sin embargo de todas estas razones, el brasero se va. At Cadiz he suffered from both the cold, and the fumes from the brasero.
Esta chica que hablando es tan mona y tan discreta, es tonta de la cabeza escribiendo. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit the statements of the grammarians relative to the use of the pronouns of address at the beginning of the seventeenth century and to show from examples cited that the grammatical statements are not adequate. To illustrate what was the accepted usage, all the cases of direct address in Don Quijote, Part I. The following are believed to be all the formal statements of grammarians concerning the principles that governed the use of tu, vos, el and vuestra merced in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Madrid, i De manera que cuando se habla 6 se trata a uno de vos lo tiene de afrente grande por la causa dicha. Cuando el vos no era re- el proco era pues humillante si no injurioso: entre los que lo usaban mutualmente indicaba igualdad. De vos tratamos a los criados y mozos grandes y a los labradores y personas semej antes; y entre amigos a donde no hay gravedad ni cumplimiento se trata de vos.
Y aun en razona- mientos delante de reyes y dirigidos a ellos se hablan de vos con debido respeto y uso antiguo. Rouen, Madrid, Digitized by CjOOQle Pronouns of Address in Don Quijote 67 tamiento humillante y ahora anado que hasta se empleaba en oca- siones como un ultraje, segun era quien lo daba.
La gente vulgar y de aldea que no tiene uso de hablar de merced llama de el al que quiere honrar de los de su jaez. Vos was employed to address Deity, the Saints and royalty; reciprocally between familiar friends and those of equal social rank; to one of almost equal social rank; toward servants and those of manifestly inferior rank, which makes it sometimes the medium of an affront or an insult; and between husband and wife.
El, though not frequently used, was regarded as somewhat more deferential than vos, but less so than vuestra merced. Vuestra merced was used to show respect and honor. Perhaps no single literary production of the Siglo de Oro is more perfectly adapted to test the foregoing standards than is the First Part of Don Quijote. It is of acknowledged excellence and authority in matters of language; it portrays the life and speech of the people in a wide range of circumstances; and it is conversa- tional and narrative in form rather than poetical or dramatic.
The text to which references are made is that of Marin Madrid, The examination is intended to show whether all, or nearly all, of the cases in which Cervantes employs the pronouns of address in Part I. Digitized by Google Pronouns of Address in Don Quijote 69 AJs a master to his servant, Don Quijote always uses tu with Sancho Panza with certain notable exceptions to which attention will be called later.
The other servants are, however, addressed by their masters and by others with vos, except in one case where the inn-keeper uses tu, in conjunction with a vile name, in speaking to his maid. But in addition to these, there is a group of cases where tu is used to apostrophize an absent person or one who is separated from the speaker by an impassable barrier. He also thus addresses the giant who, he imagines, is before him in the guise of a wine-skin.
There is another group of cases sufficiently large to deserve at- tention. The shepherds use tu with one another , 80 with the stranger Ambrosio, apparently one of their own class , 81 and w'ith Marcela , 82 who has been a play-shepherdess, though never on terms of intimacy with them, and Marcela uses it with them.
Intimacy is not the key to this usage, for plainly that does not exist between certain of these characters, nor is it consistently used as a mark of depreciation. Correas, in the statement quoted above 14 in connection with the use 22 1, It is suggested that these shepherds used tu in their inter- course because they all stood upon an equal and low social plane, a category that will be found to embrace numerous cases in contem- porary writers. The ignorant vizcaino muleteer evidently intends an insult when he uses tu in speaking to Don Quijote, 88 as does also the angry inn- keeper in addressing Sancho Panza.
At such times he is archaic and poetical. Another spe- cial category includes the conversations with Moors, in which tu can be shown to have been the accepted pronoun of intercourse. The most interesting problem arises in connection with the pro- noun vos. If the Don Quijote is any fair standard, the statements of the grammarians are not only quite inadequate, but contradictory. In Don Quijote it runs the whole gamut and carries, according to circumstance, every degree of respect or of disrespect. It is used by characters of every social rank and is addressed to every kind of individual.
Thus the Canon and Don Quijote address the shepherds; 85 Don Quijote uses it with the old shep- herd; 30 and with the farmer who was beating his servant; 87 the 83 1, But fully half of the occasions upon which it is used in Don Quijote may be thus classified, as all the officials and clerics are so addressed. HI, The most remarkable of these changes are the five occasions when Don Quijote uses vos to Sancho Panza.
