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Vinci una gara, prendi un pesce, suona Con Nintendo Labo, tutti possono scoprire la gioia di montare, giocare e scoprire. Divertiti ad osservare il funzionamento delle tue creazioni: potresti perfino inventare nuovi modi di giocare con i Toy-Con! We investigated the relationship between the percentage of participants solving an item and the solution strategy preferred for that item: insight versus analysis. An additional 39 participants took part to the study, but their data were excluded because they either stopped the experiment early or declared that they did not complete the experiment seriously.

The CRA problems were split into three blocks of 41, 41, and 40 items each. The 88 rebus puzzles were split into nine blocks with eight to 11 items each , balanced for categories. Thus, the three blocks of CRA problems were attempted by groups of 98, , and participants.

The nine blocks of rebus puzzles were administered to groups of 42, 43, 50, 52, 53, 54, 56, 56, and 61 participants. The order of presentation and pairings of the blocks were randomized. The experiment was run online using the Inquisit software. The instructions given and the procedure adopted were the same of for Study 2. Moreover, participants were asked to perform the test alone and to isolate themselves from any source of distraction or noise, and they were motivated to take the test seriously by doing their best on each problem.

At the end of the test, a set of questions investigated whether the participants had solved the problems alone or not, whether they had any previous familiarity with these problems, and whether they gave random answers. Latencies in typing the answers to the compound remote associates CRA problems and the rebus puzzles RP.

One rebus problem and one CRA problem did not receive any correct responses. Notice that some values were computed only on correct responses: For some problems that were very hard to solve, these values either could not be computed or were estimated on very small sample sizes. Thus, in addition to indicating in Appendixes A and B the numbers of correct and error responses, we note specifically whenever a value was computed on a sample of less than ten participants.

Considering that there are research settings in which one needs very difficult or very easy problems, or in which one is not interested in precise estimates for some of the values that we reported, we decided to retain these problems in our set, as well.

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Numbers of correct and incorrect responses in the CRA and rebus puzzle problems, classified by solution strategy. In the case of errors, the interpretation of the responses regarding the solution process was not unequivocal. On the one hand, it is possible that the participants reported the process that led to the wrong answer; on the other hand, one could also argue that these responses reflect a bias toward one of the strategies, independent of the process.

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Such bias can be controlled in experimental contexts—for instance, by planning control conditions. To test order effects, we performed a series of logistic regressions, one for each single problem, in which the dependent variable was the solution correct vs. The systematic presence of significant effects in this analysis could mean, for instance, that the problems were facilitated by being presented later—that is, after other problems had been presented. For the rebus puzzles, a significant effect emerged only for three out of 88 problems i.

These significant effects were not more frequent than would be expected by chance alone under the null hypothesis of no order effects i. As an additional test of the absence of order effects, we inspected the distributions of the p values obtained from the logistic regressions for the CRAs and of the 88 p values obtained in the logistic regressions for the rebus puzzles: In the case of no order effect, the distribution of the p values would be expected to be uniform e.

Following the procedure of Bowden and Jung-Beeman b , we divided the CRA problems into two types: homogeneous and heterogeneous. For the homogeneous problems, the solution word was a prefix or suffix to all three words of the triplet: These were 56 in number, and the average solution percentage was For the heterogeneous problems, the solution word was a prefix versus suffix to at least one of the words and a suffix vs.

Unlike the English language, Italian morphosyntax requires the consistency of number and gender: If a noun is singular versus plural, an adjective referring to that noun also has to be singular or plural, and if a noun is masculine versus feminine, then an adjective referring to that noun also has to be masculine or feminine. These grammatical peculiarities might provide hints to the solution of the CRA problems, in which the inclusion of an adjective as a stimulus word is very common.