Tened paciencia; que aventuras se ofreceran donde no sola- mente os pueda hacer gobernador, sino mas adelante. Las mercedes y beneficios que yo os he prometido Uegaran a su tiempo; y si no llegaren, el salario, a lo menos, no se ha de perder, como ya os he dicho. It certainly is not so used. Another interesting change of pronouns is that when Dorotea upon first awakening to hear a serenade addresses the young girl, Clara, with the tu of endearment that would be used with a child.
But when Clara gives evidence of a passion that only one of more mature years should feel Dorotea immediately receives her upon the same plane as herself and addresses her with vos. But in both of these instances it will be noted that he calls upon her for such help as only a supernatural personage could be expected to render. Digitized by Google 74 The Romanic Review fore be allowable to regard these as examples of prayer, where vos will be heard even today. In fewer cases a speaker changes from vos to tu. The man himself explains by expressing the hope that the company will not think him lacking in knowledge of how animals should be addressed because he, under irritation, has spoken to his beast as he would to a human being.
No es la miel para la boca del asno ; a su tiempo lo veras, mujer. Before leaving this subject of changes, it may be noted that while Don Quijote, in every instance except the five above cited, speaks to Sancho with tu or in the second singular, the farmer uni- formly uses vos in berating Andres; and all others of the servant class , as in the cases mentioned above, are addressed by their own masters and by others with vos. May not the explanation of this be found in the intimacy and affection with which the knight treated 88 III, - 84 III, Digitized by Google Pronouns of Address in Don Quijote 75 his squire, as plainly at least as in the width of the social gulf that lay between them?
If the inference is just that perturbed mental states, and espe- cially those involving anger, affection, scorn or amusement in some degree help to determine which of these pronouns shall be used, then every case of change in Don Quijote , Part I. But if, as might be inferred from the scant notices of the grammarians, only the matters of relative rank, and a possible intention to offer an affront, are determining standards, then a large proportion, not only of changes from one pronoun to the other, but many of the cases where either one or the other of the pronouns seems to be regularly or abnormally employed, remain unaccounted for.
There are no well defined instances of the use of el as a pronoun of address in Don Quijote. There are very many cases in which the third singular of the verb is used without any pronoun, sometimes, indeed, after vuestra merced has been used, but at other times when even that pronoun is wanting. There is room for a difference of opinion whether the missing pronouns, if they were supplied, should be el or vuestra merced; but the entire absence from Don Quijote of a single clear-cut el, used as a term of address, and the frequent appearance of vuestra merced , constitute presumptive evidence in favor of the latter in cases where there might be doubt as to which one was intended.
Vuestra merced is used in Don Quijote where deference and honor would be implied, more than half of such occasions, as might be expected, being of address to the knight himself. Others who receive this mark of respect are Cardenio, the Cura, the Canon, the Licenciado, the Oidor, Don Luis, the captive, and, a few times, the assembled company as an audience.
There are a few instances of change from vos to vuestra merced, and vice versa, but they lack the strongly marked reasons alleged for the changes between tu and vos. This may be accounted for on two grounds : First, that vuestra merced could be suitably used only in addressing a comparatively limited class of persons ; and secondly, that vuestra merced was a comparatively new term of address Val- des, , barely mentions it once ; was not often enough in the Digitized by Google The Romanic Review mouth of the mass of the people to acquire popular currency Cf.
Correas on el, quoted above , and had not more than begun the en- croachment on the field of vos that was later to result in the virtual extinction of the more popular term. If a general conclusion is warrantable from the study of a single work of a single author, the conclusion in this case would be that the pronoun vos had a much more varied application and a much more frequent use in the time of Cervantes than the statements of contem- porary grammarians and later authorities would lead us to believe.
It seems to have been, like the modern English you, the ordinary term of address among all classes of people, and except under un- usual circumstances, universally acceptable. Arthur St. Clair Sloan Bucknell IJniversity. Verse is the one in question. This means vol. In that of Kervyn de Lettenhove, vol. Not under either arc or corde in the dictionary as printed.
Recueil des poetes fran- gais avant a ," the numbers in the parenthesis being the new numbers. These manuscripts are copies made from older manuscripts which are themselves preserved ; see Jeanroy, Bib - liographie sommaire des chansonnicrs frangais no. The French proverb is therefore at least as old as that century, and it would seem that the earliest French form had en as the preposition and not as now d; but in view of the small number of early occurrences of the proverb this last is doubtful.
Charles H. Livingston, at the time in Paris, has kindly given me full information about the piece and the older manuscripts that contain it. He sent me from the one copied in Arsenal the whole with variants for the stanza containing the proverb. But as I have also received, since his letter, the publication by Jeanroy and Langfors of Chansons satiriques et bachiques, Paris, in Les Classiques frangais du moyen age , in which the poem by Gobin de Reims is no. Littre mentions, s. The Dictionnaire general , s. Under string, sb. Now, on examining the context in the publication of the Jason by the Early English Text Society , we find p.
And a few lines further p. I owe the quotations here given to Dr. Livingston, who kindly copied them from the first edition found in the Arsenal library, the copy of the first edition in the Bibliothique Nationale being on exhibition at the time and ac- cordingly not available. Sire respondy lors Jason. Indeed none of my French examples show the preposition en after the year If the English proverb was taken from the French its now usual form would seem to be due to the French with d.
A Scotch form with in or the English on might have come from the French with en if that preposition was in use in the French form at the time of the borrowing, or it might have been independent of the French use. In any case a somewhat remarkable parallelism may be no- ticed. Just as the earliest French examples have en and later we find d, so the earliest English cases thus far found have on, while later to appears. But this parallelism is npt necessarily of any significance.
If only in view of the reputation of English archers in the Middle Ages it is by no means certain, in spite of the much earlier recorded use of the proverb in French than in English, that the latter language took it from the former. In this connection may be noticed the passage quoted in Lacume from Gaston Phebus s. Sheldon Harvard University. Williams Wynn, fechada en Kes- wick, 20 Nov. Entre las traducciones que aparecen en la Quarterly no se encuentra la com- position que aqui presento, la cual creo que esta inedita. Puede ser curioso senalar, como prueba del interes de Southey en Lope, las frases humoristicas que se encuentran en una carta a Chauncey Hare Townshend, del 31 Oct.
Their martyrs, their doctors, their confessors, their monks and their virgins, have each their separate society. As for us poets, they have not condescended to think of us; but we shall find one another out, and a great many questions I shall have to ask of Spenser and of Chaucer.
Indeed, I half hope to get the whole story of Cambuscan bold ; and to hear the lost books of the Faery Queen. Debo fa busca de esta nota a la exquisita amabilidad de mi amigo el Dr. Homero Sens. En efecto, parecen estos versos recordar la famosa cuestion Si es Itcito envenenar a un tirano, tratada por el famoso jesuita en su De Rege et regis institutione Cap.
VII, Bib. Esps XXXI, pags. Puede indicarse como un dato mas que muestra la enorme catolicidad de lectura del Fenix de los ingenios, punto ya senalado, verbigracia, por Schevill, The Dramatic Art of Lope de Vega, Berkeley, , pags. Dos palabras acerca del poemita que nos ocupa. Sin embargo, bien merece ver la luz.
Calm o'er the Heavenly infant May noiseless zephyrs sweep, No sound disturb the silence That lulls my Babe to sleep. Ye angels aid his mother The palmy boughs to bend, That o'er his noon-tide cradle Their arching shade extend. Ye storm-vexed winds! Ye waters, A holy silence keep!
The Heavenly infant slumbers, My babe is hushed to sleep. Screened by his watching mother His infant troubles cease, And balms from Heaven descending Breathe round the Prince of Peace. Ye wind-swept Palms of Bethlehem A silent Sabbath keep! The Heavenly infant slumbers, My babe has sunk to sleep. Erasmo Buceta University of California. Regis Michaud, a quien me complazco en reiterar mi agradedmiento. Shakespeare him- self appears upon the scene as guide, philosopher and friend to the three unfortunate principals Yorick, Edmundo and Alicia , — as a wise and noble character indeed who, if it had not been for a succession of terrible accidents, would have thwarted the jealous intrigue of Walton, and have left Yorick ignorant and happy.
There are various passages which are clearly Shakespearian rem- iniscence, and it is not quite true, as M. Tamayo y Bans p. I have found a considerable list of such careful accordances with the facts of history, and only two clear discrepancies. But the former is an unimportant slip, and the latter bit of freedom is perfectly justifiable, since without it the play could scarcely have been.