The issue connected to the number consistency could easily be prevented by using only singular names as the solutions of CRA problems. However, we could not avoid the consistency of gender, since most CRA problems could only be created by using adjectives, and a gender inconsistency e. Therefore, we evaluated post hoc the impact of gender consistency by comparing the solution percentages for triads that contained at least one adjective—noun to those for triads that did not include adjectives. For the 53 problems with a gender match and the 69 problems without a gender match, the mean percentages solved were, respectively, In conclusion, the analyses presented in this section allowed us to exclude potential confounds related to language in the problem solving.

In the last decade, research on insight problem solving has availed itself of a new class of problems that are conducive to use with cutting-edge research techniques that require numerous observations per condition. As compared to the classic insight problems, this new generation of problems has several advantages: They are shorter; more compact to present and easier, and thus generate more data; and can be classified by the cognitive functions involved.

Unfortunately, only problems that are not linguistically contextualized e. As a consequence, most of the studies in this field cannot be replicated in many languages. To expand the study of insight problem solving to the Italian language and culture, we created Italian versions of the CRA problems and rebus puzzles, and tested their validity and solving rates. It was important to select a pool of problems that were not either too easy or too difficult to solve for the population of interest: the higher the number of solvers, the higher the amount of information that would be available about the preferred strategies of the participant.

If several such problems are administered sequentially, one could incur order effects, in that the solution of the problems administered later could be affected by the solution of those administered earlier. These effects can be reduced by keeping similar problems in different blocks, as we did in Study 3. In many contexts, the ideal strategy would be to compose blocks of stimuli without problems that required similar strategies.

With the Italian version of the CRA problems and rebus puzzles, we aimed to provide a useful apparatus to extend the findings concerning the mental processes underlying creativity to languages other than English. The specific instructions for the CRA problems were Per ciascun problema ti verranno presentate tre parole.

Hai 15 secondi di tempo per trovare la soluzione. Appena trovi la soluzione premi subito la barra spaziatrice per dare la risposta. Ti preghiamo di non premere la barra spaziatrice fin quando non hai la risposta. Nel caso in cui non trovassi la soluzione in tempo, passerai al problema successivo. The same instructions used by Bowden and Jung-Beeman a were translated into Italian and given to participants to explain how to distinguish a solution via insight from one via analysis.

In this case for instance, you are able to report the steps that you used to reach the solution. In questo caso ad esempio saresti in grado di indicare i passaggi che ti hanno portato alla soluzione. Rebus puzzles belonging to the same category were not included in the same block. To increase their honesty in responding to the questions, the participants who received course credits in exchange for their participation were reassured that they would obtain the credits regardless of their answers.

This method suffers from masking , the fact that the presence of outliers can inflate the mean and the standard deviation, in turn causing outliers to be missed. The Hampel identifier Hampel, is a variation of this formula in which the sample mean is replaced with the median M and the standard deviation is replaced by the median absolute deviation MAD; the median of the absolute deviations from the median.

Since both the median and the MAD are not affected by the presence of outliers, the Hampel identifier does not suffer from masking. The same stimuli are also reported in the supplemental materials in a format that is more suited for administration.

Validation of Italian rebus puzzles and compound remote associate problems

This work was supported by a professional development grant to C. Special thanks to Andrea Moro for his support related to linguistic aspects of the materials. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Validation of Italian rebus puzzles and compound remote associate problems. Article First Online: 07 July Relative to the classic problems, the new ones have both strengths and weaknesses.

The newer, shorter problems allow researchers to apply a variety of research techniques that require many trials or many instances of solving, such as visual-hemifield presentation, priming, neuroimaging, and electroencephalography EEG; e. Self-reports of insight Neither insight nor analysis exists within a problem; they are each a set of processes, or different ways of engaging processes, that lead to solution. Overview of the studies In order to develop the two pools of problems described above, three studies were performed.

Stimuli and procedure The participants were asked to assess the commonness of the common phrases that constituted the solutions of the candidate rebus puzzles. Procedure We administered the 96 rebus puzzles from the phrases selected in Study 1, as well as the Italian CRA problems. Both the rebus puzzles and the CRA problems were divided into three blocks. The rebus puzzle blocks included 32 problems balanced by levels of familiarity measured in Study 1 , and each CRA problem blocks included 50 problems randomly selected.