Un Drama Nuevo is not simply a glori- fication of the actor-manager Shakespeare, but is built very largely on the work of the playwright Shakespeare. This is so exactly what happens in Un Drama Nuevo — although there is no striking similarity in the general plots of the two plays — that some degree of influence seems extremely likely. Saint Genest is playing the part of a Christian martyr before Diocletian, when Divine Grace suddenly turns the confession of faith which he is mouthing, into a passionate expression of his own instantaneous conversion.
The sober French classicist Rotrou could of course be trusted not to imitate the lavish and irregular profusion of his Spanish original. In addition to the Christian play before Diocletian in the latter part of his tragedy, the brilliant mimus Gines has appeared before the Emperor a short time before with another play, in which has occurred the same merging of fic- tion into reality.
It transpires that Marcela and Octavio are secretly in love with each other, so that their relation is substantially that of Alicia and Edmundo. But here is the same plot, even to certain curious details. Pinabelo advises him p. Alicia, me dijo un dia mi madre; vas a quedarte abandonada; casate con Yorick.
Gines Notables ; pero perdilos Con ver que ya es su mujer, which is just the reasoning of Edmundo and Alicia p. Edmundo Se acabo el amor que siento por esa mujer al punto mismo en que Yorick se enlace con ella. But, alas! Men and women are not so good at forgetting as they used to be. Navarro Tom 4 s.
Publications de la Revista de Filologia Espanola , Madrid, He has been devoting his attention to Spanish phonetic studies for some ten years, making use of all the available methods and devices for obtaining accurate and scien- tific data, and is now director of the Laboratory of Experimental Phonetics of the Centro de Estudios Historicos of Madrid.
The first results of his investi- gations are to be found in a brief article published in Revista de Filologia Espanola , vol. Ill, Siete vocales espanolas; an accurate, scientific account of the experiments carried on by Dr. Navarro's own pronun- ciation of certain Spanish accented vowels. Manual de Pronunciacidn Espanola is an attempt to write a brief manual of Spanish pronunciation as spoken today by the educated people of Old and New Castile.
It may not be amiss to state here that in Spanish, as indeed in all languages, there exist differences in pronunciation not only in the different localities where Spanish is spoken but even in the same locality. Standard Spanish as Mr. Navarro defines it is fundamentally Castilian and is the correct Spanish spoken by the educated classes of Old and New Castile with Madrid as its official and cultural center.
The language of Castile Mr. Navarro means Old Castile is the basis, but the dialectal characteristics of modern Castilian as spoken in the villages and cities of Old Castile are not to be considered. For these reasons and also for many others stated by Mr. Navarro in an article recently published 1 it is perhaps not proper to speak of standard modern Spanish pronunciation as Castilian. The proper name is Spanish, and it is undoubtedly for this reason that Mr. Navarro has called his book Manual de Pronunciacidn Espanola rather than Castellano. Hispanists are well acquainted with the various studies on Spanish phonetics published previous to the appearance of Mr.
Navarro's book. This is not the place for even a brief characterization of those studies already re- viewed by others. For the benefit of those who may not have a first hand knowledge of the books in question, however, it is necessary to state that before the publication of Mr.
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In the study of the Spanish consonants the two works that follow it merely repeat and 1 Concepto de Pronunciacidn Correcta in Hispania for October, The rules which he formulated for the correct pronunciation of the Spanish consonants b, v and d are in the main exact. The work of Araujo is of great value and at the time of its publication it helped to dispel the legend that Spanish vowels were only five in number and of a uniform variety.
The work of Josselyn, Etudes de Phonitique Espagnole, Paris, , is an im- portant and most interesting book of research that stresses the individual and circumstantial differences in pronunciation. Colton's book, La Pho- nitique Castillane, Paris, , is a more pretentious work and at the time of its appearance it was received with some interest on account of his theory about metaphony in Spanish vowels, but more recent studies seem to show that this theory has not sufficient basis in fact to be of any practical value for Spanish phonetics. Navarro's work does not pretend to be a complete treatise on Spanish pronunciation.
He is no doubt collecting the materials for such a study, but in the present work he has merely aspired to publish a brief manual for native and foreign teachers. It should be stated at the outset that the author has succeeded admirably in his purpose. Teachers of Spanish now have a practical manual of Spanish phonetics that may be said to be authori- tative, at least in the sense in which scholars may be properly allowed to employ this word. For the American teacher of Spanish Mr. Navarro has done a service that is of inestimable value, and the native teachers of Spain should certainly be very grateful to the author for furnishing them a practical and most useful manual of standard Spanish pronunciation.
Manual de Pronunciacidn Espanola consists of a brief introduction fol- lowed by eight chapters: Nociones de fonetica general, Pronunciacion de las vocales, Pronunciacion de las consonantes, Los sonidos agrupados, Intensidad, Cantidad, Entonacion, Textos foneticos. All these chapters fairly bristle with exact information briefly, clearly and methodically presented. The work is, of course, a manual for teachers and presupposes a general elementary knowl- edge of phonetics for a proper appreciation. In view of the fact, however, that general phonetics is a subject little known by most teachers anywhere the reviewer is of the opinion that more elementary observations and phonetic definitions might have well been included in various parts of the volume.
In the following remarks we point out the salient features of this manual of Spanish pronunciation and beg to call attention to a few slight infelicities of detail which appear in the first edition. The vowels, pages The exact pronunciation of each vowel is given in detail both with respect to the manner and place of articulation, with illus- trative diagrams, showing the exact tongue positions, etc. Exact rules are then given for the correct pronunciation of the various vowels in closed and open syllables, etc. To the American student the open quality of i and u will present some difficulties.
The reviewer has observed that very few American teach- ers of Spanish have a good Spanish pronunciation.
They make the Spanish open vowels too open and the Spanish closed vowels too closed. The semivowel i begins in an open position and ends in a closed position whereas the semiconsonant j involves a reversed process. The rules for the pronunciation of the vowels need some slight modifications. The consonants, pages The consonants are classified according to the place of articulation.
Diagrams illustrate the positions of the organs as in the case of the vowels, and as in the case of the vowels comparisons are made with the pronunciation of similar English, German and French sounds. The exact pronunciation of these consonants as either explosives or fricatives is one of the chief characteristics of a good Spanish pronunciation and one that is seldom acquired by foreigners. Although most of our American teachers of Spanish pronounce the d of Spanish padre, todo, me da, etc. Navarro gives us an admirable description of the pronunciation of Spanish s, which is alveolar and not dental as in English.
This alveolar s, however, is peculiar to Castile. The author himself qualifies the second case stating that it happens only in rapid speech. Navarro treats of palatal ll, a sound peculiar to Old Castile and which the educated people of New Castile find difficult to pronounce. In Madrid the palatal ll is having a hard struggle to exist. A separate and fairly com- plete section on silent consonants would have been very welcome.
In the chapter Sonidos agrupados, pages , are treated such im- portant problems as consonantal changes due to assimilation and dissimilation, synalepha, etc.
The problem of synalepha is so perplexing to foreigners that it is perhaps the greatest difficulty in the understanding of spoken Spanish. An exact phonetic transcription of the vowel groups resulting from the application of synalepha would have been greatly appreciated by American teachers. Pages treat of accent and quantity presenting many new' and valuable facts which every teacher of Spanish should study with the greatest care. Pages treat in a masterly manner of intonation, a chapter that constitutes by itself a valuable piece of phonetic research.
The book closes with a chapter of Spanish texts with phonetic transcriptions of great value to teachers and students. We might conclude by saying that Mr. Navarro's book is absolutely the best and most authoritative study thus far published on Spanish pronunciation as spoken today in Old and New Castile. The value of the work for Spanish phonetic studies is inestimable. It is the work of a brilliant young scholar who knows his subject thoroughly and who has for- tunately been able to present his investigations in a simple, clear and scientific manner. Manual de Pronunciacidn Espanola is a work that is epoch-making in the history of Spanish phonetic science.
The ground-work is now definitely done and all future investigations on Spanish phonetics will have to begin with this work as a basis. Navarro Tomis may be justly proud of his Manual and we congratulate him on having written it. The work is also a great honor to don Ram6n Menendez Pidal, the leader and master who directs the Centro de Estudios Historicos and the group of brilliant investigators who belong to his school.
As this is going to press I have received from my distinguished colleague the second edition of his work, Madrid, , with some additions and correc- tions. The rules governing open and closed vowels remain unchanged. Aurelio M. A cura di M. Barbi, E. Parodi, F. Pellegrini, E. Pistelli, P. Rajna, E. Rostagno, G. Con indice analitico dei nomi e delle cose di Mario Casella, e tre tavole fuor di testo. Firenze, R.