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Each participant was administered one block of rebus puzzles and one of CRA problems. The order of block presentation CRA—rebus puzzles or rebus puzzles—CRA and the order of presentation of the problems within each block were randomized. Three and four practice trials preceded the rebus puzzle and the CRA problem sessions, respectively.

Once participants were ready, they had to press the keyboard spacebar for each of the CRA problems or rebus puzzles to be presented individually on the screen. No feedback was given regarding whether the solution was accurate or inaccurate see Fig. Subjects were instructed to press the space button on the keyboard as soon as they found a potential solution.

Following the production of a solution, the item was erased, and participants had to typewrite the solution and declare how they had solved the problem: via insight or via analysis. Instructions regarding how to distinguish insight from analysis problem solving were given prior to the experiment. Only two participants, both in Study 2, asked for further clarification; in these instances, the instructions were elaborated until the participants understood. Participants were instructed that neither solving style was any better or worse than the other, and that there were no right or wrong answers in reporting insight or analysis.

Open image in new window. Procedure The CRA problems were split into three blocks of 41, 41, and 40 items each. Exclusion of outliers To guarantee that the s time limit would be respected, and to prevent subjects from continuing to think about the answer after they had pressed the spacebar, we applied the Hampel identifier, 7 a robust method for outlier detection, as a criterion to identify the answers that took too long to be typewritten. The times required to typewrite the answers varied substantially among problems, since some required typing only a short word as the answer and others required longer sentences; therefore, we applied the Hampel criterion independently to each problem.

The generally longer latencies for the rebus puzzles than for CRA problems in Fig. The dark parts of the histograms represent latencies that were considered unusually long and that led to the exclusion of a trial from the analyses: 7. Correctness and solution strategy Participants did not receive feedback on the correctness of their responses and were always asked to indicate their solution strategy, independently of correctness.

We inspected whether the self-reported solution process, insight or analytic, was associated with the correctness of the solution.

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Table 1 Numbers of correct and incorrect responses in the CRA and rebus puzzle problems, classified by solution strategy. Order effects To test order effects, we performed a series of logistic regressions, one for each single problem, in which the dependent variable was the solution correct vs. Morphosyntactic validity Following the procedure of Bowden and Jung-Beeman b , we divided the CRA problems into two types: homogeneous and heterogeneous. Author note This work was supported by a professional development grant to C. Ansburg, P. Creative and analytic thinkers differ in their use of attentional resources.

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Beeman, M. The right hemisphere maintains solution-related activation for yet-to-be-solved problems. Bowden, E. Getting the right Idea: Semantic activation in the right hemisphere may help solve insight problems. Psychological Science, 9, — Insight experience correlates with solution activation in the right hemisphere. Normative data for compound remote associate problems. Methods for investigating the neural components of insight. Methods, 42, 87— New approaches to demystifying insight.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, — Bowers, K. Intuition in the context of discovery. Cognitive Psychology, 22, 72— Cai, D. REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, , — Chronicle, E. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, — Dallob, P. Erroneous solutions to verbal insight problems: Effects of highlighting critical material. Google Scholar. Davies, L. The identification of multiple outliers.

Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88, — Duncker, K. On problem solving. Psychological Monographs , 58 5, Whole No. Erceg-Hurn, D. Robust statistical estimation. Little Ed. Foundations pp. Fodor, E. Subclinical inclination toward manic-depression and creative performance on the Remote Associates Test.

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Personality and Individual Differences, 27, — Gamer, M. Hamilton, M. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 55, — Hampel, F. The breakdown points of the mean combined with some rejection with rules. Technometrics, 27, 95— Isen, A. Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, Jung-Beeman, M. Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with Insight. PLoS Biology, 2 e97 , — Knoblich, G. Constraint relaxation and chunk decomposition in insight problem solving.


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