Here at last we have a one-volume edition of Dante produced in Italy and representing the ripest fruit of Italian scholarship. The present edition, that is, gives us, without apparatus or notes, the text which, the Society believes, best shows the original form of Dante's work, so far as we can now recover it. The names of the editors are a sufficient guarantee that no pains have been spared to gain that end.
Each one is responsible for a par- ticular work; and their contributions have been coordinated by Dr. Michele Barbi, who also writes a compact and lucid introduction, explaining the aim of the whole, and setting forth some noteworthy points about the textual basis of each portion. A more elaborate edition, when circumstances permit its issue, will contain the illustrative and justifying evidence for the readings here pre- sented. In the absence of such critical apparatus, it is not desirable, especially in a brief review like the present, to discuss matters of detail or controversy.
Externally, the new edition differs from the other two in being printed in solid pages with large type, not in double columns with small — certainly to the great advantage of the reader's eyesight Poetry in double columns is not so bad, but to read the prose works in that form for any length of time is de- cidedly fatiguing. By the use of thin paper the bulk of the volume is kept prac- tically the same as that of its rivals, tho it has slightly over 1, pages, as against about for the Della Torre edition, and about for the Oxford.
A second external difference concerns the order of the various works. In the new edition, however, the order is chronological, no attempt being made to group separately prose and verse, or Latin and Italian; with this result: Vita Nuova, Rime, Convivio, De Vulgari Eloquentia, Monorchia, Epistolae, Eclogae, Commedia. This new ar- rangement seems to me distinctly better. It more truly reflects the unity and continuity of Dante's literary career, in which prose and verse, Latin and vernacular, were but the varying instruments of a wonderfully single purpose, not distinctive phases of activity.
Of course, the works can always be read in any order that the reader pleases; but there is a certain impressiveness in find- ing them ready disposed in an order which outwardly expresses the well- ordered development of their author's all-commanding personality. The Oxford index is a list of names and passages, devoid of comment; that of the Della Torre edition adds oc- casional brief descriptions, together with an attempt at a list of philosophical terms — neither the one undertaking nor the other very successfully carried out.
The new index accomplishes, with admirable brevity and clearness, what the Della Torre one attempted, at the same time distributing the references under the heads which they illustrate, instead of lumping them.
Moreover, this index is preceded by an equally valuable Indice-Sommario, to which nothing in the other two editions corresponds — affording a most useful aid in locating a poem or a chapter the content of which one recollects in a general way, and wishes to verify. In these three respects, then — typography, order, and index — the new edition must be regarded as showing unmistakable superiority.
The special section to which many readers will most eagerly turn is that containing the lyrics, as edited by Barbi. Just why we have had to wait so long for a scholarly text of poems not only interesting as being Dante's but of great, often supreme, beauty in themselves, is one of the conspicuous puzzles of Italian scholarship. At last, however, expectation is rewarded; and as this section un- doubtedly embodies the most noteworthy textual contribution in the whole work, I may seem justified in devoting most of my remaining space to a sketch of its method and contents.
In the Oxford text, the miscellaneous lyrics are not arranged with any ref- erence to subject or probable date, but merely sorted according to their metrical forms, and then given in alphabetical order. Within these groups the order is intended to be chronological; but, especially in the first group, a good deal of conjecture enters into the ordering. Barbi's division, tho conducted on somewhat simi- lar lines, is simpler and more flexible.
He makes seven books, as follows: i poems of the Vita Nuova given only as references , to which are added the anonymous reply to the canzone Donne che avete and Cino's canzone of con- solation on the death of Beatrice ; 2 other poems of the Vita Nuova period ; 3 the tenzone with Forese Donati; 4 allegorical and doctrinal poems; 5 other poems of love, and of correspondence; 6 the Pietra poems, wisely re- stricted to lo son venuto , A l poco giomo, Amor, tu vedi ben, and Cosi net mio parlar; and 7 various poems from the period of exile.
These are followed by an appendix of doubtful poems, and a list of poems which are in no case to be considered Dante's. In comparing the three editions, it will be simpler to leave Della Torre's out of account because of its tendency to include poems of very questionable authenticity , and to confine attention to a comparison between Barbi's text and the Oxford. The chief additions are found in Barbi's books II and V. In the former book are added the stanzas Lo meo servente core and Madonna, quel sig- nor che voi portate ; the canzone Lo dolor oso amor che mi conduce the only doubtful canzone that is so added ; and the following sonnets: - 40, 42, 44, 46, five sonnets addressed to Dante da Maiano.
Book V adds a ballata, Perchi ti vidi giovanetta e bella 88 , and three sonnets: 93 : lo Dante a te che m'hai cosi chiamato. Book VII adds one sonnet: 1 Degno fa voi trovare ogni tesoro. This makes a total increment of one canzone, one ballata, two stanzas, and eighteen sonnets. As for the poems in the Oxford edition which are rejected by Barbi, we naturally find among them the two canzoni Morte, poich ' to non trovo a cui mi do glia and 0 patria degna di trionfal fama, the two apocryphal sestinas, and the ballata Fresca rosa novella. One other ballata, Poicht soziar non posso gii Digitized by Google 94 The Romanic Review occhi miei , is rejected, and two are regarded as doubtful: Donne, io non so di mi prieghi Amore and In abito di saggio messoggiera.
Among the sonnets the mortality is naturally greater, the following nine being rejected: Da quella luce che il suo corso gira. Io son si vago della bella luce. Lo Re che merta i suoi servi a stagione. Per villania di villana persona. Togliete via le vostre porte omai. Three others are regarded as doubtful : Molti, vol'endo dir che fosse Amore. Nulla mi parra mai piu crudel cosa. Poiche, sguardando, il cor feriste in tanto.
These additions and exclusions must obviously commend themselves in practically every instance. One may wonder why the sonnet Chi guarderd giam- mai senza paura Oxford no. One may also be somewhat surprised at the definite ascription to Dante of the sonnet Nelle man vostre, gentil donna mia, which to many critics is so peculiarly characteristic of Cino da Pistoia. But on these points the larger edition, when it appears, will undoubtedly adduce important evidence. In the case of the thirty doubtful poems contained in the appendix of the present edition, brief notes indicate the state of the manuscript tradition, and the order of arrangement is from more to less probable.
One other question of inclusion which faced the editors has been decided in the negative — that of II Fiore. In spite of the arguments in its favor which have lately been brought forward, Barbi has found himself less convinced than before of its authenticity ; and its inclusion would also have added materially to the size of the book. The other section of the volume which contains some critical discussion is, naturally, the Epistolae. The three letters written in the name of the Countess of Battifolle are now definitely admitted to the canon, and there is an appendix which gives all the existing allusions to letters now lost.
At the end of it is given, for completeness, the Italian letter to Guido da Polenta, usually regarded as spurious. All four are additions to the body of material in the Oxford text. Charles E. By Aluigi Cossio. New York, The Encyclopedia Press . This attractively printed volume leaves a total impression which is some- what indefinite. It is orderly in arrangement, it shows wide reading, it abounds in facts.
It gives us a bibliography of articles; a list of manuscripts grouped by centuries, with descriptions and lists of poems, and a list of editions and translations; a historical account of tfie Cansoniere ; remarks on the distribution of the poems, and on their genuineness; and finally a text based on a manu- script in the Rylands Library, Manchester. Here is surely no shortage of material; but the sense in which it affords a contribution to the study of Dante's lyrics is not wholly easy to make out A certain diffuseness in the style, and a lack of real basis for the order of topics, indicate where the defect lies.
The book is really a collection of items of information, not an organizing of them. Small matters are repeated and insisted on; the trick of giving every manuscript its full name on every mention of it is symptomatic. Moreover, some of the items are no longer of current interest. The vagaries of the early editors are of no account today; what we need is a sharp statement of problems, and an attempt to clear up the relations of manuscripts. The external history of the lyrics may have some value from a purely historical standpoint, but it sheds little light on the real difficulties, and even the text offered by a single manuscript does not at present carry us far.
To be sure, the author does not profess to give solu- tions, hut problems are not reduced to more manageable form unless the facts bearing on them are set in a more intelligible order than before. The mere opinions of editors concerning, e. A suggestive remark like that p. So with the table of alt the sonnets ascribed to Dante; how much more useful it would be if the items were classified, and the relative weight of the manuscripts at least provisionally estimated. Occasionally the author allows opportunity for specific dissent.
XII, p. This seems to have been the last time that a prize was awarded for a poem in the native language. From to , the records are wanting. In , Jean de Villeneuve was awarded the Marigold for an oraison de Notre Dame in the form of a ballade. Log In If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here: Email or username: Password: Remember me. Forgotten your password? Log In Via Your Institution. Related Content Search Find related content. Most Read Most Cited No results returned. The Three Mirrors of Christine de Pizan.